Acquired in 2019, Rowan provided offshore contract drilling services to the oil and gas industry, with its fleet of jack-up rigs and ultra-deepwater drillships.
A company creates wealth for its long-term shareholders in 2 main ways - through dividend payments and through the accumulation of retained earnings. This graph shows the accumulation of per-share equity of long-term shareholders (green bars), which consists of the retained earnings plus all capital invested in the company, and the cumulative dividends the company has paid over time per share of its stock (blue bars).
In the words of Warren Buffett: "We're looking for... businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt."
Return on equity is a key metric of financial performance, indicating a company's ability to generate earnings using shareholder capital. Over time, ROE is one of the major determinants of the rate at which a company creates shareholder wealth. The average ROE for large U.S. companies is 12%, and many investors use it as a threshold for attractive investments.
Companies can boost ROE by increasing leverage, which reduces the safety of the investment. Therefore, it is useful to look at the return on assets (ROA), which measures a company's earning power regardless of its capital structure. A widening gap between ROE and ROA may be a warning sign that should be thoroughly investigated.
Earnings per share is a popular metric used to value a company (using P/E ratio); growth in EPS is often used to judge company growth potential. However, many investors believe that EPS is an inferior metric to ROE, because it ignores the amount of capital the company used to generate earnings.
Free cash flow shows how much cash a company generates from operations, above and beyond what is required to maintain or expand its productive assets. This cash can be returned to investors, or spent by management on growing the company or paying back its debts.
Balance sheets of many companies contain intangible assets such as goodwill, trademarks, patents, etc. Many investors consider intangibles more difficult to value than physical assets. If intangible assets had been valued incorrectly, they must be impaired, resulting in a loss charged against shareholder equity. This chart demonstrates the potential loss to shareholder equity from such impairments.
Companies often use debt financing to increase their return on equity. However, as the amount of debt financing increases relative to the amount of equity financing, the company becomes more sensitive to down turns and other negative events. As a result, many investors use the ratio of debt to equity as a measure of a company's financial risk, and avoid companies that have this ratio above 1.
This chart shows shareholder equity as a percentage of total assets, allowing investors to judge the overall leverage. Companies with a higher proportion of equity can be viewed as safer investments. This metric is particularly important for highly leveraged institutions, such as banks, where it must be at least 4% according to government regulations.
The ratio of current assets to current liabilities is known as the current ratio. This metric is a quick measure of the company's ability to pay its short-term obligations. A current ratio below 1 is a warning sign that should be investigated, especially for companies that cannot count on adequate cash flow from operations.
This chart shows the cumulative dilution of investor ownership in a company over time. Dilution reduces an investor's participation in the future earnings. Dilution increases when a company issues new shares, and decreases when a company buys its shares back. Many investors avoid companies with large chronic dilution.
analysis provides insight into factors affecting the Return On Equity of a company.
The DuPont equation decomposes ROE as follows:
ROE = (Net margin) * (Asset turnover) * (Asset to equity ratio)
Net margin indicates operating efficiency, Asset turnover measures the total asset use efficiency, and the Asset to equity ratio is a measure of financial leverage.
The dividend payout ratio tells investors what percentage of earnings a company returns to shareholders, and what percentage it retains and reinvests. This ratio represents a major capital allocation decision by the company, and can be used to judge management rationality. Rational management should pay out all earnings that cannot be productively reinvested. Therefore, a low dividend payout ratio for a profitable company with a low growth potential may be a warning sign.
Many investors use the P/B ratio as a quick way of judging company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - specifically seek out companies with low P/B ratios. However, investors should be careful not to make investment decisions on this metric alone, without considering a company's earning and growth potential, since a low P/B ratio can be a sign of a bleak future for the business.
P/E ratio is a popular way of making a quick judgment of a company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - often seek solid companies with low P/E ratios as investment opportunities. However, P/E ratio represents an oversimplified approach to business valuation, and can often lead to incorrect investment decisions.
In early 2000, the Company completed the sale of 10.3 million shares of its common stock, consisting of approximately 5.8 million shares of treasury stock and 4.5 million newly issued shares. The net proceeds of approximately $247 million were first applied to repayment of the $110 million outstanding under the Company's $155 million bank revolving credit facility, which was subsequently cancelled.
sale, in early 2004, of 11.5 million shares of Rowan common stock for approximately $265 million as if such transactions had occurred at December 31, 2003
On July 1, 2010, the Company entered into a Share Purchase Agreement with certain shareholders of Skeie Drilling & Production ASA ("SKDP") and obtained irrevocable commitments from two other shareholders of SKDP for the purchase of their shares, which constituted 48.8% of the outstanding ordinary shares of SKDP. Under the terms of the Purchase Agreement and irrevocable commitments, the Company agreed to issue 0.00574167 shares of Rowan common stock for each ordinary share of SKDP owned by the Sellers. In July 2010, the Company purchased an additional 1.5% of SKDP shares for cash in the open market. SKDP is a Norwegian entity that owns and manages the construction of three high-spec jack-up rigs, designated "N-Class,"" designed and being built by Keppel FELS Ltd. in Singapore. In August 2010, the Company issued common stock to certain shareholders of SKDP in private placements in exchange for their SKDP shares and, on August 24, 2010, commenced a tender offer for all remaining ordinary shares of SKDP on the same terms. Through the transactions contemplated by the Purchase Agreement, the private placements and the Exchange Offer, the Company acquired approximately 96% of the outstanding SKDP shares. On September 30, 2010, the Company acquired the remaining SKDP shares in cash through a compulsory acquisition pursuant to the Norwegian Public Companies Act. The SKDP shares have since been delisted from the Norwegian OTC. The total consideration paid for all of the SKDP shares was approximately $13 million in cash and 11,724,818 shares of Rowan common stock.
On April 11, 2019, Ensco completed our combination with Rowan Companies plc. Rowan shareholders received 2.750 Ensco Class A Ordinary shares for each Rowan Class A ordinary share, representing a value of $43.67 per Rowan share based on a closing price of $15.88 per Ensco share on April 10, 2019, the last trading day before the Transaction Date. Total consideration delivered in the Rowan Transaction consisted of 88.3 million Ensco shares with an aggregate value of $1.4 billion, inclusive of $2.6 million for the estimated fair value of replacement employee equity awards.