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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
FORM 10-K
ý
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
OR
 ¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                     to                    
Commission file number 001-34034
REGIONS FINANCIAL CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
63-0589368
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
1900 Fifth Avenue North, Birmingham, Alabama 35203
(Address of principal executive offices)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (800) 734-4667
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $.01 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
Depositary Shares, each representing a 1/40th Interest in a Share of 6.375% Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series A
 
New York Stock Exchange
Depositary Shares, each representing a 1/40th Interest in a Share of 6.375% Fixed-to-Floating Rate Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series B
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes ý   No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  ý   No  ¨ 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
 
Large accelerated filer  x
 
Accelerated filer ¨
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer ¨ 
 
Smaller reporting company ¨
 
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company ¨
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  ¨    No  ý
State the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter.
Common Stock, $.01 par value—$19,253,215,827 as of June 30, 2018.
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
Common Stock, $.01 par value—1,017,718,703 shares issued and outstanding as of February 20, 2019.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the proxy statement for the Annual Meeting to be held on April 24, 2019 are incorporated by reference into Part III.



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REGIONS FINANCIAL CORPORATION
FORM 10-K
INDEX
 

 
 
 
 
Page
PART I
 
 
 
 
Forward-Looking Statements
 
Item 1.
 
Business
 
Item 1A.
 
Risk Factors
 
Item 1B.
 
Unresolved Staff Comments
 
Item 2.
 
Properties
 
Item 3.
 
Legal Proceedings
 
Item 4.
 
Mine Safety Disclosures
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
 
Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
Item 6.
 
Selected Financial Data
 
Item 7.
 
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
Item 7A.
 
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
 
Item 8.
 
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 
Item 9.
 
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
 
Item 9A.
 
Controls and Procedures
 
Item 9B.
 
Other Information
 
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
Item 10.
 
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
 
Item 11.
 
Executive Compensation
 
Item 12.
 
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
 
Item 13.
 
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
 
Item 14.
 
Principal Accounting Fees and Services
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
Item 15.
 
Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
 
Item 16.
 
Form 10-K Summary
 
SIGNATURES
 

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Glossary of Defined Terms
Agencies - collectively, FNMA, FHLMC and GNMA.
ALCO - Asset/Liability Management Committee.
AOCI - Accumulated other comprehensive income.
ASC - Accounting Standards Codification.
ASU - Accounting Standards Update.
ATM - Automated teller machine.
Bank - Regions Bank.
Basel I - Basel Committee's 1988 Regulatory Capital Framework (First Accord).
Basel III - Basel Committee's 2010 Regulatory Capital Framework (Third Accord).
Basel III Rules - Final capital rules adopting the Basel III capital framework approved by U.S. federal
regulators in 2013.
Basel IV - Basel Committee's revised Regulatory Capital Framework proposal released in December 2017.
Basel Committee - Basel Committee on Banking Supervision.
BHC - Bank Holding Company.
BHC Act - Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended.
BITS - Technology arm of the Financial Services Roundtable.
Board - The Company’s Board of Directors.
CAP - Customer Assistance Program.
CCAR - Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review.
CCB - Capital Conservation Buffer.
CECL - Current Expected Credit Loss Approach.
CEO - Chief Executive Officer.
CET1 - Common Equity Tier 1.
CFO - Chief Financial Officer.
CFPB - Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.
CFTC - Commodity Futures Trading Commission.
Company - Regions Financial Corporation and its subsidiaries.
COSO - Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.
CPR - Constant (or Conditional) Prepayment Rate.
CRA - Community Reinvestment Act of 1977.
DIF - Deposit Insurance Fund.
Dodd-Frank Act - The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010.
DPD - Days Past Due.
DUS - Fannie Mae Delegated Underwriting & Servicing.
EAD - Exposure at Default.
EGRRCPA - The Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act.
ERI - Eligible retained income.
FASB - Financial Accounting Standards Board.
FDIA - Federal Deposit Insurance Act, as amended.

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FDIC - The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
Federal Reserve - The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.
FFIEC - Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council.
FHA - Federal Housing Administration.
FHC - Financial Holding Company.
FHLB - Federal Home Loan Bank.
FHLMC - Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, known as Freddie Mac.
FICO - The Financing Corporation, established by the Competitive Equality Banking Act of
1987.
FICO scores - Personal credit scores based on the model introduced by the Fair Isaac Corporation.
FinCEN - the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network.
FINRA - Financial Industry Regulatory Authority.
FNMA - Federal National Mortgage Association, known as Fannie Mae.
FOMC - Federal Open Market Committee.
FRB - Federal Reserve Bank.
FS-ISAC - Financial Services - Information Sharing & Analysis Center.
FSOC - Federal Stability Oversight Council.
FTP - Funds Transfer Pricing.
GAAP - Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States.
GDP - Gross Domestic Product.
GDPR - EU General Data Protection Regulation.
GNMA - Government National Mortgage Association.
HUD - U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.
IPO - Initial public offering.
IRA - Individual Retirement Account.
IRS - Internal Revenue Service.
LCR - Liquidity coverage ratio.
LGD - Loss given default.
LIBOR - London InterBank Offered Rates.
LLC - Limited Liability Company.
LTIP - Long-term incentive plan.
LTV - Loan to value.
MD&A - Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Morgan Keegan - Morgan Keegan & Company, Inc.
MSAs - Metropolitan Statistical Areas.
MSR - Mortgage servicing right.
MSRB - Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board.
NAV - Net Asset Value.
NM - Not meaningful.
NPR - Notice of Public Ruling.

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NSFR - Net stable funding ratio.
NYSE - New York Stock Exchange.
OAS - Option-Adjusted Spread.
OCC - Office of the Comptroller of the Currency.
OCI - Other comprehensive income.
OFAC - U.S. Treasury Department - Office of Foreign Assets Control.
OIS - Overnight Indexed Swap.
OLA - Orderly Liquidation Authority.
OTTI - Other-than-temporary impairment.
PD - Probability of default.
Raymond James - Raymond James Financial, Inc.
Regions Securities - Regions Securities LLC.
SBIC - Small Business Investment Companies.
SCB - Stress capital buffer.
SEC - U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
SERP - Supplemental Executive Retirement Plan.
SLB - Stress leverage buffer.
SOFR - Secured Overnight Funding Rate.
Tax Reform - H.R.1, An Act to Provide for Reconciliation Pursuant to Titles II and V of the Concurrent
Resolution on the Budget for Fiscal Year 2018.
TBA - To Be Announced.
TDR - Troubled debt restructuring.
TRACE - Trade Reporting and Compliance Engine.
U.S. - United States.
USA PATRIOT Act - Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept
and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001.
U.S. Treasury - The United States Department of the Treasury.
UTB - Unrecognized tax benefits.
VIE - Variable interest entity.
Visa - The Visa, U.S.A. Inc. card association or its affiliates, collectively.
Volcker Rule - Section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Act and regulations promulgated thereunder, as applicable.



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PART I
Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K, other periodic reports filed by Regions Financial Corporation under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and any other written or oral statements made by us or on our behalf to analysts, investors, the media and others, may include forward-looking statements as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The terms “Regions,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” as used herein mean collectively Regions Financial Corporation, a Delaware corporation, together with its subsidiaries when or where appropriate. The words “future,” “anticipates,” “assumes,” “intends,” “plans,” “seeks,” “believes,” “predicts,” “potential,” “objectives,” “estimates,” “expects,” “targets,” “projects,” “outlook,” “forecast,” “would,” “will,” “may,” “might,” “could,” “should,” “can,” and similar terms and expressions often signify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are not based on historical information, but rather are related to future operations, strategies, financial results or other developments. Forward-looking statements are based on management’s current expectations as well as certain assumptions and estimates made by, and information available to, management at the time the statements are made. Those statements are based on general assumptions and are subject to various risks, and because they also relate to the future they are likewise subject to inherent uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from the views, beliefs and projections expressed in such statements. Therefore, we caution you against relying on any of these forward-looking statements. These risks, uncertainties and other factors include, but are not limited to, the risks identified in Item 1A. “Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and those described below:
Current and future economic and market conditions in the United States generally or in the communities we serve, including the effects of possible declines in property values, increases in unemployment rates and potential reductions of economic growth, which may adversely affect our lending and other businesses and our financial results and conditions.
Possible changes in trade, monetary and fiscal policies of, and other activities undertaken by, governments, agencies, central banks and similar organizations, which could have a material adverse effect on our earnings.
Possible changes in market interest rates or capital markets could adversely affect our revenue and expense, the value of assets and obligations, and the availability and cost of capital and liquidity.
Any impairment of our goodwill or other intangibles, any repricing of assets, or any adjustment of valuation allowances on our deferred tax assets due to changes in law, adverse changes in the economic environment, declining operations of the reporting unit or other factors.
The effect of changes in tax laws, including the effect of Tax Reform and any future interpretations of or amendments to Tax Reform, which may impact our earnings, capital ratios and our ability to return capital to stockholders.
Possible changes in the creditworthiness of customers and the possible impairment of the collectability of loans and leases, including operating leases.
Changes in the speed of loan prepayments, loan origination and sale volumes, charge-offs, loan loss provisions or actual loan losses where our allowance for loan losses may not be adequate to cover our eventual losses.
Possible acceleration of prepayments on mortgage-backed securities due to low interest rates, and the related acceleration of premium amortization on those securities.
Loss of customer checking and savings account deposits as customers pursue other, higher-yield investments, which could increase our funding costs.
Possible changes in consumer and business spending and saving habits and the related effect on our ability to increase assets and to attract deposits, which could adversely affect our net income.
Our ability to effectively compete with other traditional and non-traditional financial services companies, some of whom possess greater financial resources than we do or are subject to different regulatory standards than we are.
Our inability to develop and gain acceptance from current and prospective customers for new products and services and the enhancement of existing products and services to meet customers’ needs and respond to emerging technological trends in a timely manner could have a negative impact on our revenue.
Our inability to keep pace with technological changes could result in losing business to competitors.
Changes in laws and regulations affecting our businesses, including legislation and regulations relating to bank products and services, as well as changes in the enforcement and interpretation of such laws and regulations by applicable governmental and self-regulatory agencies, which could require us to change certain business practices, increase compliance risk, reduce our revenue, impose additional costs on us, or otherwise negatively affect our businesses.
Our ability to obtain a regulatory non-objection (as part of the CCAR process or otherwise) to take certain capital actions, including paying dividends and any plans to increase common stock dividends, repurchase common stock under current or future programs, or redeem preferred stock or other regulatory capital instruments, may impact our ability to return capital to stockholders and market perceptions of us.

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Our ability to comply with stress testing and capital planning requirements (as part of the CCAR process or otherwise) may continue to require a significant investment of our managerial resources due to the importance and intensity of such tests and requirements.
Our ability to comply with applicable capital and liquidity requirements (including, among other things, the Basel III capital standards and the LCR rule), including our ability to generate capital internally or raise capital on favorable terms, and if we fail to meet requirements, our financial condition could be negatively impacted.
The effects of any developments, changes or actions relating to any litigation or regulatory proceedings brought against us or any of our subsidiaries.
The costs, including possibly incurring fines, penalties, or other negative effects (including reputational harm) of any adverse judicial, administrative, or arbitral rulings or proceedings, regulatory enforcement actions, or other legal actions to which we or any of our subsidiaries are a party, and which may adversely affect our results.
Our ability to manage fluctuations in the value of assets and liabilities and off-balance sheet exposure so as to maintain sufficient capital and liquidity to support our business.
Our ability to execute on our strategic and operational plans, including our ability to fully realize the financial and non-financial benefits relating to our strategic initiatives.
The risks and uncertainties related to our acquisition or divestiture of businesses.
The success of our marketing efforts in attracting and retaining customers.
Our ability to recruit and retain talented and experienced personnel to assist in the development, management and operation of our products and services may be affected by changes in laws and regulations in effect from time to time.
Fraud or misconduct by our customers, employees or business partners.
Any inaccurate or incomplete information provided to us by our customers or counterparties.
Inability of our framework to manage risks associated with our business such as credit risk and operational risk, including third-party vendors and other service providers, which could, among other things, result in a breach of operating or security systems as a result of a cyber attack or similar act or failure to deliver our services effectively.
Dependence on key suppliers or vendors to obtain equipment and other supplies for our business on acceptable terms.
The inability of our internal controls and procedures to prevent, detect or mitigate any material errors or fraudulent acts.
The effects of geopolitical instability, including wars, conflicts and terrorist attacks and the potential impact, directly or indirectly, on our businesses.
The effects of man-made and natural disasters, including fires, floods, droughts, tornadoes, hurricanes, and environmental damage, which may negatively affect our operations and/or our loan portfolios and increase our cost of conducting business. The severity and impact of future earthquakes, fires, hurricanes, tornadoes, droughts, floods and other weather-related events are difficult to predict and may be exacerbated by global climate change.
Changes in commodity market prices and conditions could adversely affect the cash flows of our borrowers operating in industries that are impacted by changes in commodity prices (including businesses indirectly impacted by commodities prices such as businesses that transport commodities or manufacture equipment used in the production of commodities), which could impair their ability to service any loans outstanding to them and/or reduce demand for loans in those industries.
Our ability to identify and address cyber-security risks such as data security breaches, malware, “denial of service” attacks, “hacking” and identity theft, a failure of which could disrupt our business and result in the disclosure of and/or misuse or misappropriation of confidential or proprietary information, disruption or damage to our systems, increased costs, losses, or adverse effects to our reputation.
Our ability to realize our adjusted efficiency ratio target as part of our expense management initiatives.
Possible cessation or market replacement of LIBOR and the related effect on our LIBOR-based financial products and contracts, including, but not limited to, hedging products, debt obligations, investments, and loans.
Possible downgrades in our credit ratings or outlook could increase the costs of funding from capital markets.
The effects of a possible downgrade in the U.S. government’s sovereign credit rating or outlook, which could result in risks to us and general economic conditions that we are not able to predict.
The effects of problems encountered by other financial institutions that adversely affect us or the banking industry generally could require us to change certain business practices, reduce our revenue, impose additional costs on us, or otherwise negatively affect our businesses.

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The effects of the failure of any component of our business infrastructure provided by a third party could disrupt our businesses, result in the disclosure of and/or misuse of confidential information or proprietary information, increase our costs, negatively affect our reputation, and cause losses.
Our ability to receive dividends from our subsidiaries could affect our liquidity and ability to pay dividends to stockholders.
Changes in accounting policies or procedures as may be required by the FASB or other regulatory agencies could materially affect our financial statements and how we report those results, and expectations and preliminary analyses relating to how such changes will affect our financial results could prove incorrect.
Other risks identified from time to time in reports that we file with the SEC.
Fluctuations in the price of our common stock and inability to complete stock repurchases in the time frame and/or on the terms anticipated.
The effects of any damage to our reputation resulting from developments related to any of the items identified above.
You should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date made. Factors or events that could cause our actual results to differ may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible to predict all of them. We assume no obligation and do not intend to update or revise any forward-looking statements that are made from time to time, either as a result of future developments, new information or otherwise, except as may be required by law.




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Item 1. Business
Regions Financial Corporation is a FHC headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama that operates in the South, Midwest and Texas. The terms "Regions," "the Company," "we," "us" and "our" mean Regions Financial Corporation, a Delaware corporation and its subsidiaries, when appropriate. Regions provides traditional commercial, retail and mortgage banking services, as well as other financial services in the fields of asset management, wealth management, securities brokerage, trust services, merger and acquisition advisory services, and other specialty financing. At December 31, 2018, Regions had total consolidated assets of approximately $125.7 billion, total consolidated deposits of approximately $94.5 billion and total consolidated stockholders’ equity of approximately $15.1 billion.
Regions is a Delaware corporation and on July 1, 2004, became the successor by merger to Union Planters Corporation and the former Regions Financial Corporation. Its principal executive offices are located at 1900 Fifth Avenue North, Birmingham, Alabama 35203, and its telephone number at that address is (800) 734-4667.
Banking Operations
Regions conducts its banking operations through Regions Bank, an Alabama state-chartered commercial bank that is a member of the Federal Reserve System. At December 31, 2018, Regions operated 1,952 ATMs and 1,454 total branch outlets across the South, Midwest and Texas.
The following chart depicts the distribution of branch locations in each of the states in which Regions conducts its banking operations.
 
Branches
Florida
307

Tennessee
220

Alabama
211

Mississippi
126

Georgia
116

Louisiana
99

Arkansas
82

Texas
80

Missouri
64

Indiana
52

Illinois
48

South Carolina
23

Kentucky
11

Iowa
8

North Carolina
7

Total
1,454


Other Financial Services Operations
In addition to its banking operations, Regions provides additional financial services through the following subsidiaries:
Regions Equipment Finance Corporation and Regions Commercial Equipment Finance, LLC, each a wholly-owned subsidiary of Regions Bank, provide equipment financing products focusing on commercial clients.
Regions Investment Services, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Regions Bank, offers investments and insurance products to Regions Bank customers, provided by licensed insurance agents. In addition, Regions Bank and Regions Investment Services, Inc. also maintain an agreement with Cetera Investment Services, LLC to offer securities, insurance and advisory services to Regions Bank customers through dually-employed financial advisors.
Regions Securities LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Regions headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, serves as a broker-dealer to commercial clients and acts in an advisory capacity to merger and acquisition transactions. Additionally, BlackArch Partners LLC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Regions and is headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina. BlackArch Partners LLC and its subsidiaries offer merger and acquisition services to its institutional clients and commercial entities.
Regions Affordable Housing LLC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Regions Bank headquartered in Great Neck, New York, and engages in low income housing tax credit corporate fund syndication and asset management.

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Supervision and Regulation
We are subject to the extensive regulatory framework applicable to BHCs and their subsidiaries. This framework is intended primarily for the protection of depositors, the FDIC's DIF and the banking system as a whole, and generally is not intended for the protection of stockholders or other investors. Described below are the material elements of selected laws and regulations applicable to us and our subsidiaries. These descriptions are not intended to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by reference to the full text of the statutes and regulations described. Changes in applicable law or regulation, and in their interpretation and application by regulatory agencies and other governmental authorities, cannot be predicted, but may have a material effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Overview
We are registered with the Federal Reserve as a BHC and have elected to be treated as an FHC under the BHC Act. As such, we and our subsidiaries are subject to the supervision, examination and reporting requirements of the BHC Act and the regulations of the Federal Reserve. Generally, the BHC Act provides for “umbrella” regulation of FHCs by the Federal Reserve and functional regulation of holding company subsidiaries by applicable regulatory agencies. The BHC Act also requires the Federal Reserve to examine any subsidiary of a BHC, other than a depository institution, engaged in activities permissible for a depository institution. The Federal Reserve is also granted the authority, in certain circumstances, to require reports of, examine and adopt rules applicable to any holding company subsidiary.
Regions Bank is a member of the FDIC, and, as such, its deposits are insured by the FDIC to the extent provided by law. Regions Bank is an Alabama state-chartered bank and a member of the Federal Reserve System. Its operations are generally subject to supervision and examination by both the Federal Reserve and the Alabama State Banking Department and the bank regulators are given authority to approve or disapprove mergers, acquisitions, consolidations, the establishment of branches and similar corporate actions. The federal and state banking regulators also have the power to prevent the continuance or development of unsafe or unsound banking practices or other violations of law. State and federal laws and regulations govern the activities in which Regions Bank engages, including the investments it makes and the aggregate amount of loans that may be granted to one borrower. Various consumer and compliance laws and regulations also affect its operations. Regions Bank is also affected by the actions of the Federal Reserve as it implements monetary policy. As a Federal Reserve System member bank, Regions Bank is required to hold stock in the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta in an amount equal to 6 percent of its capital stock and surplus. Member banks with total assets in excess of $10 billion, including Regions Bank, receive a floating dividend rate tied to 10-year U.S. Treasuries, with the maximum dividend rate capped at 6 percent.
Regions Bank and its affiliates are also subject to supervision, regulation, examination and enforcement by the CFPB with respect to consumer protection laws and regulations. Some of Regions’ non-bank subsidiaries are also subject to regulation by various federal and state agencies, such as the SEC and FINRA in the case of our broker-dealer subsidiaries, Regions Securities LLC and BlackArch Securities LLC.
We are also subject to the disclosure and regulatory requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, as administered by the SEC. Our common stock and depository shares representing our outstanding preferred stock are each listed on the NYSE. Consequently, we are also subject to the NYSE’s rules for listed companies.
 Under Section 165 of the Dodd-Frank Act, as amended by EGRRCPA, which was signed into law on May 24, 2018, U.S. BHCs with total consolidated assets of $100 billion or more but less than $250 billion, including Regions, are currently subject to enhanced prudential standards. The enhanced prudential standards include risk-based capital and leverage requirements, liquidity standards, risk management and risk committee requirements, stress test requirements and a debt-to-equity limit for companies that the FSOC has determined would pose a grave threat to systemic financial stability were they to fail such limits. In general, EGRRCPA increased the statutory asset threshold above which the Federal Reserve is required to apply these enhanced prudential standards from $50 billion to $250 billion. Although EGRRCPA’s increased asset threshold took effect immediately for BHCs with total consolidated assets less than $100 billion, the increased asset threshold for BHCs with total consolidated assets of $100 billion or more but less than $250 billion, including Regions, generally will become effective 18 months after the date of enactment (that is, November 2019). The Federal Reserve is authorized, however, during that 18-month period to exempt, by order, any BHC with assets between $100 billion and $250 billion from any enhanced prudential standard requirement. The Federal Reserve is also authorized to apply any enhanced prudential standard requirement to any BHC with between $100 billion and $250 billion in total consolidated assets that would otherwise be exempt under EGRRCPA, if the Federal Reserve determines that such action is appropriate to address risks to financial stability and promote safety and soundness, taking into consideration certain factors including the BHC’s capital structure, riskiness, complexity, financial activities (including financial activities of subsidiaries), size, and any other risk-related factors that the Federal Reserve deems appropriate. BHCs with $250 billion or more in total consolidated assets remain fully subject to the Dodd-Frank Act’s enhanced prudential standards requirements.
In October 2018, pursuant to the discretion afforded them with respect to BHCs with assets between $100 billion and $250 billion, the Federal Reserve and the other Federal bank regulators proposed rules that would tailor the application of the enhanced prudential standards to BHCs and depository institutions per the EGRRCPA amendments (the “Tailoring NPRs”). The Tailoring NPRs would assign each U.S. BHC with $100 billion or more in total consolidated assets, as well as its bank subsidiaries, to one

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of four categories based on its size and five risk-based indicators: (1) cross-jurisdictional activity, (2) weighted short-term wholesale funding, (3) non-bank assets, (4) off-balance sheet exposure, and (5) status as a U.S. global systemically important BHC (“G-SIB”). Under the Tailoring NPRs, Category IV standards would apply to banking organizations with at least $100 billion in total consolidated assets that do not meet any of the thresholds specified for Categories I through III.
The Federal Reserve staff indicated in connection with the Tailoring NPRs the firms that would fall into each of the four Categories based on data for the second quarter of 2018. According to the Federal Reserve’s projections, Regions (and, pursuant to the proposed rules, its depository institution subsidiary, Regions Bank) would be a “Category IV” firm under each of the Tailoring NPRs, although the thresholds for each of the four categories could change in the final rules. Firms that would be subject to Category IV standards, such as Regions and Regions Bank, would generally be subject to the same capital and liquidity requirements as firms with less than $100 billion in total consolidated assets, but would also be required to monitor and report certain risk-based indicators. Accordingly, under the Tailoring NPRs, Category IV firms would, among other things, (1) no longer be subject to any LCR or proposed NSFR requirement, (2) no longer be subject to company-run capital stress testing requirements and (3) become subject to supervisory capital stress testing on a biennial instead of annual basis. The Tailoring NPRs are subject to modification through the federal rulemaking process in accordance with the Administrative Procedures Act. A chart summarizing key elements of the capital, liquidity and enhanced prudential standards requirements applicable to Regions should the Tailoring NPRs be adopted is included immediately below, and elements of the Tailoring NPRs are discussed in further detail throughout this section.
Application under Tailoring NPRs of Certain Enhanced Prudential Standards, Capital and Liquidity Requirements to Regions
 
Current
Assuming Adoption of Tailoring NPR and Assignment to Category IV
CAPITAL
Stress Testing: Company-Run (DFAST)
ü
(Annual)
û
Stress Testing: Supervisory
ü
(Annual)
ü
(Two-Year Cycle)
CCAR: Quantitative
ü
(Annual)
ü
(Two-Year Cycle)
Annual Capital Plan Submission
ü
ü
Opt-Out of AOCI Capital Impact
ü
ü
Generally Applicable Leverage Ratio
ü
ü
LIQUIDITY
LCR
ü
(Modified)
û
NSFR (Proposed)
ü
(Modified)
û
Liquidity Stress Tests
ü
(Monthly)
ü
(Quarterly)
Liquidity Risk Management
ü
ü
Liquidity Buffer
ü
ü
FR 2052a Reporting
ü
(Monthly)
ü
(Monthly)
CERTAIN OTHER ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS
Risk Committee
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Risk Management
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    The Tailoring NPR does not amend the Federal Reserve’s capital plan rule, but the Federal Reserve indicated that it expects to release a future proposal to do so, consistent with the changes to its stress testing rules.
Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, as amended by EGRRCPA, BHCs with total consolidated assets of $100 billion or more, such as Regions, are required to submit resolution plans to the Federal Reserve and FDIC providing for the company’s strategy for rapid and orderly resolution in the event of its material financial distress or failure. Regions submitted its most recent resolution plan to these agencies in December 2017 and Regions Bank submitted its most recent resolution plan in June 2018. If the Federal Reserve and the FDIC determine that these plans are not credible and we do not cure the deficiencies, the Federal Reserve and the FDIC may jointly impose more stringent capital, leverage or liquidity requirements or restrictions on growth, activities or operations

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of the Company or Regions Bank or may jointly order the Company or Regions Bank to divest assets or operations to facilitate an orderly resolution in the event of failure. Currently, Regions is required to submit a resolution plan by December 31, 2019, and Regions Bank will not be required to submit a resolution plan before July 1, 2020; however, in connection with the release of the Tailoring NPRs, the Federal Reserve noted that it expects to release a separate proposal to amend, with the FDIC, their joint resolution plan rule to address the applicability of resolution plan requirements for U.S. BHCs with between $100 billion and $250 billion in total consolidated assets, including Regions, and to adjust the scope and applicability of resolution plan requirements for firms that remain subject to them.
The ultimate benefits or consequences of EGRRCPA and the Tailoring NPRs on Regions, Regions Bank and their respective subsidiaries and activities will be subject to the final form of the Tailoring NPRs and additional rulemakings issued by the Federal Reserve and other federal regulators. Regions cannot predict future changes in the applicable laws, regulations and regulatory agency policies, yet such changes may have a material impact on Regions’ business, financial condition or results of operations. We will continue to evaluate the impact of any changes in law and any new regulations promulgated, including changes in regulatory costs and fees, modifications to consumer products or disclosures required by the CFPB and the requirements of the enhanced supervision provisions, among others.
On February 5, 2019 the Federal Reserve provided relief to BHCs with assets between $100 billion and $250 billion, including Regions, in the form of a one-year extension to the requirement to submit a capital plan to the Federal Reserve. Thus, Regions must submit a capital plan to the Federal Reserve by April 5, 2020, rather than April 5, 2019. In addition, Regions is not subject to the supervisory capital stress testing or the company-run capital stress testing requirements for 2019. However, Regions is still required to maintain a capital plan that is reviewed and approved by Regions’ Board of Directors. Furthermore, while Regions is not required to submit a full capital plan to the Federal Reserve in 2019, the Company is required to submit its planned capital actions for the period between July 1, 2019 and June 30, 2020. The Federal Reserve has announced that for the period from July 1, 2019 through June 30, 2020, Regions, like other firms granted an extension, is approved to make capital distributions up to the amount that would have allowed the firm to remain above all minimum capital requirements in CCAR 2018, adjusted for any changes in Regions’ regulatory capital ratios since the Federal Reserve acted on Regions’ 2018 capital plan.
Permissible Activities under the BHC Act
In general, the BHC Act limits the activities permissible for BHCs to the business of banking, managing or controlling banks and such other activities as the Federal Reserve has determined to be so closely related to banking as to be properly incidental thereto. A BHC electing to be treated as a FHC, like Regions, may also engage in a range of activities that are (i) financial in nature or incidental to such financial activity or (ii) complementary to a financial activity and that do not pose a substantial risk to the safety and soundness of a depository institution or to the financial system generally. These activities include securities dealing, underwriting and market making, insurance underwriting and agency activities, merchant banking and insurance company portfolio investments.
For a BHC to be eligible to elect FHC status, all of its subsidiary insured depository institutions must be well-capitalized and well-managed as described below under “-Regulatory Remedies under the FDIA” and must have received at least a satisfactory rating on such institution’s most recent examination under the CRA. The BHC itself must also be well-capitalized and well-managed in order to be eligible to elect FHC status. If an FHC fails to continue to be well-capitalized or well-managed after engaging in activities not permissible for BHCs that have not elected to be treated as financial holding companies, the company must enter into an agreement with the Federal Reserve to comply with all applicable capital and management requirements. If the company does not return to compliance within 180 days, the Federal Reserve may order the company to divest its subsidiary banks or the company may be required to discontinue or divest investments in companies engaged in activities permissible only for a BHC electing to be treated as an FHC. Furthermore, if the Federal Reserve determines that an FHC has not maintained a CRA rating of at least "satisfactory," the FHC would not be able to commence any new financial activities or acquire a company that engages in such activities, although the FHC would still be allowed to engage in activities closely related to banking and make investments in the ordinary course of conducting banking activities.
The BHC Act does not place territorial restrictions on permissible non-banking activities of BHCs. The Federal Reserve has the power to order any BHC or its subsidiaries to terminate any activity or to terminate its ownership or control of any subsidiary when the Federal Reserve has reasonable grounds to believe that continuation of such activity or such ownership or control constitutes a serious risk to the financial soundness, safety or stability of any bank subsidiary of the BHC.
Capital Requirements
Regions and Regions Bank are each required to comply with applicable capital adequacy standards established by the Federal Reserve, which are based on the Basel III framework.
The Basel III-based U.S. capital rules, among other things, impose a capital measure called Common Equity Tier 1 Capital, or CET1 capital, to which most deductions/adjustments to regulatory capital measures must be made. In addition, the Basel III-based U.S. capital rules specify that Tier 1 capital consists of CET1 and “Additional Tier 1 capital” instruments meeting certain specified requirements.
Under the U.S. Basel III-based capital rules, the minimum capital ratios are:

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4.5% CET1 capital to risk-weighted assets;
6.0% tier 1 capital (that is, CET1 capital plus additional tier 1 capital) to risk-weighted assets;
8.0% total capital (that is, tier 1 capital plus tier 2 capital) to risk-weighted assets; and
4.0% tier 1 capital to total average consolidated assets as defined under U.S. Basel III Standardized approach (known as the “leverage ratio”).
The U.S. capital rules also impose a capital conservation buffer (“CCB”) on top of the three minimum risk-weighted asset ratios listed above. As of January 1, 2019, the CCB has been fully phased-in and is 2.5%. Banking institutions that fail to meet the effective minimum ratios once the CCB is taken into account (that is, 7.0% for CET1 capital to risk-weighted assets, 8.5% for tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets and 10.5% for total capital to risk-weighted assets) will be subject to constraints on capital distributions, including dividends and share repurchases, and certain discretionary executive compensation. The severity of the constraints depends on the amount of the shortfall and the institution’s “eligible retained income” (that is, four quarter trailing net income, net of distributions and tax effects not reflected in net income). On April 10, 2018, the Federal Reserve issued a proposal designed to create a single, integrated capital requirement by combining the quantitative assessment of firms’ capital plans with the CCB requirement. Details of this proposal are discussed under “- Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review and Stress Testing” below. Although the proposal, if adopted, would change the way in which the minimum ratios are calculated, firms would continue to be subject to progressively more stringent constraints on capital actions as they approach the minimum ratios.
For more information, see the “Regulatory Requirements” section of Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Leverage Requirements
BHCs and banks are also required to comply with minimum leverage capital requirements. These requirements provide for a minimum ratio of Tier 1 capital to total consolidated average tangible assets (as defined for regulatory purposes), called the “leverage ratio,” of 4.0% for all BHCs.
Liquidity Requirements
Liquidity risk management and supervision have become increasingly important since the financial crisis. In addition to the liquidity buffer requirement, Regions is currently subject to the federal banking agencies’ rules implementing Basel III’s LCR, which is designed to ensure that a covered bank or BHC maintains an adequate level of unencumbered high-quality liquid assets under an acute 30-day liquidity stress scenario. The LCR rule, following the threshold amendments under EGRRCPA, currently applies in a modified, less stringent, form to BHCs, such as Regions, having $100 billion or more but less than $250 billion in total consolidated assets and less than $10 billion in total on-balance sheet foreign exposure. Since January 1, 2017, the rule has been fully phased-in. Regions is required to calculate its LCR on a monthly basis. If a covered company fails to meet the required LCR, it must promptly notify its primary federal banking regulator and may be required to take remedial actions. In December 2016, the Federal Reserve issued a final rule that requires BHCs currently subject to the LCR rule, such as Regions, to disclose publicly, on a quarterly basis, quantitative and qualitative information about certain components of its LCR beginning with the fourth quarter of 2018 for modified LCR BHCs such as Regions. At December 31, 2018, Regions’ LCR was above the minimum requirement. As noted above, under the Tailoring NPRs, Category IV firms, including Regions, would no longer be subject to any LCR requirement.
In addition to LCR, the Basel III framework also included a second standard, referred to as the NSFR, which is designed to promote more medium- and long-term funding of the assets and activities of banks over a one-year time horizon. In May 2016, the U.S. banking regulators issued a proposed rule to implement the NSFR for large U.S. banking organizations. Under the 2016 proposal, BHCs with less than $250 billion, but more than $50 billion, in total consolidated assets and less than $10 billion in on-balance sheet foreign exposure, such as Regions, would have been subject to a less stringent modified NSFR requirement. As proposed, the NSFR rule would have taken effect on January 1, 2018; however, the U.S. banking regulators have not issued the final rule. As noted above, under the Tailoring NPRs, Category IV firms, including Regions, would no longer be subject to any NSFR requirement.
Under the Tailoring NPRs, Category IV firms, including Regions, would remain subject to liquidity risk management requirements, but these requirements would be tailored such that these firms would be required to: (i) calculate collateral positions monthly, as opposed to weekly as is currently required; (ii) establish a more limited set of liquidity risk limits than are currently required; and (iii) monitor fewer elements of intraday liquidity risk exposures than are currently monitored. These firms would also be subject to liquidity stress testing quarterly, rather than monthly, and would be required to report liquidity data on the FR 2052a on a monthly basis. The liquidity buffer requirements for these firms would not change.

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Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review and Stress Testing
The Federal Reserve currently conducts annual analyses of BHCs with at least $100 billion in total consolidated assets to determine whether the companies have sufficient capital on a consolidated basis necessary to absorb losses in baseline, adverse and severely adverse economic conditions (although, in light of EGRRCPA’s eliminating the statutory requirement for the adverse scenario, on January 8, 2019, the Federal Reserve proposed amendments to its stress testing rules that would, among other things, eliminate the adverse scenario). Regions is also currently required to conduct its own semi-annual stress analysis to assess the potential impact on Regions of the economic and financial conditions used as part of the Federal Reserve’s annual stress analysis. Under the Tailoring NPRs, Category IV firms, including Regions, would be subject to supervisory stress testing every other year, rather than annually, and would no longer be subject to company-run stress testing requirements, but would remain subject to the quantitative review of their capital plans under CCAR, to required capital plan submissions, and to the FR Y-14 reporting requirements.
U.S. BHCs with total consolidated assets of $100 billion or more, such as Regions, must develop and maintain a capital plan, and must submit the capital plan to the Federal Reserve as part of the Federal Reserve’s CCAR process. The CCAR process is intended to help ensure that these BHCs have robust, forward-looking capital planning processes that account for each company’s unique risks and that permit continued operations during times of economic and financial stress. In connection with the release of the Tailoring NPRs, the Federal Reserve noted that it expects to revise its guidance relating to capital planning to align with the proposed categories of standards set forth in the Tailoring NPRs, and the impact of the future proposal on Regions and its capital planning process will depend on the final form of the Federal Reserve’s revised guidance.
As noted above, on April 10, 2018, the Federal Reserve issued a proposal designed to create a single, integrated capital requirement by combining the quantitative assessment of CCAR with the CCB requirement. If adopted, the proposal would replace the current static 2.5% CCB with a SCB requirement. The SCB, subject to a minimum of 2.5%, would reflect stressed losses in the supervisory severely adverse scenario of the Federal Reserve’s supervisory stress tests and would also include four quarters of planned common stock dividends. The proposal would also introduce a SLB requirement, similar to the SCB, which would apply to the Tier 1 leverage ratio. In addition, the proposal would eliminate the quantitative objection provisions of CCAR but would require a BHC to reduce its planned capital distributions if those distributions would not be consistent with the applicable capital buffer constraints based on the BHC’s own baseline scenario projections. The Federal Reserve has stated that it intends to propose revisions to the stress buffer requirements that would be applicable to Category IV BHCs to align with the proposed two-year supervisory stress testing cycle for Category IV BHCs.
In addition to other limitations, our ability to make any capital distributions (including dividends and share repurchases) is contingent on the Federal Reserve's non-objection to our capital plan. Should the Federal Reserve object to a capital plan, a BHC may not make any capital distribution other than those capital distributions to which the Federal Reserve has indicated its non-objection in writing. As a result of a final rule adopted by the Federal Reserve in January 2017, beginning with the 2017 CCAR cycle, the Federal Reserve may no longer object on the basis of qualitative criteria to capital plans submitted by BHCs that have total consolidated assets of at least $50 billion but less than $250 billion, non-bank assets of less than $75 billion, and that are not U.S. global-systemically important banks, such as Regions. Our annual capital planning submission is currently due by April 5th and the Federal Reserve will publish the results of its supervisory CCAR review of our capital plan by June 30th of each year. As noted above, the Tailoring NPR, which would change the supervisory stress testing cycle from annual to biennial, would not similarly amend the Federal Reserve’s capital plan rule, but the Federal Reserve indicated that it expects to release a future proposal to do so.
Safety and Soundness Standards
The FDIA requires the federal banking agencies to take prompt corrective action in respect of depository institutions that do not meet specified capital requirements. The FDIA establishes five capital categories (“well-capitalized,” “adequately capitalized,” “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized” and “critically undercapitalized”), and the federal banking agencies must take certain mandatory supervisory actions, and are authorized to take other discretionary actions, with respect to institutions that are undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized or critically undercapitalized. The severity of these mandatory and discretionary supervisory actions depends upon the capital category in which the institution is placed. Generally, subject to a narrow exception, the FDIA requires the banking regulator to appoint a receiver or conservator for an institution that is critically undercapitalized. As of December 31, 2018, both Regions and Regions Bank were well-capitalized.
An institution that is classified as well-capitalized based on its capital levels may be treated as adequately capitalized, and an institution that is adequately capitalized or undercapitalized based upon its capital levels may be treated as though it were undercapitalized or significantly undercapitalized, respectively, if the appropriate federal banking agency, after notice and opportunity for hearing, determines that an unsafe or unsound condition or an unsafe or unsound practice warrants such treatment.
An institution that is categorized as undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized or critically undercapitalized is required to submit an acceptable capital restoration plan to its appropriate federal banking regulator. Under the FDIA, in order for the capital restoration plan to be accepted by the appropriate federal banking agency, a BHC must guarantee that a subsidiary depository

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institution will comply with its capital restoration plan, subject to certain limitations. The BHC must also provide appropriate assurances of performance.
The FDIA requires the various regulatory agencies to prescribe certain non-capital standards for safety and soundness relating generally to operations and management, asset quality, and executive compensation and permits regulatory action against a financial institution that does not meet such standards. Regulators also must take into consideration: (i) concentrations of credit risk; (ii) interest rate risk (when the interest rate sensitivity of an institution’s assets does not match the sensitivity of its liabilities or its off-balance sheet position); and (iii) risks from non-traditional activities, as well as an institution’s ability to manage those risks, when determining the adequacy of an institution’s capital. Regulators make this evaluation as a part of their regular examination of the institution’s safety and soundness. Additionally, regulators may choose to examine other factors in order to evaluate the safety and soundness of financial institutions.
Payment of Dividends
We are a legal entity separate and distinct from our banking and other subsidiaries. The principal source of cash flow to us, including cash flow to pay dividends to our stockholders and principal and interest on any of our outstanding debt, is dividends from Regions Bank. There are statutory and regulatory limitations on the payment of dividends by Regions Bank to us, as well as by us to our stockholders.
If, in the opinion of a federal bank regulatory agency, an institution under its jurisdiction is engaged in or is about to engage in an unsafe or unsound practice, such agency may require, after notice and hearing, that such institution cease and desist from such practice. The federal bank regulatory agencies have indicated that paying dividends that deplete an institution’s capital base to an inadequate level would be an unsafe and unsound banking practice. Under the FDIA, an insured institution may not pay a dividend if payment would cause it to become undercapitalized or if it already is undercapitalized. See “-Safety and Soundness Standards” above. Moreover, the Federal Reserve and the FDIC have issued policy statements stating that BHCs and insured banks should generally pay dividends only out of current operating earnings.
Payment of Dividends by Regions Bank. Under the Federal Reserve’s Regulation H, Regions Bank may not, without approval of the Federal Reserve, declare or pay a dividend to us if the total of all dividends declared in a calendar year exceeds the total of (a) Regions Bank’s net income for that year and (b) its retained net income for the preceding two calendar years, less any required transfers to additional paid-in capital or to a fund for the retirement of preferred stock.
Under Alabama law, Regions Bank may not pay a dividend in excess of 90% of its net earnings unless its surplus is equal to at least 20% of capital. Regions Bank is also required by Alabama law to seek the approval of the Alabama Superintendent of Banking prior to the payment of dividends if the total of all dividends declared by Regions Bank in any calendar year will exceed the total of (a) Regions Bank’s net earnings for that year, plus (b) its retained net earnings for the preceding two years, less any required transfers to surplus. The statute defines net earnings as the remainder of all earnings from current operations plus actual recoveries on loans and investments and other assets, after deducting from the total thereof all current operating expenses, actual losses, accrued dividends on preferred stock, if any, and all federal, state and local taxes. Regions Bank cannot, without approval from the Federal Reserve and the Alabama Superintendent of Banking, declare or pay a dividend to Regions unless Regions Bank is able to satisfy the criteria discussed above.
Payment of Dividends by Regions. Our payment of dividends to our stockholders is subject to the oversight of the Federal Reserve. In particular, the dividend policies and share repurchases of a large BHC, such as Regions, are reviewed by the Federal Reserve based on capital plans submitted as part of the CCAR process and stress tests as submitted by the BHC, and will be assessed against, among other things, the BHC’s ability to achieve the required capital ratios under the Basel III Rules as they are phased in by U.S. regulators. See “-Capital Requirements” and “-Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review and Stress Testing” above.
Support of Subsidiary Banks
Under longstanding Federal Reserve policy, which has been codified by the Dodd-Frank Act, Regions is expected to act as a source of financial strength to, and to commit resources to support, its subsidiary bank. This support may be required at times when Regions may not be inclined to provide it. In addition, any capital loans by a BHC to its subsidiary bank are subordinate in right of payment to deposits and to certain other indebtedness of such subsidiary bank. In the event of a BHC’s bankruptcy, any commitment by the BHC to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to a priority of payment.
Transactions with Affiliates
Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act and the Federal Reserve’s Regulation W restrict transactions between a bank and its affiliates, including a parent BHC. Regions Bank is subject to these restrictions, which include quantitative and qualitative limits on the amounts and types of transactions that may take place, including extensions of credit to affiliates, investments in the stock or securities of affiliates, purchases of assets from affiliates and certain other transactions with affiliates. These restrictions also require that credit transactions with affiliates be collateralized and that transactions with affiliates be on market

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terms or better for the bank. Generally, a bank’s covered transactions with any affiliate are limited to 10% of the bank’s capital stock and surplus and covered transactions with all affiliates are limited to 20% of the bank’s capital stock and surplus.
Deposit Insurance
Regions Bank accepts deposits, and those deposits have the benefit of FDIC insurance up to the applicable limits. Under the FDIA, insurance of deposits may be terminated by the FDIC upon a finding that the insured depository institution has engaged in unsafe and unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order or condition imposed by a bank’s federal regulatory agency.
Deposit Insurance Assessments. Regions Bank pays deposit insurance premiums to the FDIC based on an assessment rate established by the FDIC. FDIC assessment rates for large institutions that have more than $10 billion in assets, such as Regions Bank, are calculated based on a “scorecard” methodology that seeks to capture both the probability that an individual large institution will fail and the magnitude of the impact on the deposit insurance fund if such a failure occurs, based primarily on the difference between the institution’s average of total assets and average tangible equity. The FDIC has the ability to make discretionary adjustments to the total score, up or down, based upon significant risk factors that are not adequately captured in the scorecard. For large institutions, including Regions Bank, after accounting for potential base-rate adjustments, the total base assessment rate could range from 1.5 to 40 basis points on an annualized basis.
The FDIA established a minimum ratio of the DIF to estimated insured deposits of 1.15% prior to September 2020 and 1.35% thereafter. Beginning July 1, 2016, the FDIC imposed a surcharge on the quarterly assessments of insured depository institutions with total consolidated assets of $10 billion or more, such as Regions Bank, that continued through September 30, 2018, when the reserve ratio of the DIF first reached 1.36%, exceeding the future statutorily required minimum of 1.35%. Because the statutory minimum was reached, the surcharge no longer applies. The surcharge was enacted to continue through the earlier of the quarter that the DIF first reaches or exceeds 1.35% or December 31, 2018. During 2018, the DIF reached the 1.35% minimum and the surcharge was discontinued beginning with the fourth quarter of 2018 assessment. During 2018, Regions Bank’s total FDIC insurance assessments and surcharge were $85 million, a $23 million decrease from 2017. We cannot predict whether, as a result of an adverse change in economic conditions or other reasons, the FDIC will increase deposit insurance assessment levels in the future.
For more information, see the “FDIC Insurance Assessments” section of Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Acquisitions
The BHC Act requires every BHC to obtain the prior approval of the Federal Reserve before: (i) it may acquire direct or indirect ownership or control of any voting shares of any bank or savings and loan association, if after such acquisition, the BHC will directly or indirectly own or control 5% or more of the voting shares of the institution; (ii) it or any of its subsidiaries, other than a bank, may acquire all or substantially all of the assets of any bank or savings and loan association; or (iii) it may merge or consolidate with any other BHC. FHCs with consolidated assets exceeding $50 billion must obtain prior approval from the Federal Reserve before acquiring certain non-bank financial companies with assets exceeding $10 billion. FHCs seeking approval to complete an acquisition must be well-capitalized and well-managed. Currently, BHCs with consolidated assets exceeding $50 billion must also provide prior written notice to the Federal Reserve before acquiring direct or indirect ownership or control of any voting shares of any company having consolidated assets of $10 billion or more. EGRRCPA amended this requirement to apply only to BHCs with consolidated assets exceeding $250 billion, effective November 24, 2019.
The BHC Act further provides that the Federal Reserve may not approve any transaction that would result in a monopoly or would be in furtherance of any combination or conspiracy to monopolize or attempt to monopolize the business of banking in any section of the U.S., or the effect of which may be substantially to lessen competition or to tend to create a monopoly in any section of the country, or that in any other manner would be in restraint of trade, unless the anticompetitive effects of the proposed transaction are clearly outweighed by the public interest in meeting the convenience and needs of the community to be served. The Federal Reserve is also required to consider the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the BHCs and banks impacted and the convenience and needs of the community to be served. Consideration of financial resources generally focuses on capital adequacy, and the consideration of convenience and needs of the community to be served includes the parties’ performance under the CRA. The Federal Reserve must also take into account the institutions’ effectiveness in combating money laundering. In addition, pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, the BHC Act was amended to require the Federal Reserve to, when evaluating a proposed transaction, consider the extent to which the transaction would result in greater or more concentrated risks to the stability of the U.S. banking or financial system.
Depositor Preference
Under federal law, claims of depositors and certain claims for both administrative expenses and employee compensation against an insured depository institution would be afforded a priority over other general unsecured claims against such an institution in the “liquidation or other resolution” of such an institution by any receiver.

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Volcker Rule
The Dodd-Frank Act prohibits banks and their affiliates from engaging in proprietary trading and investing in, sponsoring and having certain relationships with private funds such as hedge funds or private equity funds that would be considered an investment company for purposes of the Volcker Rule. The final rules implementing the Volcker Rule also require that large BHCs, such as Regions, design and implement compliance programs to ensure adherence to the Volcker Rule’s prohibitions. Development and monitoring of the required compliance program may require the expenditure of resources and management attention. In July 2018, the Federal Reserve, OCC, FDIC, CFTC and SEC issued a notice of proposed rulemaking intended to tailor the application of the Volcker Rule based on the size and scope of a banking entity’s trading activities and to clarify and amend certain definitions, requirements and exemptions. The ultimate impact of any amendments to the Volcker Rule will depend on, among other things, further rulemaking and implementation guidance from the relevant U.S. federal regulatory agencies and the development of market practices and standards.
Consumer Protection Laws
We are subject to a number of federal and state consumer protection laws, including laws designed to protect customers and promote lending to various sectors of the economy and population. These laws include, but are not limited to, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act, and their respective state law counterparts.
The CFPB has broad rulemaking, supervisory and enforcement powers under various federal consumer financial protection laws, including the laws referenced above, fair lending laws and certain other statutes. The CFPB has finalized a number of significant rules, including rules that impact nearly every aspect of the lifecycle of a residential mortgage loan. The CFPB also has examination and primary enforcement authority with respect to depository institutions with $10 billion or more in assets, including the authority to prevent unfair, deceptive or abusive practices in connection with the offering of consumer financial products.
Additionally, the Dodd-Frank Act permits states to adopt consumer protection laws and standards that are more stringent than those adopted at the federal level and, in certain circumstances, permits state attorneys general to enforce compliance with both the state and federal laws and regulations.
Financial Privacy and Cybersecurity
The federal banking regulators have adopted rules that limit the ability of banks and other financial institutions to disclose non-public information about consumers to non-affiliated third parties. These limitations require disclosure of privacy policies to consumers and, in some circumstances, allow consumers to prevent disclosure of certain personal information to a non-affiliated third party. These regulations affect how consumer information is used in diversified financial companies and conveyed to outside vendors. In addition, consumers may also prevent disclosure of certain information among affiliated companies that is assembled or used to determine eligibility for a product or service, such as that shown on consumer credit reports and application information. Consumers also have the option to direct banks and other financial institutions not to share information about transactions and experiences with affiliated companies for the purpose of marketing products or services.
The federal banking regulators regularly issue guidance regarding cybersecurity intended to enhance cyber risk management standards among financial institutions. A financial institution is expected to establish multiple lines of defense and to ensure their risk management processes address the risk posed by potential threats to the institution. A financial institution’s management is expected to maintain sufficient processes to effectively respond and recover the institution’s operations after a cyber-attack. A financial institution is also expected to develop appropriate processes to enable recovery of data and business operations if a critical service provider of the institution falls victim to this type of cyber-attack. The Regions Information Security Program reflects the requirements of this guidance.
State regulators have also been increasingly active in implementing privacy and cybersecurity standards and regulations. Recently, several states have adopted regulations requiring certain financial institutions to implement cybersecurity programs and providing detailed requirements with respect to these programs, including data encryption requirements. Many states have also recently implemented or modified their data breach notification and data privacy requirements. We expect this trend of state-level activity in those areas to continue, and are continually monitoring developments in the states in which our customers are located.
Community Reinvestment Act
Regions Bank is subject to the provisions of the CRA. Under the terms of the CRA, Regions Bank has a continuing and affirmative obligation, consistent with safe and sound operation, to help meet the credit needs of its communities, including providing credit to individuals residing in low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. The CRA requires each appropriate federal bank regulatory agency, in connection with its examination of a depository institution, to assess such institution’s record in assessing and meeting the credit needs of the community served by that institution, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. The regulatory agency’s assessment is part of the Federal Reserve’s consideration of applications by a bank or BHC to acquire, merge or consolidate with another banking institution or its holding company, to establish a new branch office that will accept deposits or to relocate an office. In the case of a BHC applicant, the Federal Reserve will assess the records of each subsidiary

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depository institution of the applicant BHC, and such records may be the basis for denying the application. In April 2018, the U.S. Department of Treasury issued a memorandum to the Federal banking regulators with recommended changes to the CRA’s implementing regulations to reduce their complexity and associated burden on banks. We will continue to evaluate the impact of any changes to the regulations implementing the CRA.
Compensation Practices
Our compensation practices are subject to oversight by the Federal Reserve. The federal banking regulators have provided guidance designed to ensure that incentive compensation arrangements at banking organizations take into account risk and are consistent with safe and sound practices. The guidance sets forth the following three key principles with respect to incentive compensation arrangements: (i) the arrangements should provide employees with incentives that appropriately balance risk and financial results in a manner that does not encourage employees to expose their organizations to imprudent risk; (ii) the arrangements should be compatible with effective controls and risk management; and (iii) the arrangements should be supported by strong corporate governance. The guidance provides that supervisory findings with respect to incentive compensation will be incorporated, as appropriate, into the organization’s supervisory ratings, which can affect its ability to make acquisitions or perform other actions. The guidance also provides that enforcement actions may be taken against a banking organization if its incentive compensation arrangements or related risk management, control or governance processes pose a risk to the organization’s safety and soundness.
Anti-Money Laundering
A continued focus of governmental policy relating to financial institutions in recent years has been combating money laundering and terrorist financing. The USA PATRIOT Act broadened the application of anti-money laundering regulations to apply to additional types of financial institutions such as broker-dealers, investment advisors and insurance companies, and strengthened the ability of the U.S. Government to help prevent, detect and prosecute international money laundering and the financing of terrorism. The principal provisions of Title III of the USA PATRIOT Act require that regulated financial institutions, including state member banks: (i) establish an anti-money laundering program that includes training and audit components; (ii) comply with regulations regarding the verification of the identity of any person seeking to open an account; (iii) take additional required precautions with non-U.S. owned accounts; and (iv) perform certain verification and certification of money laundering risk for their foreign correspondent banking relationships. Failure of a financial institution to comply with the USA PATRIOT Act’s requirements could have serious legal and reputational consequences for the institution. Regions’ banking subsidiary has augmented its systems and procedures to meet the requirements of these regulations and will continue to revise and update their policies, procedures and controls to reflect changes required by the USA PATRIOT Act and implementing regulations. The USA PATRIOT Act also requires federal banking regulators to evaluate the effectiveness of an applicant in combating money laundering in determining whether to approve a proposed bank acquisition.
In May 2016, FinCEN, which drafts regulations implementing the USA PATRIOT Act and other anti-money laundering and Bank Secrecy Act legislation, issued final rules that require financial institutions to obtain beneficial ownership information with respect to legal entities with which such institutions conduct business, subject to certain exclusions and exemptions, and financial institutions that are subject to these final rules, including Regions, were required to comply by May 2018. Bank regulators are focusing their examinations on anti-money laundering compliance, and we continue to monitor and augment, where necessary, our anti-money laundering compliance programs.
Office of Foreign Assets Control Regulation
The U.S. has imposed economic sanctions that affect transactions with designated foreign countries, nationals and others. These are typically known as the “OFAC” rules based on their administration by the U.S. Treasury Department Office of Foreign Assets Control. The OFAC-administered sanctions targeting countries take many different forms. Generally, however, they contain one or more of the following elements: (i) restrictions on trade with or investment in a sanctioned country, including prohibitions against direct or indirect imports from and exports to a sanctioned country and prohibitions on U.S. persons engaging in financial transactions relating to, making investments in, or providing investment-related advice or assistance to, a sanctioned country; and (ii) a blocking of assets in which the government or specially designated nationals of the sanctioned country have an interest, by prohibiting transfers of property subject to U.S. jurisdiction (including property in the possession or control of U.S. persons). Blocked assets (e.g., property and bank deposits) cannot be paid out, withdrawn, set off or transferred in any manner without a license from OFAC. Failure to comply with these sanctions could have serious legal and reputational consequences.
Regulation of Broker Dealers
Our subsidiaries, Regions Securities LLC and BlackArch Securities LLC, are registered broker-dealers with the SEC and, as a result, are subject to regulation and examination by the SEC, FINRA and other self-regulatory organizations. These regulations cover a broad range of issues, including capital requirements; sales and trading practices; use of client funds and securities; the conduct of directors, officers and employees; record-keeping and recording; supervisory procedures to prevent improper trading on material non-public information; qualification and licensing of sales personnel; and limitations on the extension of credit in securities transactions. In addition to federal registration, state securities commissions require the registration of certain broker-dealers.

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Competition
All aspects of our business are highly competitive. Our subsidiaries compete with other financial institutions located in the states in which they operate and other adjoining states, as well as large banks in major financial centers and other financial intermediaries, such as savings and loan associations, credit unions, Internet banks, finance companies, mutual funds, insurance companies, brokerage and investment banking firms, mortgage companies and financial service operations of major commercial and retail corporations. We expect competition to remain intense among financial services companies given the relatively low interest rate and slower economic environment relative to past economic cycles. Also, future changes in monetary policy , coupled with post-crisis regulatory requirements, may increase competition for certain deposit products.     
Customers for banking services and other financial services offered by our subsidiaries are generally influenced by convenience, quality of service, personal contacts, price of services and availability of products. Although our position varies in different markets, we believe that our affiliates effectively compete with other financial services companies in their relevant market areas.
Employees
As of December 31, 2018, Regions and its subsidiaries had 19,969 full-time equivalent employees.
Available Information
We maintain a website at www.regions.com. We make available on our website, free of charge, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K, including exhibits, and amendments to those reports that are filed with or furnished to the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. These documents are made available on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. These documents are also available, free of charge, on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov. Also available on our website are our (i) Corporate Governance Principles, (ii) Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, (iii) Code of Ethics for Senior Financial Officers, (iv) Fair Disclosure Policy Summary, and (v) the charters of our Audit Committee, Compensation and Human Resources Committee, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, and Risk Committee.


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Item 1A. Risk Factors
An investment in the Company involves risk, some of which, including market, liquidity, credit, operational, legal, compliance, reputational and strategic risks, could be substantial and is inherent in our business. This risk also includes the possibility that the value of the investment could decrease considerably, and dividends or other distributions concerning the investment could be reduced or eliminated. Discussed below are risk factors that could adversely affect our financial results and condition, as well as the value of, and return on investment in the Company.
Risks Related to the Operation of Our Business
Our businesses have been, and may continue to be, adversely affected by conditions in the financial markets and economic conditions generally.
We provide traditional commercial, retail and mortgage banking services, as well as other financial services including asset management, wealth management, securities brokerage, merger-and-acquisition advisory services and other specialty financing. All of our businesses are materially affected by conditions in the financial markets and economic conditions generally or specifically in the Southeastern U.S., the principal markets in which we conduct business. A worsening of business and economic conditions generally or specifically in the principal markets in which we conduct business could have adverse effects on our business, including the following:
A decrease in the demand for, or the availability of, loans and other products and services offered by us;
A decrease in the value of our loans held for sale or other assets secured by consumer or commercial real estate;
An impairment of certain intangible assets, such as goodwill;
A decrease in interest income from variable rate loans, due to declines in interest rates; and
An increase in the number of clients and counterparties who become delinquent, file for protection under bankruptcy laws or default on their loans or other obligations to us, which could result in a higher level of nonperforming assets, net charge-offs, provisions for loan losses, and valuation adjustments on loans held for sale.
In the event of severely adverse business and economic conditions generally or specifically in the principal markets in which we conduct business, there can be no assurance that the federal government and the Federal Reserve would intervene. If economic conditions worsen or volatility increases, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Ineffective liquidity management could adversely affect our financial results and condition.
Effective liquidity management is essential for the operation of our business. We require sufficient liquidity to meet customer loan requests, customer deposit maturities/withdrawals, payments on our debt obligations as they come due and other cash commitments under both normal operating conditions and unpredictable circumstances causing industry or general financial market stress. Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance our activities on terms that are acceptable to us could be impaired by factors that affect us specifically or the financial services industry or economy generally. Factors that could detrimentally impact our access to liquidity sources include a downturn in the geographic markets in which our loans and operations are concentrated or difficult credit markets. Our access to deposits may also be affected by the liquidity needs of our depositors. In particular, a majority of our liabilities during 2018 were checking accounts and other liquid deposits, which are payable on demand or upon several days’ notice, while by comparison, a substantial majority of our assets were loans, which cannot be called or sold in the same time frame. Although we have historically been able to replace maturing deposits and advances as necessary, we might not be able to replace such funds in the future, especially if a large number of our depositors seek to withdraw their accounts, regardless of the reason. A failure to maintain adequate liquidity could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.
Our operations are concentrated in the Southeastern U.S., and adverse changes in the economic conditions in this region can adversely affect our financial results and condition.
Our operations are concentrated in the Southeastern U.S., particularly in the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi and Tennessee. As a result, local economic conditions in the Southeastern U.S. significantly affect the demand for the loans and other products we offer to our customers (including real estate, commercial and construction loans), the ability of borrowers to repay these loans and the value of the collateral securing these loans. Following the financial crisis, the national real estate market experienced a significant decline in value, and the value of real estate in Florida in particular declined significantly more than real estate values in the U.S. as a whole. This decline has had an adverse impact on some of our borrowers and on the value of the collateral securing many of our loans. Although real estate in many geographies has improved, any further declines in the future may affect borrowers and collateral values, which could adversely affect our currently performing loans, leading to future delinquencies or defaults and increases in our provision for loan losses. Further or continued adverse changes in these economic conditions could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.

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Weather-related events and other natural disasters, as well as man-made disasters, could cause a disruption in our operations or other consequences that could have an adverse impact on financial results and condition.
A significant portion of our operations is located in the areas bordering the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean, regions that are susceptible to hurricanes, or in areas of the Southeastern U.S. that are susceptible to tornadoes and other severe weather events. In particular, in recent years, a number of severe Atlantic Ocean hurricanes impacted areas in our footprint. Many areas in the Southeastern U.S. have also experienced severe droughts and floods in recent years. Any of these, or any other severe weather event, could cause disruption to our operations and could have a material adverse effect on our overall business, results of operations or financial condition. While we maintain insurance covering many of these weather-related events, including coverage for lost profits and extra expense, there is no insurance against the disruption that a catastrophic earthquake, fire, hurricane, tornado or other severe weather event could produce to the markets that we serve and the resulting adverse impact on our borrowers to timely repay their loans and the value of any collateral held by us. The severity and impact of future earthquakes, fires, hurricanes, tornadoes, droughts, floods and other weather-related events are difficult to predict and may be exacerbated by global climate change. Man-made disasters and other events connected with the Gulf of Mexico or Atlantic Ocean, such as oil spills, could have similar effects.
If we experience greater credit losses in our loan portfolios than anticipated, our earnings may be materially adversely affected.
As a lender, we are exposed to the risk that our customers will be unable to repay their loans and leases according to their terms and that any collateral securing the payment of their loans and leases may not be sufficient to assure repayment. Credit losses are inherent in the business of making loans and could have a material adverse effect on our operating results.
We make various assumptions and judgments about the collectability of our loan portfolio and provide an allowance for loan losses based on a number of factors. Our management periodically determines the allowance for loan losses based on available information, including the quality of the loan portfolio, economic conditions, the value of the underlying collateral and the level of non-accrual loans. Increases in the allowance will result in an expense for the period, thereby reducing our reported net income. If, as a result of general economic conditions, there is a decrease in asset quality or growth in the loan portfolio, management determines that additional increases in the allowance for loan losses are necessary, we may incur additional expenses which will reduce our net income, and our business, results of operations or financial condition may be materially adversely affected.
Although our management will establish an allowance for loan losses it believes is appropriate to absorb probable and reasonably estimable losses in our loan portfolio, this allowance may not be adequate. For example, if a hurricane or other natural disaster were to occur in one of our principal markets or if economic conditions in those markets were to deteriorate unexpectedly, additional loan losses not incorporated in the existing allowance for loan losses may occur. Losses in excess of the existing allowance for loan losses will reduce our net income and could adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition, perhaps materially.
In addition, bank regulatory agencies will periodically review our allowance for loan losses and the value attributed to non-accrual loans and to real estate acquired through foreclosure. Such regulatory agencies may require us to adjust our determination of the value for these items. These adjustments could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.
As discussed in greater detail below, Accounting Standards Update 2016-13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, is effective January 1, 2020, and will substantially change the accounting for credit losses on loans and other financial assets. The standard removes the existing “probable” threshold in GAAP for recognizing credit losses and instead requires companies to reflect their estimate of credit losses over the life of the financial assets. The adoption of the standard may result in an overall material increase in the allowance for credit losses. However, the impact at adoption will be influenced by the portfolios' composition and quality at the adoption date as well as economic conditions and forecasts at that time.
Weakness in the residential real estate markets could adversely affect our performance.
As of December 31, 2018, consumer residential real estate loans represented approximately 28.3% of our total loan portfolio. Declines in home values would adversely affect the value of collateral securing the residential real estate that we hold, as well as the volume of loan originations and the amount we realize on the sale of real estate loans. These factors could result in higher delinquencies and greater charge-offs in future periods, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Weakness in the commercial real estate markets could adversely affect our performance.
As of December 31, 2018, approximately 7.7% of our loan portfolio consisted of investor real estate loans. The properties securing income-producing investor real estate loans are typically not fully leased at the origination of the loan. The borrower’s ability to repay the loan is instead dependent upon additional leasing through the life of the loan or the borrower’s successful operation of a business. Weak economic conditions may impair a borrower’s business operations and typically slow the execution of new leases. Such economic conditions may also lead to existing lease turnover. As a result of these factors, vacancy rates for retail, office and industrial space may increase. High vacancy rates could also result in rents falling. The combination of these factors could result in deterioration in the fundamentals underlying the commercial real estate market and the deterioration in value

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of some of our loans. Any such deterioration could adversely affect the ability of our borrowers to repay the amounts due under their loans. As a result, our business, results of operations or financial condition may be materially adversely affected.
Risks associated with home equity products where we are in a second lien position could materially adversely affect our performance.
Home equity products, particularly those where we are in a second lien position, and particularly those in certain geographic areas, may carry a higher risk of non-collection than other loans. Home equity lending includes both home equity loans and lines of credit. Of our $9.3 billion home equity portfolio at December 31, 2018, approximately $5.9 billion were home equity lines of credit and $3.4 billion were closed-end home equity loans (primarily originated as amortizing loans). This type of lending, which is secured by a first or second mortgage on the borrower’s residence, allows customers to borrow against the equity in their home. Real estate market values at the time of origination directly affect the amount of credit extended, and, in addition, past and future changes in these values impact the depth of potential losses. Second lien position lending carries higher credit risk because any decrease in real estate pricing may result in the value of the collateral being insufficient to cover the second lien after the first lien position has been satisfied. As of December 31, 2018, approximately $3.1 billion of our home equity lines and loans were in a second lien position.
Weakness in commodity businesses could adversely affect our performance.
Many of our borrowers operate in industries that are directly or indirectly impacted by changes in commodity prices. This includes agriculture, livestock, metals, timber, textiles and energy businesses (including oil, gas and petrochemical), as well as businesses indirectly impacted by commodities prices such as businesses that transport commodities or manufacture equipment used in production of commodities. Changes in commodity products prices depend on local, regional and global events or conditions that affect supply and demand for the relevant commodity. These industries have been, and may in the future be, subject to significant volatility. In addition, legislative changes such as the elimination of certain tax incentives could have significant impacts on this portfolio.
Industry competition may adversely affect our degree of success.
Our profitability depends on our ability to compete successfully. We operate in a highly competitive environment, and we expect competition to remain intense among financial services companies given the relatively low interest rate and slower economic environment relative to past economic cycles. In our market areas, we face competition from other commercial banks, savings and loan associations, credit unions, Internet banks, finance companies, mutual funds, insurance companies, brokerage and investment banking firms, mortgage companies, and other financial intermediaries that offer similar services. Some of our non-bank competitors are not subject to the same extensive regulations we are and, therefore, may have greater flexibility in competing for business. In particular, the activity and prominence of marketplace lenders and other technological financial services companies have grown significantly over recent years and is expected to continue growing, including further entry into offering traditional banking products and the possibility of obtaining bank or bank-like charters, such as the OCC’s fintech charter.
Our ability to compete successfully depends on a number of factors, including customer convenience, quality of service, personal contacts, pricing and range of products. If we are unable to successfully compete for new customers and to retain our current customers, our business, financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected, perhaps materially. In particular, if we experience an outflow of deposits as a result of our customers seeking investments with higher yields or greater financial stability, we may be forced to rely more heavily on borrowings and other sources of funding to operate our business and meet withdrawal demands, thereby adversely affecting our net interest margin and financial performance.
Fluctuations in market interest rates may adversely affect our performance.
Our profitability depends to a large extent on our net interest income and other financing income, which is the difference between the interest income received on interest-earning assets (primarily loans and investment securities) and the interest expense incurred in connection with interest-bearing liabilities (primarily deposits and borrowings). Net interest income and other financing income also includes rental income and depreciation expense associated with operating leases for which Regions is the lessor. The level of net interest income and other financing income is primarily a function of the average balance of interest-earning assets, the average balance of interest-bearing liabilities and the spread between the yield on such assets and the cost of such liabilities. These factors are influenced by both the pricing and mix of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities which, in turn, are impacted by external factors such as the local economy, competition for loans and deposits, the monetary policy of the FOMC and interest rates markets.
The cost of our deposits and short-term wholesale borrowings is largely based on short-term interest rates, the level of which is influenced heavily by the FOMC’s actions. However, the yields generated by our loans and securities are typically driven by both short-term and longer-term interest rates. Longer-term rates are affected by multiple factors including the actions of the FOMC through actions such as quantitative easing or tightening, and the market's expectations for future inflation, growth and other economic considerations. The level of net interest income and other financing income is, therefore, influenced by the overall level of interest rates along with the shape of the yield curve. Interest rate volatility can reduce unrealized gains or create unrealized losses in our portfolios. If the interest rates on our interest-bearing liabilities increase at a faster pace than the interest rates on our interest-earning assets, our net interest income and other financing income may decline.

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Our net interest income and other financing income would be similarly affected if the interest rates on our interest-earning assets declined at a faster pace than the interest rates on our interest-bearing liabilities. Interest rates remain low by historical standards; however, while still low relative to historical standards, increases in short term and long term interest rates since December 2015 have contributed to growth in net interest income and other financing income and the net interest margin.
Our current one-year interest rate sensitivity position is asset sensitive. As a result, an immediate or gradual decrease in rates over a twelve-month period would likely have a negative impact on twelve-month net interest income and other financing income. Conversely, an increasing rate environment would likely have a positive impact on twelve-month net interest income and other financing income. However, increasing rates would also increase debt service requirements for some of our borrowers and may adversely affect those borrowers’ ability to pay as contractually obligated and could result in additional delinquencies or charge-offs. Our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected as a result.
For a more detailed discussion of these risks and our management strategies for these risks, see the “Net Interest Income and Other Financing Income, Margin and Interest Rate Risk,” “Net Interest Income and Other Financing Income and Margin,” “Market Risk-Interest Rate Risk” and “Securities” sections of Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Changes in the method pursuant to which the LIBOR and other benchmark rates are determined could adversely impact our business and results of operations.
Our floating-rate funding, certain hedging transactions and certain of the products that we offer, such as floating-rate loans and mortgages, determine their applicable interest rate or payment amount by reference to a benchmark rate, such as LIBOR, or to an index, currency, basket or other financial metric. LIBOR and certain other benchmark rates are the subject of recent national, international, and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. In July 2017, the Chief Executive of the FCA announced that the FCA intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. This announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after 2021. Consequently, at this time, it is not possible to predict whether and to what extent banks will continue to provide submissions for the calculation of LIBOR. Similarly, it is not possible to predict whether LIBOR will continue to be viewed as an acceptable market benchmark, what rate or rates may become accepted alternatives to LIBOR, or what the effect of any such changes in views or alternatives may be on the markets for LIBOR-linked financial instruments.
Certain of our LIBOR-based financial products and contracts, including, but not limited to, hedging products, debt obligations, investments, and loans, extend beyond 2021. We are in the process of assessing the impact that a cessation or market replacement of LIBOR would have on these various products and contracts.
Any future reductions in our credit ratings may increase our funding costs and place limitations on business activities related to providing credit support to customers.
The major ratings agencies regularly evaluate us, and their ratings are based on a number of factors, including our financial strength and conditions affecting the financial services industry generally. In general, ratings agencies base their ratings on many quantitative and qualitative factors, including capital adequacy, liquidity, asset quality, business mix and level and quality of earnings, and we may not be able to maintain our current credit ratings. The ratings assigned to Regions and Regions Bank remain subject to change at any time, and it is possible that any ratings agency will take action to downgrade Regions, Regions Bank or both in the future. Additionally, ratings agencies may also make substantial changes to their ratings policies and practices, which may affect our credit ratings. In the future, changes to existing ratings guidelines and new ratings guidelines may, among other things, adversely affect the ratings of our securities or other securities in which we have an economic interest.
Regions’ credit ratings can have negative consequences that can impact our ability to access the debt and capital markets, as well as reduce our profitability through increased costs on future debt issuances. In addition, certain customers could be prohibited from placing deposits with Regions Bank. If Regions were to be downgraded below investment grade, we may not be able to reliably access the short-term unsecured funding markets, and certain customers could be prohibited from placing deposits with Regions Bank, which could cause us to hold more cash and liquid investments to meet our ongoing liquidity needs. Such actions could reduce our profitability as these liquid investments earn a lower return than other assets, such as loans. Regions’ liquidity policy requires that the holding company maintain cash sufficient to cover the greater of (i) 18 months of debt service and other cash needs or (ii) a minimum cash balance of $500 million. Although this policy helps protect us against the costs of unexpected adverse funding environments, we cannot guarantee that this policy will be sufficient.
Additionally, if Regions were to be downgraded to below investment grade, certain counterparty contracts may be required to be renegotiated or require the posting of additional collateral. Refer to Note 21 “Derivative Financial Instruments and Hedging Activities - Contingent Features” to the consolidated financial statements of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fair value of contracts subject to contingent credit features and the collateral postings associated with such contracts. Although the exact amount of additional collateral is unknown, it is reasonable to conclude that Regions may be required to post additional collateral related to existing contracts with contingent credit features.

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The value of our goodwill and other intangible assets may decline in the future.
As of December 31, 2018, we had $4.8 billion of goodwill and $115 million of other intangible assets. A significant decline in our expected future cash flows, a significant adverse change in the business climate, slower economic growth or a significant and sustained decline in the price of our common stock, any or all of which could be materially impacted by many of the risk factors discussed herein, may necessitate our taking charges in the future related to the impairment of our goodwill. Future regulatory actions could also have a material impact on assessments of goodwill for impairment. If we were to conclude that a future write-down of our goodwill is necessary, we would record the appropriate charge, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Identifiable intangible assets other than goodwill consist of core deposit intangibles, purchased credit card relationship assets, and the DUS license. Adverse events or circumstances could impact the recoverability of these intangible assets including loss of core deposits, significant losses of credit card accounts and/or balances, increased competition or adverse changes in the economy. To the extent these intangible assets are deemed unrecoverable, a non-cash impairment charge would be recorded, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
The value of our deferred tax assets could adversely affect our operating results and regulatory capital ratios.
As of December 31, 2018, Regions had approximately $20 million in net deferred tax assets (net of valuation allowance of $30 million). Our deferred tax assets are subject to an evaluation of whether it is more likely than not that they will be realized for financial statement purposes. In making this determination, we consider all positive and negative evidence available, including the impact of recent operating results, future reversals of taxable temporary differences, future taxable income exclusive of reversing temporary differences and carryforwards and tax planning strategies. We have determined that the deferred tax assets are more likely than not to be realized at December 31, 2018 (except for $30 million related to state deferred tax assets for which we have established a valuation allowance). If we were to conclude that a significant portion of our deferred tax assets were not more likely than not to be realized, the required valuation allowance could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations and regulatory capital ratios. In addition, the value of our deferred tax assets could be adversely affected by a change in statutory tax rates.
Changes in the soundness of other financial institutions could adversely affect us.
Financial services companies are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty or other relationships. We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and we routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, mutual and hedge funds, and other institutional clients. As a result, defaults by, or even mere speculation about, one or more financial services companies, or the financial services industry generally, may lead to market-wide liquidity problems and could lead to losses or defaults by us or by other institutions. Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of default of our counterparty or client. In addition, our credit risk may be exacerbated if the collateral held by us cannot be realized or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the loan or lease or derivative exposure due us. Any such losses may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our businesses may be adversely affected if we are unable to hire and retain qualified employees.
Our success depends, in part, on our executive officers and other key personnel. The market for qualified individuals is highly competitive, and we may not be able to attract and retain qualified personnel or candidates to replace or succeed members of our senior management team or other key personnel. Our compensation practices are subject to review and oversight by the Federal Reserve, the FDIC and other regulators. As a large financial and banking institution, we may be subject to limitations on compensation practices, which may or may not affect our competitors, by the Federal Reserve, the FDIC or other regulators. These limitations could further affect our ability to attract and retain our executive officers and other key personnel, in particular as we are more often competing for personnel with financial technology providers and other less regulated entities who may not have the same limitations on compensation as we do. For a discussion of proposed rules that may impact our compensation practices, see the “Supervision and Regulation-Compensation Practices” section of Item 1. “Business” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Maintaining or increasing market share may depend on market acceptance and regulatory approval of new products and services.
Our success depends, in part, on the ability to adapt products and services to evolving industry standards. There is increasing pressure to provide products and services at lower prices. This can reduce net interest income and other financing income and non-interest income from fee-based products and services. In addition, the widespread adoption of new technologies could require us to make substantial capital expenditures to modify or adapt existing products and services or develop new products and services. We may not be successful in introducing new products and services in response to industry trends or developments in technology, or those new products may not achieve market acceptance. As a result, we could lose business, be forced to price products and services on less advantageous terms to retain or attract clients, or be subject to cost increases, and our business, financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected.

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We need to stay current on technological changes in order to compete and meet customer demands.
The financial services market, including banking services, is undergoing rapid changes with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. In addition to better serving customers, the effective use of technology increases efficiency and may enable us to reduce costs. Our future success may depend, in part, on our ability to use technology to provide products and services that provide convenience to customers and to create additional efficiencies in our operations. Some of our competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements than we currently have. Further, financial technology providers, who invest substantial resources in developing and designing new technology (in particular digital and mobile technology), are beginning to offer more traditional banking products (either directly or through bank partnerships) and may in the future be able to provide additional services by obtaining a bank-like charter, such as the OCC’s fintech charter. We may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing these products and services to our customers. As a result, our ability to effectively compete to retain or acquire new business may be impaired, and our business, financial condition or results of operations, may be adversely affected.
We are subject to a variety of operational risks, including the risk of fraud or theft by employees, which may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
We are exposed to many types of operational risks, including business continuity, process, third party, information technology, human resource, model, and fraud risks. Regions’ fraud risks include fraud committed by external parties against the Company or its customers and fraud committed internally by our associates. Certain fraud risks, including identity theft and account takeover may increase as a result of customers’ account or personally identifiable information being obtained through breaches of retailers’ or other third parties’ networks. We have established processes and procedures intended to identify, measure, monitor, mitigate, report and analyze these risks; however, there are inherent limitations to our risk management strategies as there may exist, or develop in the future, risks that we have not appropriately anticipated, monitored or identified. If our risk management framework proves ineffective, we could suffer unexpected losses, we may have to expend resources detecting and correcting the failure in our systems and we may be subject to potential claims from third parties and government agencies. We may also suffer severe reputational damage. Any of these consequences could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. In particular, the unauthorized disclosure, misappropriation, mishandling or misuse of personal, non-public, confidential or proprietary information of customers could result in significant regulatory consequences, reputational damage and financial loss.
Damage to our reputation could significantly harm our businesses.
Our ability to attract and retain customers and highly-skilled management and employees is impacted by our reputation. A negative public opinion of us and our business can result from any number of activities, including our lending practices, corporate governance and regulatory compliance, acquisitions and actions taken by our regulators or by community organizations in response to these activities. Significant harm to our reputation could also arise as a result of regulatory or governmental actions, litigation, employee misconduct or the activities of our customers, other participants in the financial services industry or our contractual counterparties, such as our service providers and vendors. In particular, a cybersecurity event impacting us or our customers' data could have a negative impact on our reputation and customer confidence in Regions and its cybersecurity. Damage to our reputation could also adversely affect our credit ratings and access to the capital markets.
We are subject to a variety of systems failure and cybersecurity risks that could adversely affect our business and financial performance.
Failure in or breach of our systems or infrastructure, or those of our third-party service providers (or providers to such third-party service providers), including as a result of cyber-attacks, could disrupt our businesses or the businesses of our customers. This could result in the disclosure or misuse of confidential or proprietary information, damage our reputation, increase our costs and financial losses. As a large financial institution, we depend on our ability to process, record and monitor a large number of customer transactions on a continuous basis. As public and regulatory expectations, as well as our customers' expectations have increased regarding operational performance and information security, our systems and infrastructure must continue to be safeguarded and monitored for potential failures, disruptions and breakdowns. Our business, financial, accounting, data processing systems or other operating systems and facilities may stop operating properly or become disabled or damaged as a result of a number of factors, including events that are wholly or partially beyond our control. For example, there could be electrical or telecommunications outages; natural disasters such as earthquakes, tornadoes and hurricanes; pandemics; events arising from local or larger scale political or social matters, including terrorist acts; and, as described below, cyber-attacks. Although we have business continuity plans and other safeguards in place, our business operations may be adversely affected by significant and widespread disruption to our physical infrastructure or operating systems that support our businesses and customers. For a discussion of the guidance that federal banking regulators have released regarding cybersecurity and cyber risk management standards, see the “Supervision and Regulation-Financial Privacy and Cybersecurity” section of Item 1. “Business” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Information security risks for large financial institutions, such as Regions, have increased significantly in recent years in part because of the proliferation of Internet and mobile banking and the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime, hackers, terrorists, nation-states, activists and other external parties. This increase is expected to continue and further intensify.

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Third parties with whom we or our customers do business also present operational and information security risks to us, including security breaches or failures of their own systems. As noted above, our operations rely on the secure processing, transmission and storage of confidential information in our computer systems and networks. In addition, to access our products and services, our customers may use personal computers, smartphones, tablets, and other mobile devices that are beyond our control environment. Although we believe that we have appropriate information security procedures and controls designed to prevent or limit the effects of a cyber-attack or information security breach, our technologies, systems, networks and our customers’ devices may be the target of cyber-attacks or information security breaches that could result in the unauthorized release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss or destruction of Regions’ or our customers’ confidential, proprietary and other information. We also have insurance coverage that may, subject to policy terms and conditions, cover certain losses associated with cyber-attacks or information security breaches, but it may be insufficient to cover all losses from any such attack or breach. Additionally, cyber-attacks, such as denial of service attacks, hacking or terrorist activities, could disrupt Regions’ or our customers’ or other third parties’ business operations. For example, denial of service attacks have been launched against a number of large financial services institutions, including Regions. Although these past events have not resulted in a breach of Regions’ client data or account information, such attacks have adversely affected the performance of Regions Bank’s website, www.regions.com, and, in some instances, prevented customers from accessing Regions Bank’s secure websites for consumer and commercial applications. In all cases, the attacks primarily resulted in inconvenience; however, future cyber-attacks could be more disruptive and damaging, and Regions may not be able to anticipate or prevent all such attacks. As cyber threats continue to evolve, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our layers of defense or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities. We may also be required to incur significant costs in connection with any regulatory investigation or civil litigation resulting from a cyber-attack or information security breach that impacts us. In addition, our third-party service providers may be unable to identify vulnerabilities in their systems or, once identified, be unable to promptly provide required patches. Further, even if provided, such patches may not fully remediate any vulnerability or may be difficult for Regions to implement. The techniques used by cyber criminals change frequently, may not be recognized until launched and can be initiated from a variety of sources, including terrorist organizations and hostile foreign governments. These criminals may attempt to fraudulently induce employees, customers or other users of our systems to disclose sensitive information in order to gain access to data or our systems.
Disruptions or failures in the physical infrastructure or operating systems that support our businesses and customers, or cyber-attacks or security breaches of the networks, systems or devices that our customers use to access our products and services, could result in customer attrition, regulatory fines, civil litigation, penalties or intervention, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, remediation costs, additional cybersecurity protection costs, increased insurance premiums and/or additional compliance costs, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition. We could also be adversely affected if we lost access to information or services from a third-party service provider as a result of a security breach, system or operational failure or disruption affecting the third-party service provider. For a more detailed discussion of these risks and specific occurrences, see the “Information Security Risk” section of Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We are also subject to laws and regulations relating to the privacy of the information of clients, employees or others, and any failure to comply with these laws and regulations could expose us to liability and/or reputational damage. As new privacy-related laws and regulations, such as those modeled after GDPR, are implemented, the time and resources needed for us to comply with such laws and regulations, as well as our potential liability for non-compliance and reporting obligations in the case of data breaches, may significantly increase. In addition, our businesses are increasingly subject to laws and regulations relating to privacy, surveillance, encryption and data use in the jurisdictions in which we operate. Compliance with these laws and regulations may require us to change our policies, procedures and technology for information security and segregation of data, which could, among other things, make us more vulnerable to operational failures, and to monetary penalties for breach of such laws and regulations.
We rely on other companies to provide key components of our business infrastructure.
Third parties provide key components of our business operations such as data processing, recording and monitoring transactions, online banking interfaces and services, Internet connections and network access. While we have selected these third-party vendors carefully, performing upfront due diligence and ongoing monitoring activities, we do not control their actions. Any problems caused by these third parties, including those resulting from disruptions in services provided by a vendor (including as a result of a cyber-attack, other information security event or a natural disaster), financial or operational difficulties for the vendor, or resulting from issues at third-party vendors to the vendors, failure of a vendor to handle current or higher volumes, failure of a vendor to provide services for any reason, poor performance of services, failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations, or fraud or misconduct on the part of employees of any of our vendors, could adversely affect our ability to deliver products and services to our customers, our reputation and our ability to conduct our business. In certain situation, replacing these third-party vendors could also create significant delay and expense. Accordingly, use of such third parties creates an unavoidable, inherent risk to our business operations.
We depend on the accuracy and completeness of information about clients and counterparties.
In deciding whether to extend credit or enter into other transactions with clients and counterparties, we may rely on information furnished by or on behalf of clients and counterparties, including financial statements and other financial information. We also

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may rely on representations of clients and counterparties as to the accuracy and completeness of that information and, with respect to financial statements, on reports of independent auditors if made available. If this information is inaccurate, we may be subject to regulatory action, reputational harm or other adverse effects with respect to the operation of our business, our financial condition and our results of operations.
We are exposed to risk of environmental liability when we take title to property.
In the course of our business, we may foreclose on and take title to real estate. As a result, we could be subject to environmental liabilities with respect to these properties. We may be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage, personal injury, investigation and clean-up costs incurred by these parties in connection with environmental contamination or may be required to investigate or clean up hazardous or toxic substances or chemical releases at a property. The costs associated with investigation or remediation activities could be substantial. In addition, if we are the owner or former owner of a contaminated site, we may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property. If we become subject to significant environmental liabilities, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected.
We rely on the mortgage secondary market for some of our liquidity.
In 2018, we sold 45.6% of the mortgage loans we originated to the Agencies. We rely on the Agencies to purchase loans that meet their conforming loan requirements in order to reduce our credit risk and provide funding for additional loans we desire to originate. We cannot provide assurance that the Agencies will not materially limit their purchases of conforming loans due to capital constraints, a change in the criteria for conforming loans or other factors. Additionally, various proposals have been made to reform the U.S. residential mortgage finance market, including the role of the Agencies. The exact effects of any such reforms are not yet known, but they may limit our ability to sell conforming loans to the Agencies. If we are unable to continue to sell conforming loans to the Agencies, our ability to fund, and thus originate, additional mortgage loans may be adversely affected, which would adversely affect our results of operations.
We are subject to a variety of risks in connection with any sale of loans we may conduct.
In connection with our sale of one or more loan portfolios, we may make certain representations and warranties to the purchaser concerning the loans sold and the procedures under which those loans have been originated and serviced. If any of these representations and warranties are incorrect, we may be required to indemnify the purchaser for any related losses, or we may be required to repurchase part or all of the effected loans. We may also be required to repurchase loans as a result of borrower fraud or in the event of early payment default by the borrower on a loan we have sold. If we are required to make any indemnity payments or repurchases and do not have a remedy available to us against a solvent counterparty, we may not be able to recover our losses resulting from these indemnity payments and repurchases. Consequently, our results of operations may be adversely affected.
In addition, we must report as held for sale any loans that we have undertaken to sell, whether or not a purchase agreement for the loans has been executed. We may, therefore, be unable to ultimately complete a sale for part or all of the loans we classify as held for sale. Management must exercise its judgment in determining when loans must be reclassified from held for investment status to held for sale status under applicable accounting guidelines. Any failure to accurately report loans as held for sale could result in regulatory investigations and monetary penalties. Any of these actions could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Reclassifying loans from held for investment to held for sale also requires that the affected loans be marked to the lower of cost or fair value. As a result, any loans classified as held for sale may be adversely affected by changes in interest rates and by changes in the borrower’s creditworthiness. We may be required to reduce the value of any loans we mark held for sale, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
A downgrade or potential downgrade of the U.S. Government’s sovereign credit rating by one or more credit ratings agencies, and developments in international trade, could adversely affect our business.
Future uncertainty over U.S. fiscal policy could result in a downgrade or a reduction in the outlook of the U.S. long-term sovereign credit rating by one or more credit ratings agencies. Any downgrade, or perceived future downgrade, in the U.S. sovereign credit rating or outlook could adversely affect global financial markets and economic conditions and may result in, among other things, increased volatility and illiquidity in the capital markets, declines in consumer confidence, increased unemployment levels and declines in the value of U.S. Treasury securities and securities guaranteed by the U.S. government. As a result, our business, liquidity, results of operations and financial conditions may be adversely affected. Additionally, the economic conditions resulting from any such downgrade or perceived future downgrade may significantly exacerbate the other risks we face. In addition, unfavorable or uncertain economic and market conditions can be caused by the imposition of tariffs or other limitations on international trade and travel, which can result in market volatility, negatively impact client activity, and adversely affect our businesses.
Our reported financial results depend on management’s selection of accounting methods and certain assumptions and estimates.
Our accounting policies and assumptions are fundamental to our reported financial condition and results of operations. Our management must exercise judgment in selecting and applying many of these accounting policies and methods so they comply with GAAP and reflect management’s judgment of the most appropriate manner to report our financial condition and results. In

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some cases, management must select the accounting policy or method to apply from two or more alternatives, any of which may be reasonable under the circumstances, yet may result in us reporting materially different results than would have been reported under a different alternative.
Certain accounting policies are critical to presenting our reported financial condition and results of operations. They require management to make difficult, subjective or complex judgments about matters that are uncertain. Materially different amounts could be reported under different conditions or using different assumptions or estimates. The Company’s critical accounting estimates include: the allowance for credit losses; fair value measurements; intangible assets; residential MSRs; and income taxes. Because of the uncertainty of estimates involved in these matters, we may be required to do one or more of the following: significantly increase the allowance for credit losses and/or sustain credit losses that are significantly higher than the reserve provided; recognize significant impairment on our goodwill, other intangible assets or deferred tax asset balances; or significantly increase our accrued income taxes. Any of these actions could adversely affect our reported financial condition and results of operations.
If the models that we use in our business perform poorly or provide inadequate information, our business or results of operations may be adversely affected.
We utilize quantitative models to assist in measuring risks and estimating or predicting certain financial values. Models may be used in processes such as determining the pricing of various products, grading loans and extending credit, measuring interest rate and other market risks, forecasting financial performance, predicting losses, improving customer services, maintaining adherence to laws and regulations, assessing capital adequacy, and calculating regulatory capital levels, as well as to estimate the value of financial instruments and balance sheet items. Poorly designed, implemented, or managed models present the risk that our business decisions that consider information based on such models will be adversely affected due to the inadequacy or inaccuracy of that information. Also, information we provide to the public or to our regulators based on poorly designed, implemented, or managed models could be inaccurate or misleading. Some of the decisions that our regulators make, including those related to capital distributions to our stockholders, could be affected adversely due to the perception that the quality of the models used to generate the relevant information is insufficient.
Changes in our accounting policies or in accounting standards could materially affect how we report our financial results and condition.
From time to time, the FASB and SEC change the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. These changes can be difficult to predict and can materially impact how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. For example, in June 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update 2016-13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, that will, effective January 1, 2020, substantially change the accounting for credit losses on loans and other financial assets held by banks, financial institutions and other organizations. The standard removes the existing “probable” threshold in GAAP for recognizing credit losses and instead requires companies to reflect their estimate of credit losses over the life of the financial assets. Companies must consider all relevant information when estimating expected credit losses, including details about past events, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. In December 2018, the Federal Reserve, OCC and FDIC released a final rule to revise their regulatory capital rules to address this upcoming change to the allowance measurement and subsequent concerns related to the impact on capital and capital planning. The rule provides an optional three-year phase-in period for the day-one adverse regulatory capital impact upon adoption of the standard. The impact of this final rule on Regions and Regions Bank will depend on whether we elect to phase in the impact of the standard over a three-year period. The adoption of the standard may result in an overall material increase in the allowance for credit losses. However, the impact at adoption will be influenced by the portfolios' composition and quality at the adoption date as well as economic conditions and forecasts at that time. It is also possible that Regions’ ongoing reported earnings and lending activity will be negatively impacted in periods following adoption.
Risks Arising From the Legal and Regulatory Framework in which Our Business Operates
We are, and may in the future be, subject to litigation, investigations and governmental proceedings that may result in liabilities adversely affecting our financial condition, business or results of operations or in reputational harm.
We and our subsidiaries are, and may in the future be, named as defendants in various class actions and other litigation, and may be the subject of subpoenas, reviews, requests for information, investigations, and formal and informal proceedings by government and self-regulatory agencies regarding our and their businesses and activities (including subpoenas, requests for information and investigations related to the activities of our customers). Any such matters may result in material adverse consequences to our results of operations, financial condition or ability to conduct our business, including adverse judgments, settlements, fines, penalties (including civil money penalties under applicable banking laws), injunctions, restrictions on our business activities or other relief. Our involvement in any such matters, even if the matters are ultimately determined in our favor, could also cause significant harm to our reputation and divert management attention from the operation of our business. Further, any settlement, consent order or adverse judgment in connection with any formal or informal proceeding or investigation by government or self-regulatory agencies may result in additional litigation, investigations or proceedings as other litigants and government or self-regulatory agencies (including the inquiries mentioned above) begin independent reviews of the same businesses or activities. In general, the amounts paid by financial institutions in settlement of proceedings or investigations, including those

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relating to anti-money laundering matters or sales practices, have increased substantially and are likely to remain elevated. In some cases, governmental authorities have required criminal pleas or other extraordinary terms as part of such settlements, which could have significant collateral consequences for a financial institution, including loss of customers, restrictions on the ability to access the capital markets, and the inability to operate certain businesses or offer certain products for a period of time. In addition, enforcement matters could impact our supervisory and CRA ratings, which may in turn restrict or limit our activities.
In recent years, a number of judicial decisions have upheld the right of borrowers to sue lending institutions on the basis of various evolving legal theories, collectively termed “lender liability.” Generally, lender liability is founded on the premise that a lender has either violated a duty, whether implied or contractual, of good faith and fair dealing owed to the borrower or has assumed a degree of control over the borrower resulting in the creation of a fiduciary duty owed to the borrower or its other creditors or stockholders. In the future, Regions could become subject to claims based on this or other evolving legal theories.
Additional information relating to our litigation, investigations and other proceedings is discussed in Note 24 “Commitments, Contingencies and Guarantees” to the consolidated financial statements of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We may face significant claims for indemnification in connection with our sale of Morgan Keegan in 2012.
In April 2012, Regions closed the sale of Morgan Keegan and related affiliates to Raymond James. In connection with the sale, Regions agreed to indemnify Raymond James for all litigation and certain other matters related to pre-closing activities of Morgan Keegan. Indemnifiable losses under the indemnification provision include legal and other expenses, such as costs for defense, judgments, settlements and awards associated with the resolution of litigation related to pre-closing activities. As of December 31, 2018, the carrying value of the indemnification obligation is immaterial and reflects an estimate of liability; however, actual liabilities can potentially be higher than amounts reserved. The amount of liability that we may ultimately incur from indemnification claims may have an adverse impact, perhaps materially, on our financial condition or results of operations.
We are subject to extensive governmental regulation, which could have an adverse impact on our operations.
We are subject to extensive state and federal regulation, supervision and examination governing almost all aspects of our operations, which limits the businesses in which we may permissibly engage. The laws and regulations governing our business are intended primarily for the protection of our depositors, our customers, the financial system and the FDIC insurance fund, not our stockholders or other creditors. These laws and regulations govern a variety of matters, including certain debt obligations, changes in control, maintenance of adequate capital, and general business operations and financial condition (including permissible types, amounts and terms of loans and investments, the amount of reserves against deposits, restrictions on dividends, establishment of branch offices, and the maximum interest rate that may be charged by law). Further, we must obtain approval from our regulators before engaging in many activities, and our regulators have the ability to compel us to, or restrict us from, taking certain actions entirely. There can be no assurance that any regulatory approvals we may require or otherwise seek will be obtained.
Regulations affecting banks and other financial institutions are undergoing continuous review and frequently change, and the ultimate effect of such changes cannot be predicted. Changes to the legal and regulatory framework governing our operations, including the passage and continued implementation of the Dodd-Frank Act and EGRRCPA, have significantly revised the laws and regulations under which we operate. Although EGRRCPA contained limited amendments to the Dodd-Frank Act and certain other post-financial crisis regulatory requirements, rules to implement the changes have yet to be finalized, and the final timing, scope and impact of these changes to the regulatory framework applicable to financial institutions remain uncertain. Regulations and laws may be modified or repealed at any time, and new legislation may be enacted that will affect us, Regions Bank and our subsidiaries.
Any changes in any federal and state law, as well as regulations and governmental policies, income tax laws and accounting principles, could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways, including ways that may adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. Failure to appropriately comply with any such laws, regulations or principles could result in sanctions by regulatory agencies, civil money penalties or damage to our reputation, all of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. Our regulatory position is discussed in greater detail in Note 14 “Regulatory Capital Requirements and Restrictions” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We may be subject to more stringent capital and liquidity requirements.
Regions and Regions Bank are each subject to capital adequacy and liquidity guidelines and other regulatory requirements specifying minimum amounts and types of capital that must be maintained. From time to time, the regulators implement changes to these regulatory capital adequacy and liquidity guidelines. If we fail to meet these minimum capital adequacy and liquidity guidelines and other regulatory requirements, we or our subsidiaries may be restricted in the types of activities we may conduct and may be prohibited from taking certain capital actions, such as paying dividends and repurchasing or redeeming capital securities.
In particular, the capital adequacy and liquidity guidelines applicable to Regions and Regions Bank under the currently applicable Basel III Rules require Regions to satisfy additional, more stringent capital adequacy and liquidity standards than in the past. In addition, these requirements could have a negative impact on our ability to lend, grow deposit balances, make acquisitions and make capital distributions in the form of increased dividends or share repurchases. Higher capital levels could also lower our

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return on equity. In addition, Basel IV significantly revises the Basel capital framework, and the impact on us will depend on the manner in which the revisions are implemented in the U.S. with respect to firms such as Regions and Regions Bank.
For more information concerning our compliance with capital and liquidity requirements, see Note 14 “Regulatory Capital Requirements and Restrictions” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Rulemaking changes implemented by the CFPB will result in higher regulatory and compliance costs that may adversely affect our results of operations.
Since its formation, the CFPB has finalized a number of significant rules that could have a significant impact on our business and the financial services industry more generally. In particular, the CFPB has adopted rules impacting nearly every aspect of the lifecycle of a residential mortgage loan as discussed in the “Supervision and Regulation” section of Item 1. “Business” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K above. We may also be required to add additional compliance personnel or incur other significant compliance-related expenses. Our business, results of operations or competitive position may be adversely affected as a result.
We may not be able to complete future acquisitions, may not be successful in realizing the benefits of any future acquisitions that are completed, or may choose not to pursue acquisition opportunities we might find beneficial.
We may, from time to time, evaluate and engage in the acquisition or divestiture of businesses (including their assets or liabilities, such as loans or deposits). We must generally satisfy a number of meaningful conditions prior to completing any such transaction, including in certain cases, federal and state bank regulatory approvals.
The process for obtaining required regulatory approvals, particularly for large financial institutions, like Regions, can be difficult, time-consuming and unpredictable. We may fail to pursue, evaluate or complete strategic and competitively significant business opportunities as a result of our inability, or our perceived inability, to obtain required regulatory approvals in a timely manner or at all.
Assuming we are able to successfully complete one or more transactions, we may not be able to successfully integrate and realize the expected synergies from any completed transaction in a timely manner or at all. In particular, we may be held responsible by federal and state regulators for regulatory and compliance failures at an acquired business prior to the date of the acquisition, and these failures by the acquired company may have negative consequences for us, including the imposition of formal or informal enforcement actions. Completion and integration of any transaction may also divert management attention from other matters, result in additional costs and expenses, or adversely affect our relationships with our customers and employees, any of which may adversely affect our business or results of operations. Future acquisitions may also result in dilution of our current stockholders’ ownership interests or may require we incur additional indebtedness or use a substantial amount of our available cash and other liquid assets. As a result, our financial condition may be affected, and we may become more susceptible to economic conditions and competitive pressures.
Increases in FDIC insurance assessments may adversely affect our earnings.
Our deposits are insured by the FDIC up to legal limits and, accordingly, we are subject to FDIC deposit insurance assessments. We generally cannot control the amount of assessments we will be required to pay for FDIC insurance. The FDIC may require us to pay higher FDIC assessments than we currently do or may charge additional special assessments or future prepayments if, for example, there are financial institution failures in the future. Any increase in deposit assessments or special assessments may adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. See the “Supervision and Regulation-Deposit Insurance” discussion within Item 1. “Business” and the “Non-Interest Expense” discussion within Item 7. “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information related to the FDIC’s deposit insurance assessments applicable to Regions Bank.
Unfavorable results from ongoing stress analyses may adversely affect our ability to retain customers or compete for new business opportunities.
The Federal Reserve conducts an annual stress analysis of Regions to evaluate our ability to absorb losses in three economic and financial scenarios generated by the Federal Reserve, including base, adverse and severely adverse economic and financial scenarios (although, in light of EGRRCPA’s eliminating the statutory requirement for the adverse scenario, on January 8, 2019, the Federal Reserve proposed amendments to its stress testing rules that would, among other things, eliminate the adverse scenario). The rules also require us to conduct our own semi-annual stress analysis to assess the potential impact on Regions of the scenarios used as part of the Federal Reserve’s annual stress analysis. A summary of the results of certain aspects of the Federal Reserve’s annual stress analysis is released publicly and contains information and results specific to BHCs. The rules also currently require us to disclose publicly a summary of the results of our semi-annual stress analyses, and Regions Bank’s annual stress analyses, under the severely adverse scenario.
Although the stress tests are not meant to assess our current condition or outlook, our customers may misinterpret and adversely react to the results of these stress tests despite the strength of our financial condition. Any potential misinterpretations and adverse reactions could limit our ability to attract and retain customers or to effectively compete for new business opportunities.

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The inability to attract and retain customers or effectively compete for new business may have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our regulators may also require us to raise additional capital or take other actions, or may impose restrictions on our business, based on the results of the stress tests, including rejecting, or requiring revisions to, our annual capital plan submitted in connection with the CCAR. The failure of our capital plan to pass the CCAR could adversely affect our ability to pay dividends and repurchase stock. In addition, we may not be able to raise additional capital if required to do so, or may not be able to do so on terms that we believe are advantageous to Regions or its current stockholders. Any such capital raises, if required, may also be dilutive to our existing stockholders.
Certain elements of these stress testing and capital planning requirements may be eased in the future consistent with recently issued and anticipated proposals by the Federal banking agencies following the enactment of EGRRCPA. However, the ultimate timing and implementation of such relief is unclear and therefore we expect to remain subject to these standards in the near term.
If an orderly liquidation of a systemically important BHC or non-bank financial company were triggered, we could face assessments for the Orderly Liquidation Fund.
The Dodd-Frank Act created a new mechanism, the OLA, for liquidation of systemically important BHCs and non-bank financial companies. The OLA is administered by the FDIC and is based on the FDIC’s bank resolution model. The Secretary of the U.S. Treasury may trigger a liquidation under this authority only after consultation with the President of the U.S. and after receiving a recommendation from the boards of the FDIC and the Federal Reserve upon a two-thirds vote. Liquidation proceedings will be funded by the Orderly Liquidation Fund, which will borrow from the U.S. Treasury and impose risk-based assessments on covered financial companies. Risk-based assessments would be made, first, on entities that received more in the resolution than they would have received in the liquidation to the extent of such excess, and second, if necessary, on, among others, BHCs with total consolidated assets of $50 billion or more, such as Regions. Any such assessments may adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Capital Stock
The market price of shares of our capital stock will fluctuate.
The market price of our capital stock could be subject to significant fluctuations due to a change in sentiment in the market regarding our operations or business prospects. Such risks may be affected by:
Our operating performance, financial condition and prospects, or the operating performance, financial condition and prospects of our competitors;
Operating results that vary from the expectations of management, securities analysts and investors;
Our creditworthiness;
Developments in our business or in the financial sector generally;
Regulatory changes affecting our industry generally or our business and operations;
The operating and securities price performance of companies that investors consider to be comparable to us;
Announcements of strategic developments, divestitures and other material events by us or our competitors;
Expectations of or actual equity dilution;
Whether we declare or fail to declare dividends on our capital stock from time to time;
The ratings assigned to our securities by credit-rating agencies;
Changes in the credit, mortgage and real estate markets, including the markets for mortgage-related securities; and
Changes in global financial markets, global economies and general market conditions, such as interest or foreign exchange rates, stock, commodity, credit or asset valuations or volatility; and
Executive management changes.
The market price of our capital stock, including our common stock and depositary shares representing fractional interests in our preferred stock, may be subject to fluctuations unrelated to our operating performance or prospects. Increased volatility could result in a decline in the market price of our capital stock.
Our capital stock is subordinate to our existing and future indebtedness.
Our capital stock, including our common stock and depositary shares representing fractional interests in our preferred stock, ranks junior to all of Regions’ existing and future indebtedness and Regions’ other non-equity claims with respect to assets available to satisfy claims against us, including claims in the event of our liquidation. As of December 31, 2018, Regions’ total liabilities were approximately $110.6 billion, and we may incur additional indebtedness in the future to increase our capital resources. Additionally, if our total capital ratio or the total capital ratio of Regions Bank falls below the required minimums, we or Regions

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Bank could be forced to raise additional capital by making additional offerings of debt securities, including medium-term notes, senior or subordinated notes or other applicable securities.
We are a holding company and depend on our subsidiaries for dividends, distributions and other payments.
We are a legal entity separate and distinct from our banking and other subsidiaries. Our principal source of cash flow, including cash flow to pay dividends to our stockholders and principal and interest on our outstanding debt, is dividends from Regions Bank. There are statutory and regulatory limitations on the payment of dividends by Regions Bank to us, as well as by us to our stockholders. Regulations of both the Federal Reserve and the State of Alabama affect the ability of Regions Bank to pay dividends and other distributions to us and to make loans to us. If Regions Bank is unable to make dividend payments to us and sufficient cash or liquidity is not otherwise available, we may not be able to make dividend payments to our common and preferred stockholders or principal and interest payments on our outstanding debt. See the “Stockholders’ Equity” section of Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition, our right to participate in a distribution of assets upon a subsidiary’s liquidation or reorganization is subject to the prior claims of creditors of that subsidiary, except to the extent that any of our claims as a creditor of such subsidiary may be recognized. As a result, shares of our capital stock are effectively subordinated to all existing and future liabilities and obligations of our subsidiaries. At December 31, 2018, our subsidiaries’ total deposits and borrowings were approximately $107.3 billion.
We may not pay dividends on shares of our capital stock.
Holders of shares of our capital stock are only entitled to receive such dividends as our Board may declare out of funds legally available for such payments. Although we have historically declared cash dividends on our common stock, we are not required to do so and may reduce or eliminate our common stock dividend in the future. This could adversely affect the market price of our common stock. Furthermore, the terms of our outstanding preferred stock prohibit us from declaring or paying any dividends on any junior series of our capital stock, including our common stock, or from repurchasing, redeeming or acquiring such junior stock, unless we have declared and paid full dividends on our outstanding preferred stock for the most recently completed dividend period.
We are also subject to statutory and regulatory limitations on our ability to pay dividends on our capital stock. For example, it is the policy of the Federal Reserve that BHCs should generally pay dividends on common stock only out of earnings, and only if prospective earnings retention is consistent with the organization’s expected future needs, asset quality and financial condition. Moreover, the Federal Reserve may closely scrutinize any dividend payout ratios exceeding 30% of after-tax net income. Additionally, we are currently required to submit annual capital plans to the Federal Reserve for review before we can take certain capital actions, including declaring and paying dividends and repurchasing or redeeming capital securities. If our capital plan or any amendment to our capital plan is objected to for any reason, our ability to declare and pay dividends on our capital stock may be limited. Further, if we are unable to satisfy the capital requirements applicable to us for any reason, we may be limited in our ability to declare and pay dividends on our capital stock. Certain elements of these capital planning requirements may be eased in the future consistent with recently issued and anticipated proposals by the Federal banking agencies following the enactment of EGRRCPA and the proposed Stress Capital Buffer framework. However, the ultimate timing and implementation of such relief is unclear and therefore we expect to remain subject to these standards in the near term.
Anti-takeover and banking laws and certain agreements and charter provisions may adversely affect share value.
Certain provisions of state and federal law and our certificate of incorporation may make it more difficult for someone to acquire control of us without our Board's approval. Under federal law, subject to certain exemptions, a person, entity or group must notify the federal banking agencies before acquiring control of a BHC. Acquisition of 10% or more of any class of voting stock of a BHC or state member bank, including shares of our common stock, creates a rebuttable presumption that the acquirer “controls” the BHC or state member bank. Also, as noted under the “Supervision and Regulation” section of Item 1. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, a BHC must obtain the prior approval of the Federal Reserve before, among other things, acquiring direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of the voting shares of any bank, including Regions Bank. One factor the federal banking agencies must consider in certain acquisitions is the systemic impact of the transaction. This may make it more difficult for large institutions to acquire other large institutions and may otherwise delay the regulatory approval process, possibly by requiring public hearings. There also are provisions in our certificate of incorporation that may be used to delay or block a takeover attempt. For example, holders of our preferred stock have certain voting rights that could adversely affect share value. If and when dividends on the preferred stock have not been declared and paid for at least six quarterly dividend periods or their equivalent (whether or not consecutive), the authorized number of directors then constituting our Board will automatically be increased by two, and the preferred stockholders will be entitled to elect the two additional directors. Also, the affirmative vote or consent of the holders of at least two-thirds of all of the then-outstanding shares of the preferred stock is required to consummate a binding share-exchange or reclassification involving the preferred stock, or a merger or consolidation of Regions with or into another entity, unless certain requirements are met. These statutory provisions and provisions in our certificate of incorporation, including the rights of the holders of our preferred stock, could result in Regions being less attractive to a potential acquirer.

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We may need to raise additional debt or equity capital in the future, but may be unable to do so.
We may need to raise additional capital in the future to provide us with sufficient capital resources and liquidity to meet our commitments and other business purposes. Our ability to raise additional capital, if needed, will depend on, among other things, prevailing conditions in the capital markets, which are outside of our control, and our financial performance. An economic slowdown or loss of confidence in financial institutions could increase our cost of funding and limit our access to some of our customary sources of capital, including inter-bank borrowings, repurchase agreements and borrowings from the discount window of the Federal Reserve. We cannot be assured that capital will be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. Any occurrence that may limit our access to the capital markets, such as a decline in the confidence of debt purchasers, depositors of Regions Bank or counterparties participating in the capital markets, or a downgrade of our debt ratings, may adversely affect our capital costs and our ability to raise capital and, in turn, our liquidity. An inability to raise additional capital on acceptable terms when needed could have a materially adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Future issuances of additional equity securities could result in dilution of existing stockholders’ equity ownership.
We may determine from time to time to issue additional equity securities to raise additional capital, support growth, or to make acquisitions. Further, we may issue stock options or other stock grants to retain and motivate our employees. These issuances of our securities could dilute the voting and economic interests of our existing stockholders.


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Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2. Properties
Regions’ corporate headquarters occupy the main banking facility of Regions Bank, located at 1900 Fifth Avenue North, Birmingham, Alabama 35203.
At December 31, 2018, Regions Bank, Regions’ banking subsidiary, operated 1,454 banking offices. At December 31, 2018, there were no significant encumbrances on the offices, equipment and other operational facilities owned by Regions and its subsidiaries.
See Item 1. “Business” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a list of the states in which Regions Bank’s branches are located.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Information required by this item is set forth in Note 24 “Commitments, Contingencies and Guarantees” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which are included in Item 8. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.
Executive Officers of the Registrant
Information concerning the Executive Officers of Regions is set forth under Item 10. “Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


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PART II
Item 5. Market For Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Regions common stock, par value $.01 per share, is listed for trading on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol RF. Information relating to compensation plans under which Regions' equity securities are authorized for issuance is presented in Part III, Item 12. As of February 20, 2019, there were 41,998 holders of record of Regions common stock (including participants in the Computershare Investment Plan for Regions Financial Corporation).
Restrictions on the ability of Regions Bank to transfer funds to Regions at December 31, 2018, are set forth in Note 14 “Regulatory Capital Requirements and Restrictions” to the consolidated financial statements, which are included in Item 8. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. A discussion of certain limitations on the ability of Regions Bank to pay dividends to Regions and the ability of Regions to pay dividends on its common stock is set forth in Item 1. “Business” under the heading “Supervision and Regulation—Payment of Dividends” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
In connection with Regions' acquisition of BlackArch Partners LLC ("BlackArch") on October 20, 2015, Regions issued 831,766 shares of Regions common stock to the former owners of BlackArch as partial consideration for the acquisition. The shares issued in the transaction are exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, pursuant to Section 4(a)(2). Pursuant to contingent payment provisions in the purchase agreement, if certain conditions are met, Regions will issue up to 1,528,234 additional shares of Regions common stock to the former owners of BlackArch over the four-year period following the acquisition. During 2018 and 2017, an additional 98,951 shares and 134,837 shares were issued, respectively, leaving 1,097,455 additional shares to be potentially issued. Each of the former owners of BlackArch are accredited investors and no underwriters or placement agents were involved in connection with issuance of Regions common stock.
The following table presents information regarding issuer purchases of equity securities during the fourth quarter of 2018.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Period
Total Number of  Shares Purchased
 
Average Price Paid
 per Share
 
Total Number of Shares
Purchased as Part of
Publicly Announced
Plans or Programs
 
Maximum Approximate Dollar Value of
Shares that May
Yet Be Purchased Under Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
October 1—31, 2018
11,599,010

 
$
16.32

 
11,599,010

 
$
560,149,190

November 1—30, 2018
10,400,170

 
$
17.33

 
10,400,170

 
$
379,800,363

December 1—31, 2018

 
$

 

 
$

Total 4th Quarter
21,999,180

 
$
16.80

 
21,999,180

 
$
379,800,363

Regions' Board authorized, effective June 28, 2018, a new $2.031 billion common stock repurchase plan, permitting repurchases from the beginning of the third quarter of 2018 through the end of the second quarter of 2019. As of December 31, 2018, Regions has repurchased approximately 90.4 million shares of common stock at a total cost of $1.7 billion under this plan. The Company also continued to repurchase shares on the open market under its capital plan in the first quarter of 2019. As of February 21, 2019, Regions had repurchased approximately 7.4 million additional shares of common stock at a total cost of approximately $114.0 million. All of these shares were immediately retired upon repurchase and, therefore, will not be included in treasury stock.

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PERFORMANCE GRAPH
Set forth below is a graph comparing the yearly percentage change in the cumulative total return of Regions common stock against the cumulative total return of the S&P 500 Index and the S&P 500 Banks Index for the past five years. This presentation assumes that the value of the investment in Regions’ common stock and in each index was $100 and that all dividends were reinvested.

chart-f0e0b02f50535b7ca89.jpg 
 
Cumulative Total Return
 
12/31/2013
 
12/31/2014
 
12/31/2015
 
12/31/2016
 
12/31/2017
 
12/31/2018
Regions
$
100.00

 
$
108.63

 
$
101.11

 
$
155.10

 
$
190.70

 
$
151.47

S&P 500 Index
100.00

 
113.68

 
115.24

 
129.02

 
157.17

 
150.27

S&P 500 Banks Index
100.00

 
115.51

 
116.49

 
144.81

 
177.47

 
148.30


Item 6. Selected Financial Data
The information required by Item 6. is set forth in Table 1 “Financial Highlights” of “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”, which is included in Item 7. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW
Management believes the following sections provide an overview of several of the most relevant matters necessary for an understanding of the financial aspects of Regions Financial Corporation’s (“Regions” or “the Company”) business, particularly regarding its 2018 results. Cross references to more detailed information regarding each topic within MD&A and the consolidated financial statements are included. This summary is intended to assist in understanding the information provided, but should be read in conjunction with the entire MD&A and consolidated financial statements, as well as the other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
2018 Results
Regions reported net income from continuing operations available to common shareholders of $1.5 billion, or $1.36 per diluted share, in 2018 compared to net income available to common shareholders from continuing operations of $1.2 billion, or $0.98 per diluted share, in 2017.
Net interest income and other financing income (taxable-equivalent basis) totaled $3.8 billion in 2018 compared to $3.6 billion in 2017. The net interest margin (taxable-equivalent basis) was 3.50 percent in 2018, reflecting an 18 basis point increase from 2017 primarily due to increases in yields on earning assets, particularly loans, exceeding the increase in total funding costs.
The provision for loan losses totaled $229 million in 2018 compared to $150 million in 2017. This increase was primarily a result of increased loan balances and slowing credit improvement as compared to 2017. The increase was partially offset by the release of the Company's $40 million hurricane-specific loan loss allowance associated with certain 2017 hurricanes, as well as a $16 million net reduction to the provision for loan losses in the first quarter of 2018 associated with the sale of $254 million in residential first mortgage loans consisting primarily of performing troubled debt restructured loans. The provision for loan losses was less than net charge-offs by $94 million in 2018, which also included the impact of broad-based improvements in non-performing and criticized loans. Net charge-offs were 0.40 percent of average loans in 2018, compared to 0.38 percent in 2017.
Non-interest income from continuing operations was $2.0 billion in both 2018 and 2017. While total non-interest income from continuing operations was consistent between years, there were increases in service charges on deposit accounts, card and ATM fees, capital markets income, investment services fee income, and other miscellaneous income. These increases were partially offset by decreases in mortgage income and income from bank-owned life insurance, lower net securities gains, and losses from market value adjustments on employee benefit assets. See Table 5 "Non-Interest Income from Continuing Operations" for further details.
Non-interest expense from continuing operations was $3.6 billion in 2018 and $3.5 billion in 2017. The increase was driven primarily by increases in salaries and employee benefits, outside services, professional, legal and regulatory expenses, as well as a reduction in the credit for unfunded credit losses. These increases were partially offset by decreases in FDIC insurance assessments, branch consolidation, property and equipment charges, and Visa class B shares expense. See Table 6 "Non-Interest Expense from Continuing Operations" for further details.
On December 22, 2017, Tax Reform was enacted. Effective January 1, 2018, Tax Reform reduced the maximum corporate statutory federal income tax rate from 35 percent to 21 percent. This was the primary contributor to reducing Regions' effective tax rate from 33.3 percent in 2017 to 19.8 percent in 2018.
On April 4, 2018, Regions entered into a stock purchase agreement to sell Regions Insurance Group, Inc. and related affiliates to BB&T Insurance Holdings, Inc. The transaction closed on July 2, 2018, and generated an after-tax gain of $196 million. A discussion of activity within discontinued operations is included at the end of "Operating Results" in the MD&A section of this report.
For more information, refer to the following additional sections within this Form 10-K:
"Operating Results" section of MD&A
“Net Interest Income and Other Financing Income and Net Interest Margin” discussion within the “Operating Results” section of MD&A
“Interest Rate Risk” discussion within “Risk Management” section of MD&A
Capital
Capital Actions
As part of its 2018 CCAR submission, Regions' proposed capital plan included increasing its quarterly common stock dividend from $0.09 per share to $0.14 per share beginning in the third quarter of 2018 and the execution of up to $2.031 billion in common share repurchases. The 2018 capital plan covers the period from the third quarter of 2018 through the second quarter of 2019. As of December 31, 2018, Regions had repurchased approximately 90.4 million shares of common stock at a total cost of approximately

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$1.7 billion under this plan. The Federal Reserve did not object to the capital plan. The Company continued to repurchase shares under this plan into the first quarter of 2019.
For more information, refer to the following additional sections within this Form 10-K:
“Stockholders’ Equity” discussion in MD&A
Note 15 “Stockholders’ Equity and Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)” to the consolidated financial statements
Regulatory Capital
Regions and Regions Bank are required to comply with regulatory capital requirements established by Federal and State banking agencies. Under the Basel III Rules, Regions is designated as a standardized approach bank and, as such, began transitioning to the Basel III Rules in January 2015 subject to a phase-in period through January 2019, which has been extended. When fully phased in, the Basel III Rules will increase capital requirements through higher minimum capital levels as well as through increases in risk-weights for certain exposures. Proposals from the federal banking agencies may revise the capital treatment of certain assets and may extend the current transitional treatment. The Basel III Rules maintained the minimum guidelines for Regions to be considered well-capitalized for Tier 1 capital and Total capital at 6.0% and 10.0%, respectively. At December 31, 2018, Regions’ Basel III Tier 1 capital and Total capital ratios were estimated to be 10.68% and 12.46%, respectively.
The Basel III Rules also officially defined CET1. Regions' Basel III CET1 ratio at December 31, 2018 was estimated to be 9.90%. Regions estimates its fully phased-in CET1 ratio (non-GAAP) at December 31, 2018 to be 9.83%.
For more information, refer to the following additional sections within this Form 10-K:
“Supervision and Regulation” discussion within Item 1. Business
Table 2 - “GAAP to Non-GAAP reconciliation” in MD&A
"Regulatory Requirements" section of MD&A
Note 14 “Regulatory Capital Requirements and Restrictions” to the consolidated financial statements
Loan Portfolio and Credit
During 2018, total loans increased by $3.2 billion or 4.0 percent compared to 2017. Loan balances increased year-over-year in all three portfolio segments. The commercial portfolio segment increase was driven primarily by a $3.2 billion increase in the commercial and industrial loan portfolio class. The growth in the commercial portfolio was broad-based, with the energy and financial services portfolio classes experiencing the largest increases compared to 2017. The investor real estate portfolio segment increase was driven by a $588 million increase in commercial investor real estate mortgage loans. This increase was the result of growth in term real estate lending, as well as a reclassification in December 2018 of approximately $345 million of senior housing loans into the investor real estate portfolio from the owner-occupied commercial real estate mortgage portfolio. The $28 million increase in the consumer portfolio segment was due primarily to increases in indirect-other consumer loans due to continued growth in point-of-sale initiatives, as well as growth in residential first mortgage loans. These increases were partially offset by decreases in home equity loans as a result of continued payoffs and paydowns and indirect-vehicle loans reflecting the termination of a third-party arrangement in 2016.
The economy has been and will continue to be the primary factor which influences Regions’ loan portfolio. Improvement in overall economic conditions continued in 2018, with demand for bank lending increasing during the second half of the year. The economic growth trends resulted in higher market interest rates during the year. These factors contributed to balance sheet growth for Regions, and provided Regions’ customers with the ability to optimize liquidity through the use of cash for higher earning investment opportunities. Labor market and housing market conditions continued to progress at a steady pace over the course of 2018. Overall, current economic momentum is expected to slow modestly in 2019. Management’s expectation for 2019 adjusted average loan growth is in the low single digits consistent with the GDP forecast.
Net charge-offs totaled $323 million, or 0.40 percent of average loans, in 2018, compared to $307 million, or 0.38 percent in 2017, reflecting some large-dollar commercial loan charge-offs within the energy, healthcare and restaurant, accommodation and lodging sectors, as well as an increase associated with growth in indirect-other consumer loans. Total non-accrual loans, past due loans, troubled debt restructurings, and criticized commercial and investor real estate loans decreased year-over-year. The decrease was driven primarily by payoffs and paydowns of criticized commercial loans, as well as improved risk ratings in the commercial loan portfolio. The allowance for loan losses was 1.01 percent of total loans, net of unearned income at December 31, 2018, a decrease from 1.17 percent at December 31, 2017. The coverage ratio of allowance for loan losses to non-performing loans was 169% at December 31, 2018, compared to 144% at December 31, 2017.
For more information, refer to the following additional sections within this Form 10-K:
Adjusted Average Balances of Loans within the "Table 2 - GAAP-to-Non-GAAP Reconciliation"
"Portfolio Characteristics" section of MD&A

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“Allowance for Credit Losses” discussion within the “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” section of MD&A
“Provision for Loan Losses” discussion within the “Operating Results” section of MD&A
“Loans,” “Allowance for Credit Losses,” “Troubled Debt Restructurings” and “Non-performing Assets” discussions within the “Balance Sheet Analysis” section of MD&A
Note 1 "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" to the consolidated financial statements
Note 5 "Loans" to the consolidated financial statements
Note 6 “Allowance for Credit Losses” to the consolidated financial statements
Liquidity
At the end of 2018, Regions Bank had $1.5 billion in cash on deposit with the Federal Reserve and the loan-to-deposit ratio was 88 percent. Cash and cash equivalents at the parent company totaled $1.9 billion. Regions' liquidity policy related to minimum holding company cash requires the holding company to maintain cash sufficient to cover the greater of (1) 18 months of debt service and other cash needs or (2) a minimum cash balance of $500 million.
At December 31, 2018, the Company’s borrowing capacity with the Federal Reserve was $19.0 billion based on available collateral. Borrowing availability with the FHLB was $8.7 billion based on available collateral at the same date. The Company has approximately $16.6 billion of unencumbered liquid securities available for pledging. Regions also maintains a shelf registration statement with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission that can be utilized by the Company to issue various debt and/or equity securities. Additionally, Regions' Board has authorized Regions Bank to issue up to $5 billion in aggregate principal amount of bank notes outstanding at any one time.
A minimum LCR requirement exists for certain large BHCs, savings and loan holding companies and depository institutions, and a less stringent LCR requirement (the "modified LCR") exists for other banking organizations, such as Regions, with $50 billion or more in total consolidated assets. The regulatory agencies finalized a rule that requires quarterly public disclosures of certain LCR measures beginning with results from the fourth quarter of 2018. At December 31, 2018, the Company was fully compliant with the LCR requirements.
For more information, refer to the following additional sections within this Form 10-K:
“Supervision and Regulation” discussion within Item 1. Business
“Short-Term Borrowings” discussion within the “Balance Sheet Analysis” section of MD&A
“Long-Term Borrowings” discussion within the “Balance Sheet Analysis” section of MD&A
“Regulatory Requirements” section of MD&A
“Liquidity Risk” discussion within the “Risk Management” section of MD&A
Note 12 “Short-Term Borrowings” to the consolidated financial statements
Note 13 “Long-Term Borrowings” to the consolidated financial statements
2019 Expectations
Selected management expectations for 2019 are noted below:
Full year adjusted average loan growth in the low single digits, compared to 2018 adjusted average balances, consistent with GDP forecast (non-GAAP)
Adjusted non-interest expenses relatively stable (non-GAAP)
Effective income tax rate of 20 to 22 percent
Full year net charge-offs of 40 to 50 basis points of average loans
The reconciliation with respect to these forward-looking non-GAAP measures is expected to be consistent with the actual non-GAAP reconciliations within Management's Discussion and Analysis of this Form 10-K. For more information related to the Company's 2019 expectations, refer to the related sub-sections discussed in more detail within Management's Discussion and Analysis of this Form 10-K.
GENERAL
The following discussion and financial information is presented to aid in understanding Regions’ financial position and results of operations. The emphasis of this discussion will be on continuing operations for the years 2018, 2017 and 2016; in addition, financial information for prior years will also be presented when appropriate.
Regions’ profitability, like that of many other financial institutions, is dependent on its ability to generate revenue from net interest income and other financing income as well as non-interest income sources. Net interest income and other financing income

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is primarily the difference between the interest income Regions receives on interest-earning assets, such as loans and securities, and the interest expense Regions pays on interest-bearing liabilities, principally deposits and borrowings. Regions’ net interest income and other financing income is impacted by the size and mix of its balance sheet components and the interest rate spread between interest earned on its assets and interest paid on its liabilities. Net interest income and other financing income also includes rental income and depreciation expense associated with operating leases for which Regions is the lessor. Non-interest income includes fees from service charges on deposit accounts, card and ATM fees, mortgage servicing and secondary marketing, investment management and trust activities, capital markets and other customer services which Regions provides. Results of operations are also affected by the provision for loan losses and non-interest expenses such as salaries and employee benefits, occupancy, professional, legal and regulatory expenses, FDIC insurance assessments and other operating expenses, as well as income taxes.
Economic conditions, competition, new legislation and related rules impacting regulation of the financial services industry and the monetary and fiscal policies of the Federal government significantly affect most, if not all, financial institutions, including Regions. Lending and deposit activities and fee income generation are influenced by levels of business spending and investment, consumer income, consumer spending and savings, capital market activities, and competition among financial institutions, as well as customer preferences, interest rate conditions and prevailing market rates on competing products in Regions’ market areas.
Regions’ business strategy has been and continues to be focused on providing a competitive mix of products and services, delivering quality customer service and maintaining a branch distribution network with offices in convenient locations.
Recent Acquisitions
On October 17, 2016, Regions announced the acquisition of the low income housing tax credit corporate fund syndication and asset management businesses of First Sterling Financial, Inc., which is one of the leading national syndicators of investment funds benefiting from low income housing tax credits. The acquisition complements Regions' existing low income housing tax credit origination business and further expands the Company's capabilities to serve more clients and communities.
Dispositions
On April 4, 2018, Regions entered into a stock purchase agreement to sell Regions Insurance Group, Inc. and related affiliates to BB&T Insurance Holdings, Inc. The transaction closed on July 2, 2018. The gain associated with the transaction amounted to $281 million ($196 million after-tax).
On January 11, 2012, Regions entered into a stock purchase agreement to sell Morgan Keegan and related affiliates to Raymond James. The sale closed on April 2, 2012. Regions Investment Management, Inc. and Regions Trust were not included in the sale; they are included in the Wealth Management segment.
Results of operations for the entities sold are presented separately as discontinued operations for all periods presented on the consolidated statements of income. Other expenses related to the transaction are also included in discontinued operations. Refer to Note 3 “Discontinued Operations” and Note 24 “Commitments, Contingencies, and Guarantees” to the consolidated financial statements for further details.
Business Segments
Regions provides traditional commercial, retail and mortgage banking services, as well as other financial services in the fields of asset management, wealth management, securities brokerage, and other specialty financing. Regions carries out its strategies and derives its profitability from three reportable segments: Corporate Bank, Consumer Bank, and Wealth Management, with the remainder split between Discontinued Operations and Other.
See Note 23 “Business Segment Information” to the consolidated financial statements for further information on Regions’ business segments.

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Table 1—Financial Highlights
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
(In millions, except per share data)
EARNINGS SUMMARY
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest income, including other financing income
$
4,393

 
$
3,987

 
$
3,814

 
$
3,601

 
$
3,588

Interest expense and depreciation expense on operating lease assets
658

 
448

 
416

 
296

 
309

Net interest income and other financing income
3,735

 
3,539

 
3,398

 
3,305

 
3,279

Provision for loan losses
229

 
150

 
262

 
241

 
69

Net interest income and other financing income after provision for loan losses
3,506

 
3,389

 
3,136

 
3,064

 
3,210

Non-interest income
2,019

 
1,962

 
2,011

 
1,937

 
1,785

Non-interest expense
3,570

 
3,491

 
3,483

 
3,478

 
3,318

Income from continuing operations before income taxes
1,955

 
1,860

 
1,664

 
1,523

 
1,677

Income tax expense
387

 
619

 
510

 
452

 
546

Income from continuing operations
1,568

 
1,241

 
1,154

 
1,071

 
1,131

Income (loss) from discontinued operations before income taxes
271

 
19

 
16

 
(15
)
 
26

Income tax expense (benefit)
80

 
(3
)
 
7

 
(6
)
 
10

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax
191

 
22

 
9

 
(9
)
 
16

Net income
$
1,759

 
$
1,263

 
$
1,163

 
$
1,062

 
$
1,147

Net income from continuing operations available to common shareholders
$
1,504

 
$
1,177

 
$
1,090

 
$
1,007

 
$
1,079

Net income available to common shareholders
$
1,695

 
$
1,199

 
$
1,099

 
$
998

 
$
1,095

Earnings per common share from continuing operations – basic
$
1.38

 
$
0.99

 
$
0.87

 
$
0.76

 
$
0.79

Earnings per common share from continuing operations – diluted
1.36

 
0.98

 
0.86

 
0.75

 
0.78

Earnings per common share – basic
1.55

 
1.01

 
0.87

 
0.75

 
0.80

Earnings per common share – diluted
1.54

 
1.00

 
0.87

 
0.75

 
0.79

Return on average common stockholders' equity - continuing operations (1)(3)
10.33
%
 
7.42
%
 
6.69
%
 
6.27
%
 
6.80
%
Return on average tangible common stockholders’ equity (non-GAAP) - continuing operations (1)(2)(3)
15.59

 
10.80

 
9.61

 
9.04

 
9.86

Return on average assets - continuing operations (1)(3)
1.27

 
1.00

 
0.92

 
0.88

 
0.96

BALANCE SHEET SUMMARY
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
As of December 31
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Loans, net of unearned income
$
83,152

 
$
79,947

 
$
80,095

 
$
81,162

 
$
77,307

Allowance for loan losses
(840
)
 
(934
)
 
(1,091
)
 
(1,106
)
 
(1,103
)
Assets
125,688

 
124,294

 
125,968

 
125,050

 
119,563

Deposits
94,491

 
96,889

 
99,035

 
98,430

 
94,200

Long-term debt
12,424

 
8,132

 
7,763

 
8,349

 
3,462

Stockholders’ equity
15,090

 
16,192

 
16,664

 
16,844

 
16,873

Average balances
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Loans, net of unearned income
$
80,692

 
$
79,846

 
$
81,333

 
$
79,634

 
$
76,253

Assets
123,380

 
123,976

 
125,506

 
122,265

 
118,352

Deposits
94,438

 
97,341

 
97,921

 
96,890

 
93,481

Long-term debt
9,977

 
7,076

 
8,159

 
5,046

 
4,057

Stockholders’ equity
15,381

 
16,665

 
17,126

 
16,916

 
16,620

SELECTED RATIOS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basel I Tier 1 common regulatory capital (non-GAAP) (4)
N/A%

 
N/A%

 
N/A%

 
N/A%

 
11.65
%
Basel III common equity Tier 1 ratio (5)
9.90

 
11.05

 
11.21

 
10.93

 
N/A

Basel III common equity Tier 1 ratio—Fully Phased-In Pro-Forma (non-GAAP) (2)(4)(5)
9.83

 
10.95

 
11.05

 
10.69

 
11.00

Tier 1 capital (4)(5)(6)
10.68

 
11.86

 
11.98

 
11.65

 
12.54

Total capital (4)(5)(6)
12.46

 
13.78

 
14.15

 
13.88

 
15.26

Leverage capital (4)(5)(6)
9.32

 
10.01

 
10.20

 
10.25

 
10.86

Tangible common stockholders’ equity to tangible assets (non-GAAP) (2)
7.80

 
8.71

 
8.99

 
9.13

 
9.66

Efficiency ratio
61.50

 
62.44

 
63.42

 
65.42

 
64.72

Adjusted efficiency ratio (non-GAAP) (2)
59.26

 
61.35

 
62.46

 
64.08

 
63.72


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2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
(In millions, except per share data)
COMMON STOCK DATA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common equity book value per share
$
13.92

 
$
13.55

 
$
13.04

 
$
12.35

 
$
11.81

Tangible common book value per share (non-GAAP)(2)
9.19

 
9.16

 
8.95

 
8.52

 
8.18

Market value at year-end
13.38

 
17.28

 
14.36

 
9.60

 
10.56

Total trading volume (shares)
3,044

 
3,704

 
5,241

 
4,243

 
3,689

Dividend payout ratio
29.90
%
 
31.48
%
 
29.25
%
 
30.76
%
 
22.8
%
Stockholders of record at year-end (actual)
42,087

 
46,143

 
48,958

 
51,270

 
57,529

Weighted-average number of common shares outstanding
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
1,092

 
1,186

 
1,255

 
1,325

 
1,375

Diluted
1,102

 
1,198

 
1,261

 
1,334

 
1,387

________
N/A - not applicable.
(1) Due to the immaterial impact of the discontinued operations, the balance sheet has not been presented on a continuing operations basis.
(2) See Table 2 for GAAP to non-GAAP reconciliations.
(3) The 2018 return on average common stockholders' equity, return on average tangible stockholders' equity and return on average assets were 11.64%, 17.57%, and 1.43%, respectively, including discontinued operations.
(4) Regions' regulatory capital ratios for years prior to 2015 have not been revised to reflect the retrospective application of new accounting guidance related to investments in qualified affordable housing projects.
(5) Current year Basel III common equity Tier 1, Tier 1 capital, Total capital, and Leverage capital ratios are estimated.
(6) Beginning in 2015, Regions' regulatory capital ratios are calculated pursuant to the phase-in provisions of the Basel III Rules. All prior period ratios were calculated pursuant to the Basel I capital rules.
NON-GAAP MEASURES
The table below presents computations of earnings and certain other financial measures, which exclude certain significant items that are included in the financial results presented in accordance with GAAP. These non-GAAP financial measures include “adjusted average total loans”, “adjusted net interest margin”, “adjusted efficiency ratio”, “adjusted fee income ratio”, “return on average tangible common stockholders’ equity”, on a consolidated and continuing operations basis, and end of period “tangible common stockholders’ equity”, and “Basel III CET1, on a fully phased-in basis” and related ratios. Regions believes that expressing earnings and certain other financial measures excluding these significant items provides a meaningful base for period-to-period comparisons, which management believes will assist investors in analyzing the operating results of the Company and predicting future performance. These non-GAAP financial measures are also used by management to assess the performance of Regions’ business because management does not consider the activities related to the adjustments to be indications of ongoing operations. Regions believes that presentation of these non-GAAP financial measures will permit investors to assess the performance of the Company on the same basis as that applied by management. Management and the Board utilize these non-GAAP financial measures as follows:
Preparation of Regions’ operating budgets
Monthly financial performance reporting
Monthly close-out reporting of consolidated results (management only)
Presentations to investors of Company performance
Total average loans is presented excluding the impact of the first quarter 2018 residential first mortgage loan sale and the indirect vehicles third-party exit portfolio to arrive at adjusted average total loans (non-GAAP). Regions believes adjusting average total loans provides a meaningful calculation of loan growth rates and presents them on the same basis as that applied by management.
The adjusted efficiency ratio (non-GAAP), which is a measure of productivity, is generally calculated as adjusted non-interest expense divided by adjusted total revenue on a taxable-equivalent basis. The adjusted fee income ratio (non-GAAP) is generally calculated as adjusted non-interest income divided by adjusted total revenue on a taxable-equivalent basis. Management uses these ratios to monitor performance and believes these measures provide meaningful information to investors. Non-interest expense (GAAP) is presented excluding adjustments to arrive at adjusted non-interest expense (non-GAAP), which is the numerator for the adjusted efficiency ratio. Non-interest income (GAAP) is presented excluding adjustments to arrive at adjusted non-interest income (non-GAAP), which is the numerator for the adjusted fee income ratio. Net interest income and other financing income on a taxable-equivalent basis (GAAP) is presented excluding certain adjustments related to Tax Reform to arrive at adjusted net interest income and other financing income on a taxable-equivalent basis (non-GAAP). Net interest income and other financing income on a taxable-equivalent basis and non-interest income are added together to arrive at total revenue on a taxable-equivalent basis. Adjustments are made to arrive at adjusted total revenue on a taxable-equivalent basis (non-GAAP), which is the denominator for the adjusted efficiency and adjusted fee income ratios.

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Tangible common stockholders’ equity ratios have become a focus of some investors in analyzing the capital position of the Company absent the effects of intangible assets and preferred stock. Traditionally, the Federal Reserve and other banking regulatory bodies have assessed a bank’s capital adequacy based on Tier 1 capital, the calculation of which is codified in federal banking regulations. Analysts and banking regulators have assessed Regions’ capital adequacy using the tangible common stockholders’ equity measure. Because tangible common stockholders’ equity is not formally defined by GAAP, this measure is considered to be a non-GAAP financial measure and other entities may calculate it differently than Regions’ disclosed calculations. Since analysts and banking regulators may assess Regions’ capital adequacy using tangible common stockholders’ equity, Regions believes that it is useful to provide investors the ability to assess Regions’ capital adequacy on this same basis.
The Basel Committee's Basel III framework will strengthen international capital and liquidity regulations. When fully phased in, Basel III will increase capital requirements through higher minimum capital levels as well as through increases in risk-weights for certain exposures. Additionally, the Basel III Rules place greater emphasis on common equity. The Federal Reserve released its final Basel III Rules detailing the U.S. implementation of Basel III in 2013. Regions, as a standardized approach bank, began transitioning to the Basel III framework in January 2015 subject to a phase-in period extending through January 2019. Because the Basel III implementation regulations will not be fully phased in until 2019 and, are not formally defined by GAAP, these measures are considered to be non-GAAP financial measures. Since analysts and banking regulators may assess Regions’ capital adequacy using the fully phased-in Basel III framework, Regions believes that it is useful to provide investors information enabling them to assess Regions’ capital adequacy on the same basis.
Non-GAAP financial measures have inherent limitations, are not required to be uniformly applied and are not audited. Although these non-GAAP financial measures are frequently used by stakeholders in the evaluation of a company, they have limitations as analytical tools, and should not be considered in isolation, or as a substitute for analyses of results as reported under GAAP. In particular, a measure of earnings that excludes selected items does not represent the amount that effectively accrues directly to stockholders.
The following tables provide: 1) a reconciliation of average total loans to adjusted average total loans (non-GAAP), 2) a reconciliation of net income (GAAP) to net income available to common shareholders (GAAP), 3) a reconciliation of net income available to common shareholders (GAAP) to net income available to common shareholders from continuing operations (GAAP) 4) a reconciliation of non-interest expense from continuing operations (GAAP) to adjusted non-interest expense from continuing operations (non-GAAP), 5) a reconciliation of net interest income and other financing income/margin, taxable equivalent basis (GAAP) to adjusted net interest income and other financing income/margin, taxable equivalent basis (non-GAAP), 6) a reconciliation of non-interest income from continuing operations (GAAP) to adjusted non-interest income from continuing operations (non-GAAP), 7) a computation of adjusted total revenue (non-GAAP), 8) a computation of the adjusted efficiency ratio (non-GAAP), 9) a computation of the adjusted fee income ratio (non-GAAP), 10) a reconciliation of average and ending stockholders’ equity (GAAP) to average and ending tangible common stockholders’ equity (non-GAAP) and calculations of related ratios (non-GAAP), 11) a reconciliation of stockholders’ equity (GAAP) to Basel III CET1, on a fully phased-in basis (non-GAAP), and 12) calculation of the related ratio based on Regions’ current understanding of the Basel III requirements (non-GAAP).
Table 2—GAAP to Non-GAAP Reconciliation
 
 
Year Ended December 31
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
(Dollars in millions)
ADJUSTED AVERAGE BALANCES OF LOANS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average total loans
 
$
80,692

 
$
79,846

 
$
81,333

 
$
79,634

 
$
76,253

Less: Balances of residential first mortgage loans sold (1)
 
40

 
254

 
254

 
254

 
254

Less: Indirect—vehicles third-party
 
850

 
1,517

 
2,025

 
1,930

 
1,706

Adjusted average total loans (non-GAAP)
 
$
79,802

 
$
78,075

 
$
79,054

 
$
77,450

 
$
74,293










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Year Ended December 31
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
(Dollars in millions, except per share data)
INCOME CONSOLIDATED
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (GAAP)
 
$
1,759

 
$
1,263

 
$
1,163

 
$
1,062

 
$
1,147

Preferred dividends (GAAP)
 
(64
)
 
(64
)
 
(64
)
 
(64
)
 
(52
)
Net income available to common shareholders (GAAP)
A
$
1,695

 
$
1,199

 
$
1,099

 
$
998

 
$
1,095

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax
 
191

 
22

 
9

 
(9
)
 
16

Net income from continuing operations available to common shareholders (GAAP)
B
$
1,504

 
$
1,177

 
$
1,090

 
$
1,007

 
$
1,079

ADJUSTED EFFICIENCY AND FEE INCOME RATIOS CONTINUING OPERATIONS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-interest expense (GAAP)
C
$
3,570

 
$
3,491

 
$
3,483

 
$
3,478

 
$
3,318

Adjustments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Contribution to Regions Financial Corporation foundation
 
(60
)
 
(40
)
 

 

 

Professional, legal and regulatory expenses (2)(3)
 

 

 
(3
)
 
(48
)
 
(93
)
Branch consolidation, property and equipment charges
 
(11
)
 
(22
)
 
(58
)
 
(56
)
 
(16
)
Expenses associated with residential mortgage loan sale
 
(4
)
 

 

 

 

Gain on sale of TDRs held for sale, net
 

 

 

 

 
35

Loss on early extinguishment of debt
 

 

 
(14
)
 
(43
)
 

Salary and employee benefits—severance charges
 
(61
)
 
(10
)
 
(21
)
 
(6
)
 

Adjusted non-interest expense (non-GAAP)
D
$
3,434

 
$
3,419

 
$
3,387

 
$
3,325

 
$
3,244

Net interest income and other financing income (GAAP)
E
$
3,735

 
$
3,539

 
$
3,398

 
$
3,305

 
$
3,279

Reduction in leveraged lease interest income resulting from tax reform
 

 
6

 

 

 

Adjusted net interest income and other financing income (non-GAAP)
F
$
3,735

 
$
3,545

 
$
3,398

 
$
3,305

 
$
3,279

Net interest income and other financing income (GAAP)
 
$
3,735

 
$
3,539

 
$
3,398

 
$
3,305

 
$
3,279

Taxable-equivalent adjustment
 
51

 
90

 
84

 
75

 
63

Net interest income and other financing income, taxable-equivalent basis - continuing operations
G
3,786

 
3,629

 
3,482

 
3,380

 
3,342

Reduction in leveraged lease interest income resulting from Tax Reform
 

 
6

 

 

 

Adjusted net interest income and other financing income, taxable equivalent basis (non-GAAP)
H
$
3,786

 
$
3,635

 
$
3,482

 
$
3,380

 
$
3,342

Net interest margin (GAAP) (4)
 
3.50
%
 
3.32
%
 
3.14
%
 
3.13
%
 
3.21
%
Reduction in leveraged lease interest income resulting from Tax Reform
 

 
0.01

 

 

 

Adjusted net interest margin (non-GAAP)
 
3.50
%
 
3.33
%
 
3.14
%
 
3.13
%
 
3.21
%
Non-interest income (GAAP)
I
2,019

 
1,962

 
2,011

 
1,937

 
1,785

Adjustments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Securities (gains) losses, net
 
(1
)
 
(19
)
 
(6
)
 
(29
)
 
(27
)
Insurance proceeds (5)
 

 

 
(50
)
 
(91
)
 

Leveraged lease termination gains
 
(8
)
 
(1
)
 
(8
)
 
(8
)
 
(10
)
Gain on sale of affordable housing residential mortgage loans (6)
 

 
(5
)
 
(5
)
 

 

Adjusted non-interest income (non-GAAP)
J
2,010

 
1,937

 
1,942

 
1,809

 
1,748

Total revenue
E+I=K
$
5,754

 
$
5,501

 
$
5,409

 
$
5,242

 
$
5,064

Adjusted total revenue (non-GAAP)
F+J=L
$
5,745

 
$
5,482

 
$
5,340

 
$
5,114

 
$
5,027

Total revenue, taxable-equivalent basis
G+I=M
$
5,805

 
$
5,591

 
$
5,493


$
5,317


$
5,127

Adjusted total revenue, taxable-equivalent basis (non-GAAP)
H+J=N
$
5,796

 
$
5,572

 
$
5,424

 
$
5,189

 
$
5,090

Efficiency ratio (GAAP)
C/M
61.50
%
 
62.44
%
 
63.42
%
 
65.42
%
 
64.72
%
Adjusted efficiency ratio (non-GAAP)
D/N
59.26
%
 
61.35
%
 
62.46
%
 
64.08
%
 
63.72
%
Fee income ratio (GAAP)
I/M
34.78
%
 
35.09
%
 
36.62
%
 
36.42
%
 
34.82
%
Adjusted fee income ratio (non-GAAP)
J/N
34.68
%
 
34.80
%
 
35.82
%
 
34.87
%
 
34.34
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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Table of Contents




 
 
Year Ended December 31
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
(Dollars in millions, except share data)
RETURN ON AVERAGE TANGIBLE COMMON STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY — CONSOLIDATED
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average stockholders’ equity (GAAP)
 
$
15,381

 
$
16,665

 
$
17,126

 
$
16,916

 
$
16,620

Less:  Average intangible assets (GAAP)
 
5,010

 
5,103

 
5,125

 
5,099

 
5,103

Average deferred tax liability related to intangibles (GAAP)
 
(97
)
 
(148
)
 
(162
)
 
(170
)
 
(182
)
Average preferred stock (GAAP)
 
820

 
820

 
820

 
848

 
754

Average tangible common stockholders’ equity (non-GAAP)
O
$
9,648

 
$
10,890

 
$
11,343

 
$
11,139

 
$
10,945

Return on average tangible common stockholders’ equity (non-GAAP)
A/O
17.57
%
 
11.01
%
 
9.69
%
 
8.96
%
 
10.00
%
RETURN ON AVERAGE TANGIBLE COMMON STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY — CONTINUING OPERATIONS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average stockholders’ equity (GAAP) (7)
 
$
15,381

 
$
16,665

 
$
17,126

 
$
16,916

 
$
16,620

Less:  Average intangible assets (GAAP) (7)
 
5,010

 
5,103

 
5,125

 
5,099

 
5,103

Average deferred tax liability related to intangibles (GAAP) (7)
 
(97
)
 
(148
)
 
(162
)
 
(170
)
 
(182
)
Average preferred stock (GAAP) (7)
 
820

 
820

 
820

 
848

 
754

Average tangible common stockholders’ equity (non-GAAP) (7)
P
$
9,648

 
$
10,890

 
$
11,343

 
$
11,139

 
$
10,945

Return on average tangible common stockholders’ equity (non-GAAP)
B/P
15.59
%
 
10.80
%
 
9.61
%
 
9.04
%
 
9.86
%
TANGIBLE COMMON RATIOS — CONSOLIDATED
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ending stockholders’ equity (GAAP)
 
$
15,090

 
$
16,192

 
$
16,664

 
$
16,844

 
$
16,873

Less: Ending intangible assets (GAAP)
 
4,944

 
5,081

 
5,125

 
5,137

 
5,091

  Ending deferred tax liability related to intangibles (GAAP)
 
(94
)
 
(99
)
 
(155
)
 
(165
)
 
(172
)
  Ending preferred stock (GAAP)
 
820

 
820

 
820

 
820

 
884

Ending tangible common stockholders’ equity (non-GAAP)
Q
$
9,420

 
$
10,390

 
$
10,874

 
$
11,052

 
$
11,070

Ending total assets (GAAP)
 
$
125,688

 
$
124,294

 
$
125,968

 
$
126,050

 
$
119,563

Less: Ending intangible assets (GAAP)
 
4,944

 
5,081

 
5,125

 
5,137

 
5,091

  Ending deferred tax liability related to intangibles (GAAP)
 
(94
)
 
(99
)
 
(155
)
 
(165
)
 
(172
)
Ending tangible assets (non-GAAP)
R
$
120,838

 
$
119,312

 
$
120,998

 
$
121,078

 
$
114,644

End of period shares outstanding
S
1,025

 
1,134

 
1,215

 
1,297

 
1,354

Tangible common stockholders’ equity to tangible assets (non-GAAP)
Q/R
7.80
%
 
8.71
%
 
8.99