Williams is primarily a U.S. based operator of interstate gas pipelines, and provider of natural gas and natural gas liquids gathering, treatment, processing and compression services.
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Book value of equity per share||$11.45||12%||10.3%||-1.5%|
|BV including aggregate dividends||24.2%||23.5%||8.3%|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
A company creates wealth for its long-term shareholders in 2 main ways - through dividend payments and through the accumulation of retained earnings. This graph shows the accumulation of per-share equity of long-term shareholders (green bars), which consists of the retained earnings plus all capital invested in the company, and the cumulative dividends the company has paid over time per share of its stock (blue bars).
In the words of Warren Buffett: "We're looking for... businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt."
Return on equity is a key metric of financial performance, indicating a company's ability to generate earnings using shareholder capital. Over time, ROE is one of the major determinants of the rate at which a company creates shareholder wealth. The average ROE for large U.S. companies is 12%, and many investors use it as a threshold for attractive investments.
Companies can boost ROE by increasing leverage, which reduces the safety of the investment. Therefore, it is useful to look at the return on assets (ROA), which measures a company's earning power regardless of its capital structure. A widening gap between ROE and ROA may be a warning sign that should be thoroughly investigated.
Earnings per share is a popular metric used to value a company (using P/E ratio); growth in EPS is often used to judge company growth potential. However, many investors believe that EPS is an inferior metric to ROE, because it ignores the amount of capital the company used to generate earnings.
Free cash flow shows how much cash a company generates from operations, above and beyond what is required to maintain or expand its productive assets. This cash can be returned to investors, or spent by management on growing the company or paying back its debts.
Balance sheets of many companies contain intangible assets such as goodwill, trademarks, patents, etc. Many investors consider intangibles more difficult to value than physical assets. If intangible assets had been valued incorrectly, they must be impaired, resulting in a loss charged against shareholder equity. This chart demonstrates the potential loss to shareholder equity from such impairments.
Companies often use debt financing to increase their return on equity. However, as the amount of debt financing increases relative to the amount of equity financing, the company becomes more sensitive to down turns and other negative events. As a result, many investors use the ratio of debt to equity as a measure of a company's financial risk, and avoid companies that have this ratio above 1.
This chart shows shareholder equity as a percentage of total assets, allowing investors to judge the overall leverage. Companies with a higher proportion of equity can be viewed as safer investments. This metric is particularly important for highly leveraged institutions, such as banks, where it must be at least 4% according to government regulations.
The ratio of current assets to current liabilities is known as the current ratio. This metric is a quick measure of the company's ability to pay its short-term obligations. A current ratio below 1 is a warning sign that should be investigated, especially for companies that cannot count on adequate cash flow from operations.
This chart shows the cumulative dilution of investor ownership in a company over time. Dilution reduces an investor's participation in the future earnings. Dilution increases when a company issues new shares, and decreases when a company buys its shares back. Many investors avoid companies with large chronic dilution.
analysis provides insight into factors affecting the Return On Equity of a company.
The DuPont equation decomposes ROE as follows:
ROE = (Net margin) * (Asset turnover) * (Asset to equity ratio)
Net margin indicates operating efficiency, Asset turnover measures the total asset use efficiency, and the Asset to equity ratio is a measure of financial leverage.
The dividend payout ratio tells investors what percentage of earnings a company returns to shareholders, and what percentage it retains and reinvests. This ratio represents a major capital allocation decision by the company, and can be used to judge management rationality. Rational management should pay out all earnings that cannot be productively reinvested. Therefore, a low dividend payout ratio for a profitable company with a low growth potential may be a warning sign.
Many investors use the P/B ratio as a quick way of judging company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - specifically seek out companies with low P/B ratios. However, investors should be careful not to make investment decisions on this metric alone, without considering a company's earning and growth potential, since a low P/B ratio can be a sign of a bleak future for the business.
P/E ratio is a popular way of making a quick judgment of a company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - often seek solid companies with low P/E ratios as investment opportunities. However, P/E ratio represents an oversimplified approach to business valuation, and can often lead to incorrect investment decisions.
On January 18, 1995, Williams acquired 60 percent of Transco's outstanding common stock in a cash tender offer for $430.5 million. Williams acquired the remaining 40 percent of Transco's outstanding common stock on May 1, 1995 through a merger by exchanging the remaining Transco common stock for approximately 10.4 million shares of Williams common stock valued at $334 million. The acquisition is accounted for as a purchase with 60 percent of Transco's results of operations included in Williams' Consolidated Statement of Income for the period January 18, 1995, through April 30, 1995, and 100 percent included beginning May 1, 1995. The cash portion of the acquisition was financed from the proceeds of the WilTel network services sale (See Note 7). The purchase price, including transaction fees and other related costs, is approximately $800 million, excluding $2.3 billion in preferred stock and debt obligations of Transco. The acquired assets and liabilities have been recorded based on a preliminary allocation of the purchase price, and substantially all of the cost in excess of Transco's historical carrying amounts has been allocated to property, plant and equipment.
On November 24, 1997, Williams and MAPCO Inc. announced that they had entered into a definitive merger agreement whereby Williams would acquire MAPCO by exchanging 1.665 shares of Williams common stock for each outstanding share of MAPCO common stock. In addition, outstanding MAPCO employee stock options would be converted into Williams common stock. The merger was consummated on March 28, 1998, with the issuance of 98.6 million shares of Williams common stock, valued at $3.1 billion based on the closing price of Williams common stock on March 23, 1998. In connection with the merger, 8.4 million shares of MAPCO $1 par value common stock previously held in treasury were retired. These shares had a carrying value of $253.8 million. The merger constituted a tax-free reorganization and has been accounted for as a pooling of interests.
On March 30, 2001, Williams' board of directors approved a tax-free spinoff of WCG to Williams' shareholders. Williams distributed 398.5 million shares, or approximately 95 percent of the WCG common stock held by Williams, to holders of record on April 9 of Williams common stock. Distribution of .822399 of a share of WCG common stock for each share of Williams common stock occurred on April 23, 2001. The distribution was recorded as a dividend and resulted in a decrease to stockholders' equity of approximately $1.8 billion, which included an increase to accumulated other comprehensive income of approximately $21.3 million. The WCG shares retained by Williams are included in investments in the Consolidated Balance Sheet and had a carrying value of approximately $96 million and an estimated fair value of $63 million at June 30, 2001. Additionally, receivables include amounts due from WCG of approximately $109 million at June 30, 2001. Williams has extended the payment term of up to $100 million of the outstanding balance which was due March 31, 2001 to March 15, 2002. Williams is providing indirect credit support for $1.4 billion of WCG's structured notes through a commitment to issue Williams' equity in the event of WCG's default, or to the extent proceeds from WCG's refinancing or remarketing of certain structured notes prior to March 2004 produces proceeds of less than $1.4 billion. NOTE: Williams Communications Group filed for bankruptcy on April 22, 2002.
On December 31, 2011, we completed the tax-free spin-off of our 100 percent interest in WPX Energy, Inc. (WPX), to our shareholders. The spin-off was completed by means of a special stock dividend, which consisted of a distribution of one share of WPX common stock for every three shares of our common stock. For periods prior to the spin-off, the accompanying Consolidated Statement of Income reflects the results of operations of our former exploration and production business as discontinued operations.
On February 17, 2012, WPZ completed the acquisition of 100 percent of the ownership interests in certain entities from Delphi Midstream Partners, LLC, in exchange for $325 million in cash, net of cash acquired in the transaction and subject to certain closing adjustments, and 7,531,381 WPZ common units valued at $465 million (Laser Acquisition). These entities primarily own the Laser Gathering System, which is comprised of 33 miles of 16-inch natural gas pipeline and associated gathering facilities in the Marcellus Shale in Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania, as well as 10 miles of gathering lines in southern New York. The acquisition was accounted for as a business combination which, among other things, requires assets acquired and liabilities assumed to be measured at their acquisition date fair values. The excess of cost over those fair values was allocated to goodwill. The amounts recognized in the financial statements are preliminary because our valuation work has not been completed. We are awaiting further information for valuing the property, plant and equipment, intangible assets, assets held for sale, environmental and contingent liabilities and asset retirement obligations. In addition, we are still in the process of identifying all the assets acquired and liabilities assumed.
On June 23, 2014, we issued 61 million shares of common stock at a price of $57.00 per share. That amount includes 8 million shares purchased pursuant to the full exercise of the underwriter's option to purchase additional shares. The net proceeds of $3.378 billion were used to finance a portion of the ACMP Acquisition.
On July 1, 2014, we acquired all of the interests in ACMP held by Global Infrastructure Partners II, which included 50 percent of the general partner interest and 55.1 million limited partner units for $5.995 billion in cash (ACMP Acquisition). We now own 100 percent of the general partner interest, including incentive distribution rights, and approximately 50 percent of the limited partner units in ACMP.