Vertex Pharmaceuticals discovers, develops, manufactures and commercializes therapies for the treatment of cystic fibrosis, including ORKAMBI and KALYDECO.
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Book value of equity per share||$10.51||58.5%||13.1%||20%|
|BV including aggregate dividends||58.5%||13.1%||20%|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
A company creates wealth for its long-term shareholders in 2 main ways - through dividend payments and through the accumulation of retained earnings. This graph shows the accumulation of per-share equity of long-term shareholders (green bars), which consists of the retained earnings plus all capital invested in the company, and the cumulative dividends the company has paid over time per share of its stock (blue bars).
In the words of Warren Buffett: "We're looking for... businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt."
Return on equity is a key metric of financial performance, indicating a company's ability to generate earnings using shareholder capital. Over time, ROE is one of the major determinants of the rate at which a company creates shareholder wealth. The average ROE for large U.S. companies is 12%, and many investors use it as a threshold for attractive investments.
Companies can boost ROE by increasing leverage, which reduces the safety of the investment. Therefore, it is useful to look at the return on assets (ROA), which measures a company's earning power regardless of its capital structure. A widening gap between ROE and ROA may be a warning sign that should be thoroughly investigated.
Earnings per share is a popular metric used to value a company (using P/E ratio); growth in EPS is often used to judge company growth potential. However, many investors believe that EPS is an inferior metric to ROE, because it ignores the amount of capital the company used to generate earnings.
Free cash flow shows how much cash a company generates from operations, above and beyond what is required to maintain or expand its productive assets. This cash can be returned to investors, or spent by management on growing the company or paying back its debts.
Balance sheets of many companies contain intangible assets such as goodwill, trademarks, patents, etc. Many investors consider intangibles more difficult to value than physical assets. If intangible assets had been valued incorrectly, they must be impaired, resulting in a loss charged against shareholder equity. This chart demonstrates the potential loss to shareholder equity from such impairments.
Companies often use debt financing to increase their return on equity. However, as the amount of debt financing increases relative to the amount of equity financing, the company becomes more sensitive to down turns and other negative events. As a result, many investors use the ratio of debt to equity as a measure of a company's financial risk, and avoid companies that have this ratio above 1.
This chart shows shareholder equity as a percentage of total assets, allowing investors to judge the overall leverage. Companies with a higher proportion of equity can be viewed as safer investments. This metric is particularly important for highly leveraged institutions, such as banks, where it must be at least 4% according to government regulations.
The ratio of current assets to current liabilities is known as the current ratio. This metric is a quick measure of the company's ability to pay its short-term obligations. A current ratio below 1 is a warning sign that should be investigated, especially for companies that cannot count on adequate cash flow from operations.
This chart shows the cumulative dilution of investor ownership in a company over time. Dilution reduces an investor's participation in the future earnings. Dilution increases when a company issues new shares, and decreases when a company buys its shares back. Many investors avoid companies with large chronic dilution.
analysis provides insight into factors affecting the Return On Equity of a company.
The DuPont equation decomposes ROE as follows:
ROE = (Net margin) * (Asset turnover) * (Asset to equity ratio)
Net margin indicates operating efficiency, Asset turnover measures the total asset use efficiency, and the Asset to equity ratio is a measure of financial leverage.
The dividend payout ratio tells investors what percentage of earnings a company returns to shareholders, and what percentage it retains and reinvests. This ratio represents a major capital allocation decision by the company, and can be used to judge management rationality. Rational management should pay out all earnings that cannot be productively reinvested. Therefore, a low dividend payout ratio for a profitable company with a low growth potential may be a warning sign.
Many investors use the P/B ratio as a quick way of judging company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - specifically seek out companies with low P/B ratios. However, investors should be careful not to make investment decisions on this metric alone, without considering a company's earning and growth potential, since a low P/B ratio can be a sign of a bleak future for the business.
P/E ratio is a popular way of making a quick judgment of a company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - often seek solid companies with low P/E ratios as investment opportunities. However, P/E ratio represents an oversimplified approach to business valuation, and can often lead to incorrect investment decisions.
In February 1994, the Company sold 3,450,000 shares of common stock in a public offering at a price to the public of $18.00 per share, with net proceeds to the Company of approximately $58,062,000.
In November 1994, the Company sold 1,200,000 shares of common stock in a private placement to a subsidiary of BB Biotech AG at a price of $12.50 per share, with net proceeds to the Company of approximately $15,000,000.
In August 1996, the Company completed a public offering of 3,450,000 shares of its common stock, which included an over-allotment option exercised by the underwriters for 450,000 shares, at a price to the public of $24 per share, with net proceeds to the Company of approximately $77,515,000.
In March 1997, the Company completed a public offering of 3,450,000 shares of its common stock, which included an over-allotment exercised by the underwriters for 450,000 shares, at a price to the public of $45.50 per share, with net proceeds to the Company of approximately $148,863,000.
In September 2006, the Company completed a public offering of 10,000,000 shares of common stock, including the underwriters overallotment of 900,000 shares, at a price of $33.00 per share. This transaction resulted in net proceeds of approximately $313.3 million to the Company.
In February 2008, the Company completed concurrent offerings of $287.5 million in aggregate principal amount of 4.75% convertible senior subordinated notes due 2013 and 6,900,000 shares of common stock, which were sold at a price of $17.14 per share.
In September 2008, the Company completed an offering of 8,625,000 shares of common stock, which were sold at a price of $25.50 per share. This offering resulted in $217.4 million of net proceeds to the Company. The underwriting discount of $2.2 million and other expenses of $0.3 million related to the September 2008 Equity Offering were recorded as an offset to additional paid-in-capital.
In February 2009, the Company completed an offering of 10,000,000 shares of common stock, which were sold at a price of $32.00 per share. This offering resulted in $313.3 million of net proceeds to the Company. The underwriting discount of $6.4 million and other expenses of $0.3 million related to the February 2009 Equity Offering were recorded as an offset to additional paid-in capital.
On March 12, 2009, the Company acquired ViroChem, a privately-held biotechnology company based in Canada, for $100.0 million in cash and 10,733,527 shares of the Company's common stock. The transaction is being accounted for under the acquisition method of accounting, all of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed in the transaction are recognized at their acquisition-date fair values, which are preliminary at March 31, 2009, while transaction costs and restructuring costs associated with the transaction are expensed as incurred. The $390.6 million purchase price for ViroChem is based on the acquisition-date fair value of the consideration transferred, which was calculated based on the opening price of the Company's common stock of $27.07 per share on March 12, 2009.
As of December 31, 2012, the Company's intangible assets consisted of indefinite-lived in-process research and development assets of (i) $250.6 million related to its HCV nucleotide analogue program, which includes the HCV nucleotide analogue VX-135, and (ii) $412.9 million related to VX-222, which also was being developed for the treatment of HCV infection. The Company acquired VX-222 when it acquired ViroChem Pharma Inc. ("ViroChem") in 2009. The Company tests intangible assets for impairment on an annual basis as of October 1, and more frequently if indicators are present or changes in circumstance suggest that impairment may exist. In connection with each annual impairment assessment and any interim impairment assessment in which indicators of impairment have been identified, the Company compares the fair value of the asset as of the date of the assessment with the carrying value of the asset on the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheet. In connection with its preparation of its financial statements for the three months ended March 31, 2013, the Company determined that there were indicators that the value of the VX-222 intangible asset had become impaired. This determination was based on (a) preliminary safety, tolerability and efficacy data from a Phase 2 clinical trial of VX-222, telaprevir and ribavirin, which was received in March 2013 and analyzed through April 2013 and (b) a review of the existing and emerging data regarding all-oral regimens for HCV infection being developed by the Company's competitors that appear to be generally well tolerated with high sustained viral response ("SVR") rates for treatment-naive patients with genotype 1 HCV infection. After evaluating the data from this Phase 2 clinical trial, the Company determined that regimens containing VX-222 were unlikely to be competitive with the treatment regimens being developed by the Company's competitors. The Company evaluated the fair value of VX-222 from the perspective of a market participant and based on this analysis determined that the fair value of VX-222 was zero as of March 31, 2013. Accordingly, the Company recorded a $412.9 million impairment charge in the six months ended June 30, 2013. The Company continues to monitor the development of competitive all-oral regimens and other direct antivirals and does not plan to initiate any new clinical trials of VX-222. In connection with this impairment charge, the Company recorded a credit of $127.6 million in its provision for income taxes. In the six months ended June 30, 2013, the increase to the Company's net loss attributable to Vertex related to this impairment charge, net of the tax credit, was $285.3 million, and the net increase to the Company's net loss per share attributable to Vertex common shareholders was $1.30 per share.
On June 4, 2015, the Company entered into a strategic collaboration and license agreement with Parion Sciences, Inc. Pursuant to the agreement, the Company is collaborating with Parion to develop investigational epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) inhibitors, including VX-371 (formerly P-1037) and P-1055, for the potential treatment of cystic fibrosis, or CF, and other pulmonary diseases. The Company is leading development activities for VX-371 and P-1055 in CF and other pulmonary diseases and is responsible for all costs, subject to certain exceptions, related to development and commercialization of the compounds. Pursuant to the Parion Agreement, the Company has worldwide development and commercial rights to Parions lead investigational ENaC inhibitors, VX-371 and P-1055, for the potential treatment of CF and all other pulmonary diseases and has the option to select additional compounds discovered in Parions research program. Parion received an $80.0 million up-front payment and has the potential to receive up to an additional (i) $490.0 million in development and regulatory milestone payments for development of ENaC inhibitors in CF, including $360.0 million related to global filing and approval milestones, (ii) $370.0 million in development and regulatory milestones for VX-371 and P-1055 in non-CF pulmonary indications and (iii) $230.0 million in development and regulatory milestones should the Company elect to develop an additional ENaC inhibitor from Parions research program. The Company has agreed to pay Parion tiered royalties that range from the low double digits to mid-teens as a percentage of potential sales of licensed products. The Company recorded $255.3 million of intangible assets on the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheet for Parion's in-process research and development assets. These in-process research and development assets relate to Parion's pulmonary ENaC platform, including the intellectual property related to VX-371 and P-1055, that are licensed by the Company from Parion. The difference between the preliminary fair value of the consideration and the fair value of Parion's assets (including the fair value of intangible assets) and liabilities was allocated to goodwill.