Verizon provides wireless voice and data communications, wireline broadband video and data for consumers in the U.S. The company offers corporate networking solutions, data center and cloud services to business and government customers in the U.S. and abroad.
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Book value of equity per share||$13.51||9.9%||34.5%||-0.9%|
|BV including aggregate dividends||29.5%||52.1%||9%|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
A company creates wealth for its long-term shareholders in 2 main ways - through dividend payments and through the accumulation of retained earnings. This graph shows the accumulation of per-share equity of long-term shareholders (green bars), which consists of the retained earnings plus all capital invested in the company, and the cumulative dividends the company has paid over time per share of its stock (blue bars).
In the words of Warren Buffett: "We're looking for... businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt."
Return on equity is a key metric of financial performance, indicating a company's ability to generate earnings using shareholder capital. Over time, ROE is one of the major determinants of the rate at which a company creates shareholder wealth. The average ROE for large U.S. companies is 12%, and many investors use it as a threshold for attractive investments.
Companies can boost ROE by increasing leverage, which reduces the safety of the investment. Therefore, it is useful to look at the return on assets (ROA), which measures a company's earning power regardless of its capital structure. A widening gap between ROE and ROA may be a warning sign that should be thoroughly investigated.
Earnings per share is a popular metric used to value a company (using P/E ratio); growth in EPS is often used to judge company growth potential. However, many investors believe that EPS is an inferior metric to ROE, because it ignores the amount of capital the company used to generate earnings.
Free cash flow shows how much cash a company generates from operations, above and beyond what is required to maintain or expand its productive assets. This cash can be returned to investors, or spent by management on growing the company or paying back its debts.
Balance sheets of many companies contain intangible assets such as goodwill, trademarks, patents, etc. Many investors consider intangibles more difficult to value than physical assets. If intangible assets had been valued incorrectly, they must be impaired, resulting in a loss charged against shareholder equity. This chart demonstrates the potential loss to shareholder equity from such impairments.
Companies often use debt financing to increase their return on equity. However, as the amount of debt financing increases relative to the amount of equity financing, the company becomes more sensitive to down turns and other negative events. As a result, many investors use the ratio of debt to equity as a measure of a company's financial risk, and avoid companies that have this ratio above 1.
This chart shows shareholder equity as a percentage of total assets, allowing investors to judge the overall leverage. Companies with a higher proportion of equity can be viewed as safer investments. This metric is particularly important for highly leveraged institutions, such as banks, where it must be at least 4% according to government regulations.
The ratio of current assets to current liabilities is known as the current ratio. This metric is a quick measure of the company's ability to pay its short-term obligations. A current ratio below 1 is a warning sign that should be investigated, especially for companies that cannot count on adequate cash flow from operations.
This chart shows the cumulative dilution of investor ownership in a company over time. Dilution reduces an investor's participation in the future earnings. Dilution increases when a company issues new shares, and decreases when a company buys its shares back. Many investors avoid companies with large chronic dilution.
analysis provides insight into factors affecting the Return On Equity of a company.
The DuPont equation decomposes ROE as follows:
ROE = (Net margin) * (Asset turnover) * (Asset to equity ratio)
Net margin indicates operating efficiency, Asset turnover measures the total asset use efficiency, and the Asset to equity ratio is a measure of financial leverage.
The dividend payout ratio tells investors what percentage of earnings a company returns to shareholders, and what percentage it retains and reinvests. This ratio represents a major capital allocation decision by the company, and can be used to judge management rationality. Rational management should pay out all earnings that cannot be productively reinvested. Therefore, a low dividend payout ratio for a profitable company with a low growth potential may be a warning sign.
Many investors use the P/B ratio as a quick way of judging company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - specifically seek out companies with low P/B ratios. However, investors should be careful not to make investment decisions on this metric alone, without considering a company's earning and growth potential, since a low P/B ratio can be a sign of a bleak future for the business.
P/E ratio is a popular way of making a quick judgment of a company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - often seek solid companies with low P/E ratios as investment opportunities. However, P/E ratio represents an oversimplified approach to business valuation, and can often lead to incorrect investment decisions.
On August 14, 1997, Bell Atlantic and NYNEX completed a merger of equals under a definitive merger agreement entered into on April 21, 1996 and amended on July 2, 1996. The stockholders of each company approved the merger at special meetings held in November 1996. Under the terms of the amended agreement, NYNEX became a wholly owned subsidiary of Bell Atlantic. NYNEX stockholders received 0.768 of a share of Bell Atlantic common stock for each share of NYNEX common stock that they owned. This resulted in the issuance of 350.2 million shares of Bell Atlantic common stock. NYNEX is a global communications and media corporation, providing a full range of communications services in the northeastern United States and in high growth markets around the world. NYNEX has expertise in telecommunications, wireless communications, directory publishing, and video entertainment and information services. The merger qualified as a tax-free reorganization and has been accounted for as a pooling of interests. Under this method of accounting, the companies are treated as if they had always been combined for accounting and financial reporting purposes and, therefore, we have restated our financial information for all dates and periods prior to the merger.
On June 30, 2000, Bell Atlantic and GTE completed a merger under a definitive merger agreement dated as of July 27, 1998 (the Merger). Under the terms of the agreement, GTE became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bell Atlantic. GTE shareholders received 1.22 shares of Bell Atlantic common stock for each share of GTE common stock that they owned. This resulted in the issuance of 1,176 million shares of Bell Atlantic common stock. With the closing of the Merger, the combined company began doing business as Verizon. The Merger qualified as a tax-free reorganization and has been accounted for as a pooling-of-interests. Under this method of accounting, Bell Atlantic and GTE are treated as if they had always been combined for accounting and financial reporting purposes. As a result, we have restated our consolidated financial statements for all dates and periods prior to the Merger. In addition to combining the separate historical results of Bell Atlantic and GTE, the restated combined financial statements include the adjustments necessary to conform accounting methods and presentation, to the extent that they were different, and to eliminate significant intercompany transactions.
On November 17, 2006 we completed the spin-off of Idearc to shareowners of Verizon. Verizon distributed a dividend of one share of Idearc common stock for every 20 shares of Verizon common stock. Cash was paid for fractional shares. The distribution of Idearc common stock is considered a tax free transaction for us and for our shareowners, except for the cash payments for fractional shares which are generally taxable. Idearc now owns what was the Verizon domestic print and Internet yellow pages directories publishing operations, which had been the principal component of our Information Services segment. This transaction resulted in an increase of nearly $9 billion in shareowners' equity, as well as a reduction of total debt by more than $7 billion and we received approximately $2 billion in cash.
On June 5, 2008, Verizon Wireless entered into an agreement and plan of merger with Alltel, a provider of wireless voice and data services to consumer and business customers in 34 states, and its controlling stockholder, Atlantis Holdings LLC, to acquire, in an all-cash merger, 100% of the equity of Alltel for cash consideration of $5.9 billion and the assumption of approximately $24 billion of aggregate principal amount of Alltel debt. Verizon Wireless closed the transaction on January 9, 2009.
On May 13, 2009, we announced plans to spin off a newly formed subsidiary of Verizon (Spinco) to our stockholders and for Spinco to merge with Frontier immediately following the spin-off pursuant to a definitive agreement with Frontier, with Frontier to be the surviving corporation. On July 1, 2010, after receiving regulatory approval, we completed the spin-off of the shares of Spinco to Verizon stockholders and the merger of Spinco with Frontier, resulting in Verizon stockholders collectively owning approximately 68 percent of Frontier's equity which was outstanding immediately following the merger. Frontier issued approximately 678.5 million shares of Frontier common stock in the aggregate to Verizon stockholders in the merger, and Verizon stockholders received one share of Frontier common stock for every 4.165977 shares of Verizon common stock they owned as of June 7, 2010. Verizon stockholders received cash in lieu of any fraction of a share of Frontier common stock to which they otherwise were entitled. At the time of the spin-off and the merger, Spinco held defined assets and liabilities of the local exchange business and related landline activities of Verizon in Arizona, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Nevada, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, South Carolina, Washington, West Virginia and Wisconsin, and in portions of California bordering Arizona, Nevada and Oregon, including Internet access and long distance services and broadband video provided to designated customers in those areas. The transactions did not involve any assets or liabilities of Verizon Wireless. The merger resulted in Frontier acquiring approximately 4 million access lines and certain related businesses from Verizon, which collectively generated revenues of approximately $4 billion for Verizon's Wireline segment during 2009 and approximately $1.7 billion of revenue for Verizon's Wireline segment during the six months ended June 30, 2010.
On September 2, 2013, Verizon entered into a stock purchase agreement with Vodafone and Vodafone 4 Limited ), pursuant to which Verizon agreed to acquire Vodafone's indirect 45% interest in Cellco Partnership d/b/a Verizon Wireless for aggregate consideration of approximately $130 billion. On February 21, 2014, pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Stock Purchase Agreement, Verizon acquired (the Wireless Transaction) from Seller all of the issued and outstanding capital stock (the Transferred Shares) of Vodafone Americas Finance 1 Inc., a subsidiary of Seller (VF1 Inc.), which indirectly through certain subsidiaries (together with VF1 Inc., the Purchased Entities) owned the Vodafone Interest. In consideration for the Transferred Shares, upon completion of the Wireless Transaction, Verizon (i) paid approximately $58.89 billion in cash, (ii) issued approximately $60.15 billion of Verizon's common stock, par value $0.10 per share (the Stock Consideration), (iii) issued senior unsecured Verizon notes in an aggregate principal amount of $5.0 billion (the Verizon Notes), (iv) sold Verizon's indirectly owned 23.1% interest in Vodafone Omnitel N.V. (Omnitel, and such interest, the Omnitel Interest), valued at $3.5 billion and (v) provided other consideration of approximately $2.5 billion. As a result of the Wireless Transaction, Verizon issued approximately 1.27 billion shares.
On May 12, 2015, we entered into the Merger Agreement with AOL pursuant to which we commenced a tender offer to acquire all of the outstanding shares of common stock of AOL at a price of $50.00 per share, net to the seller in cash, without interest and less any applicable withholding taxes. On June 23, 2015, we completed the tender offer and merger, and AOL became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Verizon. The aggregate cash consideration paid by Verizon at the closing of these transactions was approximately $3.8 billion. Holders of approximately 6.6 million shares exercised their appraisal rights under Delaware law. If they had not exercised these rights, Verizon would have paid an additional $330 million for such shares at the closing. AOL is a leader in the digital content and advertising platform space. Verizon has been investing in emerging technology that taps into the market shift to digital content and advertising. AOLs business model aligns with this approach, and we believe that its combination of owned and operated content properties plus a digital advertising platform enhances our ability to further develop future revenue streams. See Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
On February 5, 2015, we entered into a definitive agreement with Frontier Communications Corporation pursuant to which Verizon sold its local exchange business and related landline activities in California, Florida and Texas, including Fios Internet and video customers, switched and special access lines and high-speed Internet service and long distance voice accounts in these three states, for approximately $10.5 billion (approximately $7.3 billion net of income taxes), subject to certain adjustments and including the assumption of $0.6 billion of indebtedness from Verizon by Frontier. The transaction, which included the acquisition by Frontier of the equity interests of Verizons incumbent local exchange carriers (ILECs) in California, Florida and Texas, did not involve any assets or liabilities of Verizon Wireless. The transaction closed on April 1, 2016. The transaction resulted in Frontier acquiring approximately 3.3 million voice connections, 1.6 million Fios Internet subscribers, 1.2 million Fios video subscribers and the related ILEC businesses from Verizon. Approximately 9,300 Verizon employees who served customers in California, Florida and Texas continued employment with Frontier. The operating results of these businesses are excluded from our Wireline segment for all periods presented to reflect comparable segment operating results consistent with the information regularly reviewed by our chief operating decision maker.
On February 20, 2016, we entered into a purchase agreement to acquire XO Holdings wireline business, which owns and operates one of the largest fiber-based IP and Ethernet networks, for approximately $1.8 billion, subject to adjustment. We completed the acquisition on February 1, 2017. Separately, we entered into an agreement to lease certain wireless spectrum from a wholly-owned subsidiary of XO Holdings that holds its wireless spectrum. Verizon has an option, exercisable under certain circumstances, to buy that subsidiary.
On June 13, 2017, Verizon Communications Inc. closed its acquisition of Yahoo! Inc.s operating business. On July 23, 2016, Verizon entered into a stock purchase agreement with Yahoo! Inc. Pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, Verizon agreed to acquire the stock of one or more subsidiaries of Yahoo holding all of Yahoos operating business, for approximately $4.83 billion in cash, subject to certain adjustments.