|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Book value of equity per share||$105.85||7.5%||5.5%||10%|
|BV including aggregate dividends||10.3%||7.7%||11.4%|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
A company creates wealth for its long-term shareholders in 2 main ways - through dividend payments and through the accumulation of retained earnings. This graph shows the accumulation of per-share equity of long-term shareholders (green bars), which consists of the retained earnings plus all capital invested in the company, and the cumulative dividends the company has paid over time per share of its stock (blue bars).
In the words of Warren Buffett: "We're looking for... businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt."
Return on equity is a key metric of financial performance, indicating a company's ability to generate earnings using shareholder capital. Over time, ROE is one of the major determinants of the rate at which a company creates shareholder wealth. The average ROE for large U.S. companies is 12%, and many investors use it as a threshold for attractive investments.
Companies can boost ROE by increasing leverage, which reduces the safety of the investment. Therefore, it is useful to look at the return on assets (ROA), which measures a company's earning power regardless of its capital structure. A widening gap between ROE and ROA may be a warning sign that should be thoroughly investigated.
Earnings per share is a popular metric used to value a company (using P/E ratio); growth in EPS is often used to judge company growth potential. However, many investors believe that EPS is an inferior metric to ROE, because it ignores the amount of capital the company used to generate earnings.
Free cash flow shows how much cash a company generates from operations, above and beyond what is required to maintain or expand its productive assets. This cash can be returned to investors, or spent by management on growing the company or paying back its debts.
Balance sheets of many companies contain intangible assets such as goodwill, trademarks, patents, etc. Many investors consider intangibles more difficult to value than physical assets. If intangible assets had been valued incorrectly, they must be impaired, resulting in a loss charged against shareholder equity. This chart demonstrates the potential loss to shareholder equity from such impairments.
Anthem, Inc. is a financial company. Financial companies, by their nature, typically have high debt to equity leverage, which is not a meaningful analytical metric. We suggest you use the equity to assets ratio instead.
This chart shows shareholder equity as a percentage of total assets, allowing investors to judge the overall leverage. Companies with a higher proportion of equity can be viewed as safer investments. This metric is particularly important for highly leveraged institutions, such as banks, where it must be at least 4% according to government regulations.
The ratio of current assets to current liabilities is known as the current ratio. This metric is a quick measure of the company's ability to pay its short-term obligations. A current ratio below 1 is a warning sign that should be investigated, especially for companies that cannot count on adequate cash flow from operations.
This chart shows the cumulative dilution of investor ownership in a company over time. Dilution reduces an investor's participation in the future earnings. Dilution increases when a company issues new shares, and decreases when a company buys its shares back. Many investors avoid companies with large chronic dilution.
The dividend payout ratio tells investors what percentage of earnings a company returns to shareholders, and what percentage it retains and reinvests. This ratio represents a major capital allocation decision by the company, and can be used to judge management rationality. Rational management should pay out all earnings that cannot be productively reinvested. Therefore, a low dividend payout ratio for a profitable company with a low growth potential may be a warning sign.
Many investors use the P/B ratio as a quick way of judging company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - specifically seek out companies with low P/B ratios. However, investors should be careful not to make investment decisions on this metric alone, without considering a company's earning and growth potential, since a low P/B ratio can be a sign of a bleak future for the business.
P/E ratio is a popular way of making a quick judgment of a company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - often seek solid companies with low P/E ratios as investment opportunities. However, P/E ratio represents an oversimplified approach to business valuation, and can often lead to incorrect investment decisions.
On July 31, 2002, Anthem completed its purchase of 100% of the outstanding stock of Trigon Healthcare, Inc. ("Trigon"), in accordance with an agreement and plan of merger announced April 29, 2002. Trigon was Virginia's largest health care company and was the Blue Cross and Blue Shield licensee in the Commonwealth of Virginia, excluding the northern Virginia suburbs of Washington, D.C. The merger provides the Company with a new Southeast segment and is expected to provide further economies of scale. Trigon's shareholders each received thirty dollars in cash and 1.062 shares of Anthem common stock for each Trigon share outstanding. The purchase price was approximately $4,038.1 and included cash of $1,104.3, the issuance of 38,971,908 shares of Anthem common stock, valued at $2,708.1, Trigon stock options converted into Anthem stock options for 3,866,770 shares, valued at $195.5 and approximately $30.2 of transaction costs. On July 31, 2002, the Company issued $950.0 of long term unsecured and unsubordinated notes which were used, along with the sale of investment securities and available cash, to fund the cash portion of the purchase price.
On November 30, 2004, Anthem completed its merger with WHN and purchased 100% of the outstanding common stock of WHN. As a result of the merger, each WHN stockholder received $23.80 in cash, without interest, and one share of WellPoint common stock for each share of WHN common stock held. The purchase price was $16,022.3 and included cash of $3,718.8, the issuance of approximately 155.3 million shares of WellPoint common stock, valued at $11,293.8, WHN stock options converted to WellPoint stock options and other stock awards for approximately 21.8 million shares, valued at $806.3 and $203.4 of estimated transaction costs. The fair value of common stock issued was based on $72.70 per share...
On August 22, 2011, we completed our acquisition of CareMore, a senior focused health care delivery program that includes Medicare Advantage plans and clinics designed to deliver proactive, integrated, individualized health care in select California, Arizona and Nevada markets and subsequently expanded into select New York and Virginia markets during 2012. CareMores leading programs and services provide members with quality care through a hands-on approach to care coordination, convenient neighborhood care centers and exercise facilities and intensive treatment of chronic conditions. We believe this approach enhances our ability to create better health outcomes for seniors by engaging members both on the front end of our relationship, through comprehensive health screenings and enhanced preventive care, and throughout the spectrum of their health care needs. The acquisition of CareMore supports our strategic plans to capitalize on new opportunities for growth in the changing marketplace and to create the best health care value in our industry. The fair value of net assets acquired from CareMore during 2011 included $172.6 of other intangible assets, which primarily consisted of customer relationships, trade name and provider relationships and have amortization periods ranging from ten to twenty years.
During the nine months ended September 30, 2011, we repurchased and retired approximately 34.2 shares at an average per share price of $68.87, for an aggregate cost of $2,354.2. During the nine months ended September 30, 2010, we repurchased and retired approximately 58.9 shares at an average per share price of $56.83, for an aggregate cost of $3,345.1. The excess of cost of the repurchased shares over par value is charged on a pro rata basis to additional paid-in capital and retained earnings. On February 3, February 22, May 17, August 25 and September 29, 2011, our Board of Directors increased the share repurchase authorization by $375.0, $1,100.0, $500.0, $250.0 and $5,000.0, respectively. We intend to utilize this additional repurchase authorization over a multi-year period, subject to market and industry conditions. As of September 30, 2011, $5,019.3 remained authorized for future repurchases. Subsequent to September 30, 2011, we repurchased and retired approximately 1.4 shares for an aggregate cost of approximately $90.8, leaving approximately $4,928.5 for authorized future repurchases at October 14, 2011. Our stock repurchase program is discretionary as we are under no obligation to repurchase shares. We repurchase shares under the program when we believe it is a prudent use of capital.
On June 20, 2012, we completed our acquisition of 1-800 CONTACTS, the largest direct-to-consumer retailer of contact lenses in the United States, whose model is built on providing a superior customer experience and a wide selection of ocular products at affordable prices. The acquisition strategically aligns with our efforts to capitalize on new opportunities for growth to diversify our revenue stream into complementary and higher-margin specialty businesses. In accordance with FASB accounting guidance for business combinations, the consideration transferred was allocated to the fair value of 1-800 CONTACTS assets acquired and liabilities assumed, including identifiable intangible assets. The excess of the consideration transferred over the fair value of net assets acquired resulted in preliminary non-tax-deductible goodwill of $620.7 at December 31, 2012, all of which was allocated to our Commercial segment. Preliminary goodwill recognized from the acquisition of 1-800 CONTACTS primarily relates to the expected future growth of 1-800 CONTACTS business and further expansion of product offerings, including eyeglasses. Any subsequent adjustments made to the assets acquired or liabilities assumed during the measurement period will be recorded as an adjustment to goodwill. The fair value of the net assets acquired from 1-800 CONTACTS included $449.4 of other intangible assets, which primarily consist of finite-lived customer relationships with an amortization period of 13 years and indefinite-lived trade names. The results of operations of 1-800 CONTACTS for the period following June 20, 2012 are included in our consolidated financial statements within our Commercial segment and represented $214.5 and $12.9 of the Companys operating revenue and net income, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2012. Through December 31, 2012, 1-800 CONTACTS operated under an alliance agreement, or the Alliance, with an unrelated third party to provide for the joint management, marketing and fulfillment of orders for products. Profits and losses of the Alliance were allocated to 1-800 CONTACTS based on the terms set forth in the Alliance agreement. Product sales made by 1-800 CONTACTS are reported on our consolidated income statement within Other revenue and expenses for the cost of products sold, as well as certain other allowed expenses as defined in the Alliance agreement, are presented on our consolidated income statement within Cost of products. The Alliance terminated on December 31, 2012.
On December 24, 2012, we completed our acquisition of Amerigroup, one of the nations leading managed care companies focused on meeting the health care needs of financially vulnerable Americans. This acquisition furthers our goal of creating better health care quality at more affordable prices for our customers. Amerigroup also advances our capabilities in effectively and efficiently serving the growing Medicaid population, including the expanding dual eligibles, seniors, persons with disabilities and long-term services and support markets. We paid $92.00 per share in cash to acquire all of the outstanding shares of Amerigroup for total cash consideration of $4,755.8 [million].
Shares repurchased during six months ended June 30, 2015: 9.7M at average price of $145.63.