Xerox primarily provides business process outsourcing services, including customer care, transaction processing, finance and accounting, and human resources, and document outsourcing services, such as workflow automation and centralized print services.
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Book value of equity per share||$20.64||9.2%||-11.3%||-5.8%|
|BV including aggregate dividends||14.5%||-0.1%||0.8%|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
A company creates wealth for its long-term shareholders in 2 main ways - through dividend payments and through the accumulation of retained earnings. This graph shows the accumulation of per-share equity of long-term shareholders (green bars), which consists of the retained earnings plus all capital invested in the company, and the cumulative dividends the company has paid over time per share of its stock (blue bars).
In the words of Warren Buffett: "We're looking for... businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt."
Return on equity is a key metric of financial performance, indicating a company's ability to generate earnings using shareholder capital. Over time, ROE is one of the major determinants of the rate at which a company creates shareholder wealth. The average ROE for large U.S. companies is 12%, and many investors use it as a threshold for attractive investments.
Companies can boost ROE by increasing leverage, which reduces the safety of the investment. Therefore, it is useful to look at the return on assets (ROA), which measures a company's earning power regardless of its capital structure. A widening gap between ROE and ROA may be a warning sign that should be thoroughly investigated.
Earnings per share is a popular metric used to value a company (using P/E ratio); growth in EPS is often used to judge company growth potential. However, many investors believe that EPS is an inferior metric to ROE, because it ignores the amount of capital the company used to generate earnings.
Free cash flow shows how much cash a company generates from operations, above and beyond what is required to maintain or expand its productive assets. This cash can be returned to investors, or spent by management on growing the company or paying back its debts.
Balance sheets of many companies contain intangible assets such as goodwill, trademarks, patents, etc. Many investors consider intangibles more difficult to value than physical assets. If intangible assets had been valued incorrectly, they must be impaired, resulting in a loss charged against shareholder equity. This chart demonstrates the potential loss to shareholder equity from such impairments.
Companies often use debt financing to increase their return on equity. However, as the amount of debt financing increases relative to the amount of equity financing, the company becomes more sensitive to down turns and other negative events. As a result, many investors use the ratio of debt to equity as a measure of a company's financial risk, and avoid companies that have this ratio above 1.
This chart shows shareholder equity as a percentage of total assets, allowing investors to judge the overall leverage. Companies with a higher proportion of equity can be viewed as safer investments. This metric is particularly important for highly leveraged institutions, such as banks, where it must be at least 4% according to government regulations.
The ratio of current assets to current liabilities is known as the current ratio. This metric is a quick measure of the company's ability to pay its short-term obligations. A current ratio below 1 is a warning sign that should be investigated, especially for companies that cannot count on adequate cash flow from operations.
This chart shows the cumulative dilution of investor ownership in a company over time. Dilution reduces an investor's participation in the future earnings. Dilution increases when a company issues new shares, and decreases when a company buys its shares back. Many investors avoid companies with large chronic dilution.
analysis provides insight into factors affecting the Return On Equity of a company.
The DuPont equation decomposes ROE as follows:
ROE = (Net margin) * (Asset turnover) * (Asset to equity ratio)
Net margin indicates operating efficiency, Asset turnover measures the total asset use efficiency, and the Asset to equity ratio is a measure of financial leverage.
The dividend payout ratio tells investors what percentage of earnings a company returns to shareholders, and what percentage it retains and reinvests. This ratio represents a major capital allocation decision by the company, and can be used to judge management rationality. Rational management should pay out all earnings that cannot be productively reinvested. Therefore, a low dividend payout ratio for a profitable company with a low growth potential may be a warning sign.
Many investors use the P/B ratio as a quick way of judging company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - specifically seek out companies with low P/B ratios. However, investors should be careful not to make investment decisions on this metric alone, without considering a company's earning and growth potential, since a low P/B ratio can be a sign of a bleak future for the business.
P/E ratio is a popular way of making a quick judgment of a company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - often seek solid companies with low P/E ratios as investment opportunities. However, P/E ratio represents an oversimplified approach to business valuation, and can often lead to incorrect investment decisions.
In January 1996, we announced agreements to sell all of our "Remaining" insurance companies, which includes Coregis Group, Inc. (Coregis), Crum & Forster Holdings, Inc. (CFI), Industrial Indemnity Holdings, Inc. (II), Westchester Specialty Group, Inc. (WSG), The Resolution Group, Inc. (TRG) and three insurance-related service companies, to investor groups led by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. (KKR) and Talegen/TRG management. In connection with the transactions, we recorded a $1,546 million after-tax charge in 1995. On September 11, 1996, Xerox and KKR announced that they had mutually agreed to terminate the transactions. No additional charges are considered necessary as a result of the termination of the KKR transactions. In September 1996, the Board of Directors of Xerox formally approved a plan of disposal under which we have retained investment bankers to assist us in the simultaneous marketing of each of the remaining insurance and service companies.
In 2001, Xerox Capital Trust II issued 20.7 million of 7.5 percent convertible trust preferred securities (the "Trust Preferred Securities") to investors for $1,035 and 0.6 million shares of common securities to us for $32. With the proceeds from these securities, Trust II purchased $1,067 of 7.5 percent convertible junior subordinated debentures due 2021 of one of our wholly-owned consolidated subsidiaries. The subsidiary purchased $1,067 aggregate principal amount of 7.5 percent convertible junior subordinated debentures due 2021 of the Company. Trust II's assets consisted principally of our subsidiary's debentures and our subsidiary's assets consisted principally of our debentures. On a consolidated basis, we received net proceeds of $1,004. Fees of $31 were capitalized as debt issuance costs and were amortized to interest expense over three years to the earliest put date. Interest expense was $83 and $89 in 2004 and 2003, respectively. The Trust Preferred Securities accrued and paid cash distributions quarterly at a rate of 7.5 percent per year of the stated amount of fifty dollars per security. The Trust Preferred Securities were convertible at any time, at the option of the investors, into 5.4795 shares of our common stock per Trust Preferred Security (equivalent share price of $9.125 per common share) ("the Conversion Ratio"). The Trust Preferred Securities were mandatorily redeemable upon the maturity of the debentures on November 27, 2021 at fifty dollars per Trust Preferred Security plus accrued and unpaid distributions. In December 2004, Trust II redeemed 20.7 million of the issued and outstanding Trust Preferred Securities. In lieu of cash redemption, holders of substantially all of the securities converted $1,035 aggregate principal amount of securities into 113,414,658 shares of Xerox common stock. As a result of the conversion and redemption, there is no remaining outstanding principal. The issuance of Xerox shares upon conversion had no impact on diluted earnings per share as they were previously included in the company's diluted EPS calculation in accordance with the "if converted" accounting methodology.
On May 9, 2007, we completed our tender offer for Global Imaging Systems, Inc. (GIS), a provider of office technology for small and medium businesses in the United States, and acquired 90.4% of GIS stock for cash consideration of $29 per common share. On May 11, 2007, we acquired the remaining outstanding shares of GIS and GIS became a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company. The acquisition of GIS expanded our access to the U.S. small and mid-size business market. The aggregate purchase price was approximately $1.5 billion, consisting of cash paid for outstanding stock, vested employee stock options and restricted stock and direct transaction costs. In addition, in connection with the closing, we also repaid $200 of GIS outstanding bank debt. The acquisition and the repayment of the outstanding bank debt was funded through cash on hand, borrowing of $300 under our bank revolving credit facility and borrowing of $1 billion under an interim bridge credit facility. The interim bridge facility was subsequently repaid on May 17th, using the proceeds from our issuance of $1.1 billion 5.50% Senior Notes due 2012, and terminated in accordance with its terms. The results of operations for GIS are included in our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income as of May 9, 2007, the effective date of acquisition.
On February 5, 2010, we acquired all of the outstanding equity of ACS in a cash-and-stock transaction valued at approximately $6.5 billion. ACS provides business process outsourcing and information technology services and solutions to commercial and government clients worldwide. Each outstanding share of ACS Class A and Class B common stock was converted into a combination of 4.935 shares of Xerox common stock and $18.60 in cash for a combined value of $60.40 per share, or approximately $6.0 billion based on the closing price of Xerox common stock of $8.47 on the acquisition date.
During the second quarter 2015, we repurchased 34.0 million shares for an aggregate cost of $395 million, including fees. Through July 27, 2015, we repurchased an additional 13.7 million shares at an aggregate cost of $145.7 million, including fees, for a cumulative total of 643.8 million shares at a cost of $7.2 billion, including fees.
On December 31, 2016, Xerox completed the Separation of its BPO business through the Distribution of all of the issued and outstanding stock of Conduent to Xerox Corporation stockholders. Prior to the Separation and Distribution of Conduent, in connection with the annual goodwill impairment test, a pre-tax goodwill impairment charge of $935 was recorded in the fourth quarter 2016 associated with the Commercial Services reporting unit of the BPO business. This charge is reported in the Loss from discontinued operations, net of tax, for the year ended December 31, 2016.
On December 31, 2016, Xerox Corporation completed the Separation of its Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) business from its Document Technology and Document Outsourcing (DT/DO) business (the "Separation"). The Separation was accomplished through the transfer of the BPO business into a new legal entity, Conduent Incorporated (Conduent), and then distributing one hundred percent (100%) of the outstanding common stock of Conduent to Xerox Corporation stockholders (the Distribution). Xerox Corporation stockholders received one share of Conduents common stock for every five shares of Xerox Corporations common stock held as of the close of business on the record date. The Separation and Distribution was structured to be tax-free for Xerox Corporation stockholders for federal income tax purposes. Conduent is now an independent public company trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the symbol "CNDT". After the Separation, Xerox retained the DT/DO businesses and Xerox does not beneficially own any shares of Conduent common stock.