UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
____________________________________________________________________________

FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2018
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from _________ to  ___________  
Commission
File Number
 
Exact Name of Registrant
as Specified In Its Charter
 
State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization
 
IRS Employer
Identification Number
1-12609
 
PG&E CORPORATION
 
California
 
94-3234914
1-2348
 
PACIFIC GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY
 
California
 
94-0742640
logo1.jpg
logo2.jpg
77 Beale Street, P.O. Box 770000
San Francisco, California 94177
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(415) 973-1000
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
77 Beale Street, P.O. Box 770000
San Francisco, California 94177
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(415) 973-7000
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
PG&E Corporation: Common Stock, no par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
Pacific Gas and Electric Company: First Preferred Stock,
cumulative, par value $25 per share:
 
NYSE MKT LLC
Redeemable: 5% Series A, 5%, 4.80%, 4.50%, 4.36%
 
 
Nonredeemable: 6%, 5.50%, 5%
 
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act:
PG&E Corporation
Yes ☐ No ☑
Pacific Gas and Electric Company
Yes ☐ No ☑

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act:
PG&E Corporation
Yes ☐ No ☑
Pacific Gas and Electric Company
Yes ☐ No ☑

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. 
PG&E Corporation
Yes ☑ No ☐
Pacific Gas and Electric Company
Yes ☑ No ☐
 





Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  
PG&E Corporation
Yes ☑ No ☐
Pacific Gas and Electric Company
Yes ☑ No ☐

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K:
PG&E Corporation
Pacific Gas and Electric Company

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). (Check one):
 
PG&E Corporation
 
Pacific Gas and Electric Company
 
 
Large accelerated filer ☑
 
Large accelerated filer ☐
 
 
Accelerated filer ☐
 
Accelerated filer ☐
 
 
Non-accelerated filer ☐
 
Non-accelerated filer ☑
 
 
Smaller reporting company ☐
 
Smaller reporting company ☐
 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
PG&E Corporation
Pacific Gas and Electric Company

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
PG&E Corporation
Yes ☐ No ☑
Pacific Gas and Electric Company
Yes ☐ No ☑
 
Aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrants as of June 30, 2018, the last business day of the most recently completed second fiscal quarter:
PG&E Corporation common stock
                    $22,620 million
Pacific Gas and Electric Company common stock
                    Wholly owned by PG&E Corporation
Common Stock outstanding as of February 22, 2019:
 
PG&E Corporation:
527,561,429 shares
Pacific Gas and Electric Company:
264,374,809 shares (wholly owned by PG&E Corporation)
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
 
Portions of the documents listed below have been incorporated by reference into the indicated parts of this report, as specified in the responses to the item numbers involved:
Designated portions of the Joint Proxy Statement relating to the 2019 Annual Meetings of Shareholders
Part III (Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14)





Contents

3



 


4



UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
1 Kilowatt (kW)
=
One thousand watts
1 Kilowatt-Hour (kWh)
=
One kilowatt continuously for one hour
1 Megawatt (MW)
=
One thousand kilowatts
1 Megawatt-Hour (MWh)
=
One megawatt continuously for one hour
1 Gigawatt (GW)
=
One million kilowatts
1 Gigawatt-Hour (GWh)
=
One gigawatt continuously for one hour
1 Kilovolt (kV)
=
One thousand volts
1 MVA
=
One megavolt ampere
1 Mcf
=
One thousand cubic feet
1 MMcf
=
One million cubic feet
1 Bcf
=
One billion cubic feet
1 MDth
=
One thousand decatherms


5



GLOSSARY
The following terms and abbreviations appearing in the text of this report have the meanings indicated below.
2018 Form 10-K
PG&E Corporation's and Pacific Gas and Electric Company's combined Annual Report on
Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018
AB
Assembly Bill
AFUDC
allowance for funds used during construction
ALJ
administrative law judge
ARO
asset retirement obligation
ASU
accounting standard update issued by the FASB (see below)
Bankruptcy Code
the United States Bankruptcy Code
Bankruptcy Court
the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of California
BCPP
bundled customer procurement plan
CAISO
California Independent System Operator
Cal Fire
California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection
CARB
California Air Resources Board
CCA
Community Choice Aggregator
Central Coast Board
Central Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board
CEC
California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission
CEMA
Catastrophic Event Memorandum Account
Chapter 11
chapter 11 of title 11 of the U.S. Code
Chapter 11 Cases
the voluntary cases commenced by each of PG&E Corporation and the Utility under Chapter 11 on January 29, 2019
CO2
carbon dioxide
COSO
Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission
CPUC
California Public Utilities Commission
CRRs
congestion revenue rights
CWSP
Community Wildfire Safety Program
DA
Direct Access
DER
distributed energy resources
Diablo Canyon
Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant
DIP
Debtor in Possession
DOE
U.S. Department of Energy
DOGGR
Division of Oil, Gas and Geothermal Resources
DRP
distribution resource plan
DTSC
Department of Toxic Substances Control
EDA
equity distribution agreement
EMANI
European Mutual Association for Nuclear Insurance
EPA
Environmental Protection Agency
EPS
earnings per common share
EV
electric vehicle
FASB
Financial Accounting Standards Board
FERC
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
GAAP
U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
GHG
greenhouse gas
GRC
general rate case
GT&S
gas transmission and storage
HSM
hazardous substance memorandum account

6



IOUs
investor-owned utility(ies)
IRS
Internal Revenue Service
LCC
Land Conservation Commitment
LIBOR
London Interbank Offered Rate
LTIP
long-term incentive plan
MD&A
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations set forth in Part II, Item 7, of this Form 10-K
MGP(s)
manufactured gas plants
MOU
memorandum of understanding
NAV
net asset value
NDCTP
Nuclear Decommissioning Cost Triennial Proceedings
NEIL
Nuclear Electric Insurance Limited
NEM
net energy metering
NRC
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
NTSB
National Transportation Safety Board
OES
State of California Office of Emergency Services
OII
order instituting investigation
OIR
order instituting rulemaking
PAO
Public Advocates Office of the California Public Utilities Commission (formerly known as Office of Ratepayer Advocates or ORA)
PCAOB
Public Company Accounting Oversight Board
PCIA
Power Charge Indifference Adjustment
PD
proposed decision
Petition Date
January 29, 2019
PFM
petition for modification
QF
qualifying facility
RAMP
Risk Assessment Mitigation Phase
REITS
real estate investment trust
ROE
return on equity
ROU
right of use
RPS
renewable portfolio standard
SB
Senate Bill
SEC
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
SED
Safety and Enforcement Division of the CPUC
Tax Act
Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017
TE
transportation electrification
TO
transmission owner
TURN
The Utility Reform Network
Utility
Pacific Gas and Electric Company
USAO
United States Attorney's Office for the Northern District of California
VIE(s)
variable interest entity(ies)
Water Board
California State Water Resources Control Board
WEMA
Wildfire Expense Memorandum Account


7



PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

PG&E Corporation, incorporated in California in 1995, is a holding company whose primary operating subsidiary is Pacific Gas and Electric Company, a public utility operating in northern and central California. The Utility was incorporated in California in 1905. PG&E Corporation became the holding company of the Utility and its subsidiaries in 1997. The Utility generates revenues mainly through the sale and delivery of electricity and natural gas to customers. PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s operating revenues, income, and total assets can be found below in Item 6. Selected Financial Data.

The principal executive offices of PG&E Corporation and the Utility are located at 77 Beale Street, P.O. Box 770000, San Francisco, California 94177. PG&E Corporation’s telephone number is (415) 973-1000 and the Utility’s telephone number is (415) 973-7000.

At December 31, 2018, PG&E Corporation and the Utility had approximately 24,000 regular employees, approximately 13 of which were employees of PG&E Corporation. Of the Utility’s regular employees, approximately 14,500 are covered by collective bargaining agreements with the local chapters of three labor unions: the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers; the Engineers and Scientists of California; and the Service Employees International Union. The collective bargaining agreements currently in effect will expire on December 31, 2021.

This is a combined Annual Report on Form 10-K for PG&E Corporation and the Utility. Each of PG&E Corporation and the Utility is a separate entity, with distinct creditors and claimants, and is subject to separate laws, rules, and regulations. PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and proxy statements, are available free of charge on both PG&E Corporation's website, www.pgecorp.com, and the Utility's website, www.pge.com, as promptly as practicable after they are filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. Additionally, PG&E Corporation and the Utility routinely provide links to the Utility’s principal regulatory proceedings before the CPUC and the FERC at http://investor.pgecorp.com, under the “Regulatory Filings” tab, so that such filings are available to investors upon filing with the relevant agency. PG&E Corporation and the Utility also routinely post or provide direct links to presentations, documents, and other information that may be of interest to investors at http://investor.pgecorp.com, under the “News & Events: Events & Presentations” tab and links to certain documents and information related to the 2018 Camp fire, the 2017 Northern California wildfires, and the 2015 Butte fire which may be of interest to investors, at http://investor.pgecorp.com, under the “Wildfire Updates” tab, in order to publicly disseminate such information. It is possible that any of these filings or information included therein could be deemed to be material information. The information contained on this website is not part of this or any other report that PG&E Corporation or the Utility files with, or furnishes to, the SEC. PG&E Corporation and the Utility are providing the address to this website solely for the information of investors and do not intend the address to be an active link.

In 2018 and 2017, Northern California experienced major wildfires. For more information about the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires, see Item 3. Legal Proceedings, Item 7. MD&A, and Note 13 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.

This 2018 Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements that are necessarily subject to various risks and uncertainties. For a discussion of the significant risks that could affect the outcome of these forward-looking statements and PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s future financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows, see Item 1A. Risk Factors and the section entitled “Forward-Looking Statements” in Item 7. MD&A.

Chapter 11 Proceedings

On January 29, 2019, PG&E Corporation and the Utility filed for Chapter 11 protection. For more information about the Chapter 11 bankruptcy filings see Item 7. MD&A and Note 15 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.

PG&E Corporation and the Utility are facing extraordinary challenges relating to the wildfires that occurred in Northern California in 2017 and 2018. Management has concluded that these circumstances raise substantial doubt about PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to continue as going concerns, and their independent registered public accountants have included an explanatory paragraph in their auditors’ report which states certain conditions exist which raise substantial doubt about PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to continue as going concerns in relation to the foregoing. For more information about these matters, see Item 7. MD&A and Note 1 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.


8



Regulatory Environment 

The Utility's business is subject to the regulatory jurisdiction of various agencies at the federal, state, and local levels. At the state level, the Utility is regulated primarily by the CPUC. At the federal level, the Utility is subject to the jurisdiction of the FERC and the NRC. The Utility is also subject to the requirements of other federal, state and local regulatory agencies, including with respect to safety, the environment, and health. This section and the “Ratemaking Mechanisms” section below summarize some of the more significant laws, regulations, and regulatory proceedings affecting the Utility.

PG&E Corporation is a “public utility holding company” as defined under the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 2005 and is subject to regulatory oversight by the FERC. PG&E Corporation and its subsidiaries are exempt from all requirements of the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 2005 other than the obligation to provide access to their books and records to the FERC and the CPUC for ratemaking purposes.

The California Public Utilities Commission

The CPUC is a regulatory agency that regulates privately owned public utilities in California. The CPUC has jurisdiction over the rates and terms and conditions of service for the Utility's electric and natural gas distribution operations, electric generation, and natural gas transmission and storage services. The CPUC also has exercised jurisdiction over the Utility's issuances of securities, dispositions of utility assets and facilities, energy purchases on behalf of the Utility's electric and natural gas retail customers, rates of return, rates of depreciation, oversight of nuclear decommissioning, and aspects of the siting of facilities used in providing electric and natural gas utility service.

The CPUC enforces state laws and regulations that set forth safety requirements pertaining to the design, construction, testing, operation, and maintenance of utility gas and electric facilities.  The CPUC can impose penalties of up to $50,000 per day, per violation, for violations that occurred after January 1, 2012. (The statutory maximum penalty for violations that occurred before January 1, 2012 is $20,000 per violation.) The CPUC has wide discretion to determine the amount of penalties based on the totality of the circumstances, including such factors as the gravity of the violations; the type of harm caused by the violations and the number of persons affected; and the good faith of the entity charged in attempting to achieve compliance, after notification of a violation. The CPUC also is required to consider the appropriateness of the amount of the penalty to the size of the entity charged.

The CPUC has delegated authority to the SED to issue citations and impose penalties for violations identified through audits, investigations, or self-reports. Under the current gas and electric citation programs adopted by the CPUC in September 2016, the SED has discretion whether to issue a penalty for each violation, but if it assesses a penalty for a violation, it is required to impose the maximum statutory penalty of $50,000, with an administrative limit of $8 million per citation issued. Effective January 1, 2019, the maximum statutory penalty increased to $100,000. The SED may, at its discretion, impose penalties on a daily basis, or on less than a daily basis, for violations that continued for more than one day. The SED has the discretion to either address each violation in a distinct citation or to include multiple violations in a single citation regardless of whether the violations occurred in the same incident or are of a similar nature. Penalty payments for citations issued pursuant to the gas and electric safety citation programs are the responsibility of shareholders of an issuer and must not be recovered in rates or otherwise directly or indirectly charged to customers.

The California State Legislature also directs the CPUC to implement state laws and policies, such as the laws relating to wildfires and wildfire cost recovery, increasing renewable energy resources, the development and widespread deployment of distributed generation and self-generation resources, the reduction of GHG emissions, the establishment of energy storage procurement targets, and the development of a state-wide electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The CPUC is responsible for approving funding and administration of state-mandated public purpose programs such as energy efficiency and other customer programs. The CPUC also conducts audits and reviews of the Utility’s accounting, performance, and compliance with regulatory guidelines.

The CPUC has imposed various conditions that govern the relationship between the Utility and PG&E Corporation and other affiliates, including financial conditions that require PG&E Corporation’s Board of Directors to give first priority to the capital requirements of the Utility, as determined to be necessary and prudent to meet the Utility's obligation to serve or to operate the Utility in a prudent and efficient manner. (For more information, see “Liquidity and Financial Resources” in Item 7. MD&A and Item 1A. Risk Factors.)


9



The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the California Independent System Operator

The FERC has jurisdiction over the Utility's electric transmission revenue requirements and rates, the licensing of substantially all of the Utility's hydroelectric generation facilities, and the interstate sale and transportation of natural gas. The FERC regulates the interconnections of the Utility’s transmission systems with other electric system and generation facilities, the tariffs and conditions of service of regional transmission organizations and the terms and rates of wholesale electricity sales. The FERC also is charged with adopting and enforcing mandatory standards governing the reliability of the nation’s electric transmission grid, including standards to protect the nation’s bulk power system against potential disruptions from cyber and physical security breaches. The FERC has authority to impose fines of up to $1 million per day for violations of certain federal statutes and regulations.

The CAISO is the FERC-approved regional transmission organization for the Utility’s service territory. The CAISO controls the operation of the electric transmission system in California and provides open access transmission service on a non-discriminatory basis. The CAISO also is responsible for planning transmission system additions, ensuring the maintenance of adequate reserves of generating capacity, and ensuring that the reliability of the transmission system is maintained.

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission

The NRC oversees the licensing, construction, operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, including the Utility’s two nuclear generating units at Diablo Canyon and the Utility’s retired nuclear generating unit at Humboldt Bay. (See “Electricity Resources” below.) NRC regulations require extensive monitoring and review of the safety, radiological, seismic, environmental, and security aspects of these facilities. In the event of non-compliance, the NRC has the authority to impose fines or to force a shutdown of a nuclear plant, or both. NRC safety and security requirements have, in the past, necessitated substantial capital expenditures at Diablo Canyon, and substantial capital expenditures could be required in the future. (For more information about Diablo Canyon, see “Regulatory Matters - Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant” in Item 7. MD&A and Item 3. Legal Proceedings below.)

Third-party monitor

On April 12, 2017, the Utility retained a third-party monitor at the Utility’s expense as part of its compliance with the sentencing terms of the Utility’s January 27, 2017 federal criminal conviction, which sentenced the Utility to, among other things, a five-year corporate probation period and oversight by a third-party monitor for a period of five years, with the ability to apply for early termination after three years.  The goal of the third-party monitor is to help ensure that the Utility takes reasonable and appropriate steps to maintain the safety of its gas and electric operations and maintains effective ethics, compliance, and safety related incentive programs on a Utility-wide basis. (For more information see Item 1A. Risk Factors and "U.S. District Court Matters and Probation" in Item 3. Legal Proceedings and in Note 15 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.)

Other Regulators

The CEC is the state's primary energy policy and planning agency. The CEC is responsible for licensing all thermal power plants over 50 MW within California. The CEC also is responsible for forecasts of future energy needs used by the CPUC in determining the adequacy of the utilities' electricity procurement plans and for adopting building and appliance energy efficiency requirements.

The CARB is the state agency responsible for setting and monitoring GHG and other emission limits. The CARB is also responsible for adopting and enforcing regulations to implement state law requirements to gradually reduce GHG emissions in California. (See “Environmental Regulation - Air Quality and Climate Change” below.)

In addition, the Utility obtains permits, authorizations, and licenses in connection with the construction and operation of the Utility's generation facilities, electricity transmission lines, natural gas transportation pipelines, and gas compressor station facilities. The Utility also periodically obtains permits, authorizations, and licenses in connection with distribution of electricity and natural gas that grant the Utility rights to occupy and/or use public property for the operation of the Utility's business and to conduct certain related operations. The Utility has franchise agreements with approximately 300 cities and counties that permit the Utility to install, operate, and maintain the Utility's electric and natural gas facilities in the public streets and highways. In exchange for the right to use public streets and highways, the Utility pays annual fees to the cities and counties. In most cases, the Utility’s franchise agreements are for an indeterminate term, with no expiration date. (For more information see Item 1A. Risk Factors.)


10



Ratemaking Mechanisms

The Utility’s rates for electric and natural gas utility services are set at levels that are intended to allow the Utility to recover its costs of providing service and a return on invested capital (“cost-of-service ratemaking”). Before setting rates, the CPUC and the FERC conduct proceedings to determine the annual amount that the Utility will be authorized to collect from its customers (“revenue requirements”). The Utility’s revenue requirements consist primarily of a base amount set to enable the Utility to recover its reasonable operating expenses (e.g., maintenance, administration and general expenses) and capital costs (e.g., depreciation, tax, and financing expenses). In addition, the CPUC authorizes the Utility to collect revenues to recover costs that the Utility is allowed to “pass-through” to customers (referred to as “Utility Revenues and Costs that did not Impact Earnings” in Item 7. MD&A), including its costs to procure electricity, natural gas and nuclear fuel, to administer public purpose and customer programs, and to decommission its nuclear facilities.

The Utility’s rate of return on electric transmission assets is determined in the FERC TO proceedings. Similarly, the authorized rate of return on all other Utility assets is set in the CPUC’s cost of capital proceeding. Other than its electric transmission and certain gas transmission and storage revenues, the Utility’s base revenues are “decoupled” from its sales volume. Regulatory balancing accounts, or revenue adjustment mechanisms, are designed to allow the Utility to fully collect its authorized base revenue requirements. As a result, the Utility’s base revenues are not impacted by fluctuations in sales resulting from, for example, weather or economic conditions. The Utility’s earnings primarily depend on its ability to manage its base operating and capital costs (referred to as “Utility Revenues and Costs that Impacted Earnings” in Item 7. MD&A) within its authorized base revenue requirements.

Due to the seasonal nature of the Utility’s business and rate design, customer electric bills are generally higher during summer months (May - October) because of higher demand, driven by air conditioning loads.  Customer bills related to gas service generally increase during the winter months (November - March) to account for the gas peak due to heating.

From time to time, the CPUC may use incentive ratemaking mechanisms that provide the Utility an opportunity to earn some additional revenues. For example, the Utility has earned incentives for the successful implementation of energy efficiency programs.
 
See “Regulatory Matters” in Item 7. MD&A for more information on specific CPUC proceedings.

Base Revenues

General Rate Cases

The GRC is the primary proceeding in which the CPUC determines the amount of base revenue requirements that the Utility is authorized to collect from customers to recover the Utility’s anticipated costs, including return on rate base, related to its electric distribution, natural gas distribution, and Utility-owned electric generation operations. The CPUC generally conducts a GRC every three or four years. The CPUC approves the annual revenue requirements for the first year (or “test year”) of the GRC period and typically authorizes the Utility to receive annual increases in revenue requirements for the subsequent years of the GRC period (known as “attrition years”). Attrition year rate adjustments are generally provided for cost increases related to increases in invested capital and inflation. Parties in the Utility's GRC include the PAO and TURN, who generally represent the overall interests of residential customers, as well as a myriad of other intervenors who represent other business, community, customer, environmental, and union interests. (For more information about the Utility’s GRC, see “Regulatory Matters 2017 General Rate Case” and “Regulatory Matters 2020 General Rate Case” in Item 7. MD&A.)

Natural Gas Transmission and Storage Rate Cases

The CPUC determines the Utility’s authorized revenue requirements and rates for its natural gas transmission and storage services in the GT&S rate case.  The CPUC generally conducts a GT&S rate case every three or four years.  Similar to the GRC, the CPUC approves the annual revenue requirements for the first year (or “test year”) of the GT&S rate case period and typically determines annual increases in revenue requirements for attrition years of the GT&S rate case period.  Parties in the Utility's GT&S rate case include the PAO and TURN, who generally represent the overall interests of residential customers, as well as other intervenors who represent other business, community, customer, environmental, and union interests. (For more information, see “Regulatory Matters - 2015 Gas Transmission and Storage Rate Case” and “Regulatory Matters - 2019 Gas Transmission and Storage Rate Case” in Item 7. MD&A.)  


11



Cost of Capital Proceedings

The CPUC periodically conducts a cost of capital proceeding to authorize the Utility's capital structure and rates of return for its electric generation, electric and natural gas distribution, and natural gas transmission and storage rate base. The CPUC has authorized the Utility’s capital structure through 2019, consisting of 52% common equity, 47% long-term debt, and 1% preferred stock. The CPUC also set the authorized ROE through 2017 at 10.40% and 10.25% beginning on January 1, 2018 and reset the cost of debt to 4.89%. The CPUC previously adopted an adjustment mechanism to allow the Utility’s capital structure and ROE to be adjusted if the utility bond index changes by certain thresholds on an annual basis. The Utility expects to submit its next cost of capital application to the CPUC on or about April 22, 2019.

Electricity Transmission Owner Rate Cases

The FERC determines the amount of authorized revenue requirements, including the rate of return on electric transmission assets, that the Utility may collect in rates in the TO rate case. The Utility has historically filed a TO rate case every year. The FERC typically authorizes the Utility to charge new rates based on the requested revenue requirement, subject to refund, before the FERC has issued a final decision. In 2018, the Utility filed a proposed formula rate at FERC, which would be updated annually according to the formula. These FERC-approved rates are included by the CPUC in the Utility's retail electric rates and by the CAISO in its Transmission Access Charges to wholesale customers. (For more information, see “Regulatory Matters -Transmission Owner Rate Cases” in Item 7. MD&A.) The Utility also recovers a portion of its revenue requirements for its wholesale electric transmission costs through charges collected under specific contracts with wholesale transmission customers that the Utility entered into before the CAISO began its operations. These wholesale customers are charged individualized rates based on the terms of their contracts.

Memorandum Account Costs

Periodically, costs arise which could not be anticipated by the Utility during CPUC GRC rate requests resulting from catastrophic events, changes in regulation, or extraordinary changes in operating practices. The Utility may seek authority to track incremental costs in a memorandum account and the CPUC may authorize recovery of costs tracked in memorandum accounts if the costs are deemed incremental and prudently incurred. These accounts, which include the CEMA, WEMA, and FHPMA, among others, allow the Utility to track the costs associated with work related to disaster and wildfire response, and other wildfire prevention-related costs. While the Utility believes such costs are recoverable, rate recovery requires CPUC authorization in separate proceedings or through a GRC. (For more information, see “Regulatory Matters - Wildfire Expense Memorandum Account”, “Regulatory Matters - Catastrophic Expense Memorandum Account”, and “Regulatory Matters - Fire Hazard Prevention Memorandum Account” in Item 7. MD&A.)

Revenues to Recover Energy Procurement and Other Pass-Through Costs

Electricity Procurement Costs

California investor-owned electric utilities are responsible for procuring electrical capacity required to meet bundled customer demand, plus applicable reserve margins, that are not satisfied from their own generation facilities and existing electric contracts. The utilities are responsible for scheduling and bidding electric generation resources, including certain electricity procured from third parties into the wholesale market, to meet customer demand according to which resources are the least expensive (i.e., using the principles of “least-cost dispatch”). In addition, the utilities are required to obtain CPUC approval of their BCPPs based on long-term demand forecasts. In October 2015, the CPUC approved the Utility’s most recent BCPP. It was revised since its initial approval and will remain in effect as revised until superseded by a subsequent CPUC-approved plan. On February 8, 2019, the CPUC approved the Utility’s filing that suspended certain elements of its current BCPP as a result of its financial condition, effective as of January 16, 2019.  Additionally, on January 25, 2019, the Utility filed with the CPUC an update to its BCPP to further refine how it manages certain elements of its procurement activity and provide detail of its sales framework.  The updated BCPP would be effective upon CPUC approval.

California law allows electric utilities to recover the costs incurred in compliance with their CPUC-approved BCPPs without further after-the-fact reasonableness review by the CPUC. The CPUC may disallow costs associated with electricity purchases if the costs were not incurred in compliance with the CPUC-approved plan or if the CPUC determines that the utility failed to follow the principles of least-cost dispatch. Additionally, the CPUC may disallow the cost of replacement power procured due to unplanned outages at Utility-owned generation facilities.


12



The Utility recovers its electric procurement costs annually primarily through the energy resource recovery account. (See Note 3 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.) Each year, the CPUC reviews the Utility’s forecasted procurement costs related to power purchase agreements, derivative instruments, GHG emissions costs, and generation fuel expense, and approves a forecasted revenue requirement. The CPUC may adjust the Utility’s retail electric rates more frequently if the forecasted aggregate over-collections or under-collections in the energy resource recovery account exceed 5% of its prior year electric procurement and Utility-owned generation revenues. The CPUC performs an annual compliance review of the transactions recorded in the energy resource recovery account.

The CPUC has approved various power purchase agreements that the Utility has entered into with third parties in accordance with the Utility’s CPUC-approved procurement plan, to meet mandatory renewable energy targets, and to comply with resource adequacy requirements. (For more information, see “Electric Utility Operations - Electricity Resources” below as well as Note 14 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.)

Natural Gas Procurement, Storage, and Transportation Costs

The Utility recovers the cost of gas used in generation facilities as a cost of electricity that is recovered annually through retail electric rates.

The Utility sets the natural gas procurement rate for small commercial and residential customers (referred to as “core” customers) monthly, based on the forecasted costs of natural gas, core pipeline capacity and storage costs. The Utility recovers the cost of gas purchased on behalf of core customers as well as the cost of derivative instruments for its core gas portfolio, through its retail gas rates, subject to limits as set forth in its core procurement incentive mechanism described below. The Utility reflects the difference between actual natural gas purchase costs and forecasted natural gas purchase costs in several natural gas balancing accounts, with under-collections and over-collections taken into account in subsequent monthly rate changes.

The core procurement incentive mechanism protects the Utility against after-the-fact reasonableness reviews of its gas procurement costs for its core gas portfolio. Under the core procurement incentive mechanism, the Utility’s natural gas purchase costs for a fixed 12-month period are compared to an aggregate market-based benchmark based on a weighted average of published monthly and daily natural gas price indices at the points where the Utility typically purchases natural gas. Costs that fall within a tolerance band, which is 99% to 102% of the commodity benchmark, are considered reasonable and are fully recovered in customers’ rates. One-half of the costs above 102% of the benchmark are recoverable in customers’ rates, and the Utility's customers receive in their rates 80% of any savings resulting from the Utility’s cost of natural gas that is less than 99% of the benchmark. The Utility retains the remaining amount of these savings as incentive revenues, subject to a cap equal to 1.5% of total natural gas commodity costs. While this mechanism remains in place, changes in the price of natural gas, consistent with the market-based benchmark, are not expected to materially impact net income.
 
The Utility incurs transportation costs under various agreements with interstate and Canadian third-party transportation service providers. These providers transport natural gas from the points at which the Utility takes delivery of natural gas (typically in Canada, the U.S. Rocky Mountains, and the southwestern United States) to the points at which the Utility's natural gas transportation system begins.  These agreements are governed by FERC-approved tariffs that detail rates, rules, and terms of service for the provision of natural gas transportation services to the Utility on interstate and Canadian pipelines. The FERC approves the United States tariffs that shippers, including the Utility, pay for pipeline service, and the applicable Canadian tariffs are approved by the National Energy Board, a Canadian regulatory agency. The transportation costs the Utility incurs under these agreements are recovered through CPUC-approved rates as core natural gas procurement costs or as a cost of electricity.


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Costs Associated with Public Purpose and Customer Programs

The CPUC authorizes the Utility to recover the costs of various public purpose and other customer programs through the collection of rates from most Utility customers.  These programs relate to energy efficiency, demand response, distributed generation, energy research and development, and other matters.  Additionally, the CPUC has authorized the Utility to provide discounted rates for specified types of customers, such as for low-income customers under the California Alternate Rates for Energy (“CARE”) program, which is paid for by the Utility’s other customers.

Nuclear Decommissioning Costs

The Utility's nuclear power facilities consist of two units at Diablo Canyon and the retired facility at Humboldt Bay. Nuclear decommissioning requires the safe removal of nuclear facilities from service and the reduction of residual radioactivity to a level that permits termination of the NRC license and release of the property for unrestricted use. Nuclear decommissioning costs are generally collected in advance through rates and are held in nuclear decommissioning trusts to be used for the eventual decommissioning of each nuclear unit. The Utility files an application with the CPUC every three years requesting approval of the Utility’s updated estimated decommissioning costs and any rate change necessary to fully fund the nuclear decommissioning trusts to the levels needed to decommission the Utility’s nuclear plants.

On January 11, 2018, the CPUC approved the retirement of Diablo Canyon’s two nuclear power reactor units by 2024 and 2025. The CPUC:

deferred consideration of replacement resources to the CPUC’s Integrated Resource Planning proceeding;

authorized rate recovery for up to $211.3 million (compared with the $352.1 million requested by the Utility) for an employee retention program;

authorized rate recovery for an employee retraining program of $11.3 million requested by the Utility;

rejected rate recovery of the proposed $85 million for the community impacts mitigation program on the grounds that rate recovery for such a program requires legislative authorization;

authorized rate recovery of $18.6 million of the total Diablo Canyon license renewal cost of $53 million and rate recovery of canceled project costs equal to 100% of direct costs incurred prior to June 30, 2016, and 25% of direct costs incurred after June 30, 2016, based on a provision of the settlement agreement among the Utility, the Joint Parties, and certain other parties that the Utility filed with the CPUC in May 2017; and

approved the amortization of the book value for Diablo Canyon consistent with the Diablo Canyon closure schedule.

On March 7, 2018, the Utility submitted a request to the NRC to withdraw its Diablo Canyon license renewal application. On April 16, 2018, the NRC granted the Utility’s request to withdraw its license renewal application.

On November 29, 2018, in response to SB 1090, the CPUC issued its decision addressing the key remaining goals of the Diablo Canyon joint proposal agreement, including:

approving the community impact mitigation settlement of $85 million, originally proposed in the joint settlement agreement;

deferring implementation to its Integrated Resource Planning to ensure that there is no increase in GHG emissions as a result of the Diablo Canyon retirement; and

approving full funding of the $352.1 million Diablo Canyon employee retention program, originally proposed in the joint settlement agreement.

On February 8, 2019, the CPUC approved the Utility's request to implement SB 1090, effective as of January 1, 2019, which includes full funding for the community impact mitigation program and employee retention program.

For costs related to Asset Retirement Obligations see "Nuclear Decommissioning Obligation" in Note 2 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in item 8.


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Electric Utility Operations

The Utility generates electricity and provides electric transmission and distribution services throughout its service territory in northern and central California to residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural customers. The Utility provides “bundled” services (i.e., electricity, transmission and distribution services) to customers in its service territory. Customers also can obtain electricity from alternative providers such as municipalities or CCAs, as well as from self-generation resources, such as rooftop solar installations. (For more information, see “Regulatory Matters” in Item 7. MD&A.)

Electricity Resources

The Utility is required to maintain capacity adequate to meet its customers’ demand for electricity (“load”), including peak demand and planning and operating reserves, deliverable to the locations and at times as may be necessary to provide reliable electric service. The Utility is required to dispatch, or schedule all of the electric resources within its portfolio using least-cost dispatch.

The following table shows the percentage of the Utility’s total deliveries of electricity to customers in 2018 represented by each major electric resource, and further discussed below.

Total 2018 Actual Electricity Generated and Procured - 48,832 GWh (1):
 
Percent of Bundled Retail Sales
Owned Generation Facilities
 
 
 
  Nuclear
33.5
 %
 
 
Small Hydroelectric
1.5
 %
 
 
Large Hydroelectric
12.1
 %
 
 
Fossil fuel-fired
11.6
 %
 
 
  Solar
0.6
 %
 
 
  Total
 
 
59.3
 %
 
 
 
 
Qualifying Facilities
 
 
 
Renewable
0.5
 %
 
 
Non-Renewable
4.4
 %
 
 
  Total
 
 
4.9
 %
Irrigation Districts and Water Agencies
 
 
 
Small Hydroelectric
0.1
 %
 
 
Large Hydroelectric
 %
 
 
Total
 
 
0.1
 %
Other Third-Party Purchase Agreements
 
 
 
  Renewable
36.2
 %
 
 
  Non-Renewable
0.6
 %
 
 
  Large Hydroelectric
9.5
 %
 
 
Total
 
 
46.3
 %
Others, Net (2)
(10.6
)%
 
(10.6
)%
Total (3)
 
 
100
 %
 
 
 
 
(1) This amount excludes electricity provided to direct access customers and CCAs who procure their own supplies of electricity.
(2) Mainly comprised of net CAISO open market purchases.
(3) Non-renewable sources, including nuclear, large hydroelectric, and fossil fuel-fired are offset by transmission and distribution related system losses.


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Renewable Energy Resources

California law established an RPS that requires load-serving entities, such as the Utility, to gradually increase the amount of renewable energy they deliver to their customers. In October 2015, the California Governor signed SB 350, the Clean Energy and Pollution Reduction Act of 2015 into law. SB 350 became effective January 1, 2016, and increases the amount of renewable energy that must be delivered by most load-serving entities, including the Utility, to their customers from 33% of their total annual retail sales by the end of the 2017-2020 compliance period, to 50% of their total annual retail sales by the end of the 2028- 2030 compliance period, and in each three-year compliance period thereafter, unless changed by legislative action. SB 350 provides compliance flexibility and waiver mechanisms, including increased flexibility to apply excess renewable energy procurement in one compliance period to future compliance periods. In September 2018, the California Governor signed SB 100 into law, increasing from 50% to 60% of California’s electricity portfolio that must come from renewables by 2030; and established state policy that 100 percent of all retail electricity sales must come from RPS-eligible or carbon-free resources by 2045. The Utility may incur additional costs to procure renewable energy to meet the new renewable energy targets, which the Utility expects will continue to be recoverable from customers as “pass-through” costs. The Utility also may be subject to penalties for failure to meet the higher targets. The CPUC is required to open a new rulemaking proceeding to adopt regulations to implement the higher renewable targets.

Renewable generation resources, for purposes of the RPS requirements, include bioenergy such as biogas and biomass, certain hydroelectric facilities (30 MW or less), wind, solar, and geothermal energy. During 2018, 38.9% of the Utility’s energy deliveries were from renewable energy sources, exceeding the annual RPS target of 28%. Approximately 36% of the renewable energy delivered to the Utility’s customers was purchased from non-QF third parties. Additional renewable resources were provided by QFs (0.5%), the Utility’s small hydroelectric facilities (1.5%), and the Utility’s solar facilities (0.6%).

The total 2018 renewable deliveries shown above were comprised of the following:
Type
 
GWh
 
Percent of Bundled Retail Sales
Biopower
 
2,161

 
4.4
%
Geothermal
 
1,816

 
3.7
%
Wind
 
4,861

 
10
%
RPS-Eligible Hydroelectric
 
1,324

 
2.7
%
Solar
 
8,839

 
18.1
%
Total
 
19,001

 
38.9
%
 
Energy Storage

As required by California law, the CPUC established a multi-year energy storage procurement framework, including energy storage procurement targets to be achieved by each load-serving entity under the CPUC jurisdiction, including the Utility. Under the adopted energy storage procurement framework, the Utility is required to procure 580 MW of qualifying storage capacity by the end of 2021, with all energy storage projects required to be operational by the end of 2024.

The CPUC also adopted biennial interim storage targets for the Utility, beginning in 2014 and ending in 2020. Under the adopted framework, the Utility is required to submit biennial energy storage procurement plans to describe its strategy to meet its interim and total energy storage targets.

As of November 2018, the Utility had met and exceeded its 2018 interim storage targets and had approximately 35 MW remaining to procure to meet the total storage targets established by the CPUC. This outcome may change in the future if projects under contract are terminated or if projects that have been approved by the CPUC are rejected on rehearing.

In 2018, the CPUC approved two proposals for the Utility to own incremental battery storage facilities to be constructed by a third party. The Llagas Energy Storage Project is a 20 MW project scheduled to come online in 2021. The Moss Landing Project is a 182.5 MW project scheduled to come online by the end of 2020. In addition, the Utility currently owns or operates three battery storage facilities, each less than 10 MW.


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Owned Generation Facilities

At December 31, 2018, the Utility owned the following generation facilities, all located in California, listed by energy source and further described below:
Generation Type
 
County Location
 
Number of Units
 
Net Operating Capacity (MW)
Nuclear (1):
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Diablo Canyon
 
San Luis Obispo
 
2

 
2,240

Hydroelectric (2):
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Conventional
 
16 counties in northern and central California
 
102

 
2,679

  Helms pumped storage
 
Fresno
 
3

 
1,212

Fossil fuel-fired:
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Colusa Generating Station
 
Colusa
 
1

 
657

  Gateway Generating Station
 
Contra Costa
 
1

 
580

  Humboldt Bay Generating Station
 
Humboldt
 
10

 
163

Fuel Cell:
 
 
 
 
 
 
  CSU East Bay Fuel Cell
 
Alameda
 
1

 
1

  SF State Fuel Cell
 
San Francisco
 
2

 
2

Photovoltaic (3):
 
Various
 
13

 
152

Total
 
 
 
135

 
7,686

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(1) The Utility's Diablo Canyon power plant consists of two nuclear power reactor units, Units 1 and 2. The NRC operating licenses expire in 2024 and 2025, respectively. On January 11, 2018, the CPUC approved the Utility’s application to retire Unit 1 by 2024 and Unit 2 by 2025. (See “Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant” in. Item 7. MD&A and Item 3. Legal Proceedings.)
(2) The Utility’s hydroelectric system consists of 105 generating units at 66 powerhouses. All of the Utility’s powerhouses are licensed by the FERC (except for two small powerhouses not subject to FERC licensing requirements), with license terms between 30 and 50 years.
(3) The Utility’s large photovoltaic facilities are Cantua solar station (20 MW), Five Points solar station (15 MW), Gates solar station (20 MW), Giffen solar station (10 MW), Guernsey solar station (20 MW), Huron solar station (20 MW ), Stroud solar station (20 MW), West Gates solar station (10 MW), and Westside solar station (15 MW). All of these facilities are located in Fresno County, except for Guernsey solar station, which is located in Kings County.

Generation Resources from Third Parties

The Utility has entered into various agreements to purchase power and electric capacity, including agreements for renewable energy resources, in accordance with its CPUC-approved procurement plan. (See “Ratemaking Mechanisms” above.) For more information regarding the Utility’s power purchase agreements, see Note 14 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.

Electricity Transmission 

At December 31, 2018, the Utility owned approximately 18,000 circuit miles of interconnected transmission lines operating at voltages ranging from 60 kV to 500 kV. The Utility also operated 84 electric transmission substations with a capacity of approximately 65,000 MVA. The Utility’s electric transmission system is interconnected with electric power systems in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council, which includes many western states, Alberta and British Columbia, and parts of Mexico.

Decisions about expansions and maintenance of the transmission system can be influenced by decisions of the Utility's regulators and the CAISO.

Electricity Distribution

The Utility's electric distribution network consists of approximately 107,000 circuit miles of distribution lines (of which approximately 20% are underground and approximately 80% are overhead), 50 transmission switching substations, and 769 distribution substations, with a capacity of approximately 32,000 MVA. The Utility’s distribution network interconnects with its transmission system, primarily at switching and distribution substations, where equipment reduces the high-voltage transmission voltages to lower voltages, ranging from 44 kV to 2.4 kV, suitable for distribution to the Utility’s customers.


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These distribution substations serve as the central hubs for the Utility’s electric distribution network. Emanating from each substation are primary and secondary distribution lines connected to local transformers and switching equipment that link distribution lines and provide delivery to end-users. In some cases, the Utility sells electricity from its distribution facilities to entities, such as municipal and other utilities, that resell the electricity. The Utility operates electric distribution control center facilities in Concord, Rocklin, and Fresno, California; these control centers form a key part of the Utility’s efforts to create a smarter, more resilient grid.
 
Electricity Operating Statistics

The following table shows certain of the Utility’s operating statistics from 2016 to 2018 for electricity sold or delivered, including the classification of revenues by type of service. No single customer of the Utility accounted for 10% or more of consolidated revenues for electricity sold in 2018, 2017 and 2016.
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Customers (average for the year)
5,428,318

 
5,384,525

 
5,349,691

Deliveries (in GWh) (1) 
79,774

 
82,226

 
83,017

Revenues (in millions):
 
 
 
 
 
   Residential
$
5,051

 
$
5,693

 
$
5,409

   Commercial
4,908

 
5,431

 
5,396

   Industrial
1,532

 
1,603

 
1,525

   Agricultural
1,234

 
1,069

 
1,226

   Public street and highway lighting
72

 
79

 
80

   Other (2)
(720
)
 
(294
)
 
(68
)
      Subtotal
12,077

 
13,581

 
13,568

Regulatory balancing accounts (3)
636

 
(344
)
 
297

Total operating revenues
$
12,713

 
$
13,237

 
$
13,865

Selected Statistics:
 
 
 
 
 
Average annual residential usage (kWh)
5,772

 
6,231

 
6,115

Average billed revenues per kWh:
 
 
 
 
 
Residential
$
0.1838

 
$
0.1936

 
$
0.1887

Commercial
0.1627

 
0.1716

 
0.1716

Industrial
0.1010

 
0.1055

 
0.0990

Agricultural
0.1968

 
0.2041

 
0.1814

Net plant investment per customer
$
7,950

 
$
7,486

 
$
7,195

 
 
 
 
 
 
(1) These amounts include electricity provided to direct access customers and CCAs who procure their own supplies of electricity.
(2) This activity is primarily related to provisions for rate refunds and unbilled electric revenue, partially offset by other miscellaneous revenue items.
(3) These amounts represent revenues authorized to be billed.
 
Natural Gas Utility Operations 

The Utility provides natural gas transportation services to “core” customers (i.e., small commercial and residential customers) and to “non-core” customers (i.e., industrial, large commercial, and natural gas-fired electric generation facilities) that are connected to the Utility’s gas system in its service territory.  Core customers can purchase natural gas procurement service (i.e., natural gas supply) from either the Utility or non-utility third-party gas procurement service providers (referred to as "core transport agents").  When core customers purchase gas supply from a core transport agent, the Utility continues to provide gas delivery, metering and billing services to customers.  When the Utility provides both transportation and procurement services, the Utility refers to the combined service as “bundled” natural gas service.  Currently, more than 97% of core customers, representing approximately 80% of the annual core market demand, receive bundled natural gas service from the Utility.


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The Utility generally does not provide procurement service to non-core customers, who must purchase their gas supplies from third-party suppliers, unless the customer is a natural gas-fired generation facility that the Utility has a power purchase agreement with that includes its generation fuel expense. The Utility offers backbone gas transmission, gas delivery (local transmission and distribution), and gas storage services as separate and distinct services to its non-core customers.  Access to the Utility's backbone gas transmission system is available for all natural gas marketers and shippers, as well as non-core customers.  The Utility also delivers gas to off-system customers (i.e., outside of the Utility’s service territory) and to third-party natural gas storage customers.
 
Natural Gas Supplies

The Utility can receive natural gas from all the major natural gas basins in western North America, including basins in western Canada, the Rocky Mountains, and the southwestern United States. The Utility can also receive natural gas from fields in California. The Utility purchases natural gas to serve its core customers directly from producers and marketers in both Canada and the United States. The contract lengths and natural gas sources of the Utility’s portfolio of natural gas purchase contracts have varied generally based on market conditions. During 2018, the Utility purchased approximately 287,000 MMcf of natural gas (net of the sale of excess supply of gas). Substantially all of this natural gas was purchased under contracts with a term of one year or less. The Utility’s largest individual supplier represented approximately 15% of the total natural gas volume the Utility purchased during 2018.

Natural Gas System Assets

The Utility owns and operates an integrated natural gas transmission, storage, and distribution system that includes most of northern and central California. At December 31, 2018, the Utility’s natural gas system consisted of approximately 43,100 miles of distribution pipelines, over 6,400 miles of backbone and local transmission pipelines, and various storage facilities. The Utility owns and operates eight natural gas compressor stations on its backbone transmission system and one small station on its local transmission system that are used to move gas through the Utility’s pipelines. The Utility’s backbone transmission system, composed primarily of Lines 300, 400, and 401, is used to transport gas from the Utility’s interconnection with interstate pipelines, other local distribution companies, and California gas fields to the Utility’s local transmission and distribution systems.

The Utility has firm transportation agreements for delivery of natural gas from western Canada to the United States-Canada border with TransCanada NOVA Gas Transmission, Ltd. interconnecting downstream with TransCanada Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd., B.C. System. The Foothills system interconnects at the border to the pipeline system owned by Gas Transmission Northwest, LLC, which provides natural gas transportation services to a point of interconnection with the Utility’s natural gas transportation system on the Oregon-California border near Malin, Oregon. The Utility also has firm transportation agreements with Ruby Pipeline, LLC to transport natural gas from the U.S. Rocky Mountains to the interconnection point with the Utility’s natural gas transportation system in the area of Malin, Oregon, at the California border. Similarly, the Utility has firm transportation agreements with Transwestern Pipeline Company, LLC and El Paso Natural Gas Company to transport natural gas from supply points in the Southwestern United States to interconnection points with the Utility's natural gas transportation system in the area of California near Topock, Arizona. The Utility also has a transportation agreement with Kern River Gas Transmission Company to transport gas from the U.S. Rocky Mountains to the interconnection point with the Utility’s natural gas system in the area of Daggett, California. (For more information regarding the Utility’s natural gas transportation agreements, see Note 14 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.)


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The Utility owns and operates three underground natural gas storage fields and has a 25% interest in a fourth storage field, all of which are connected to the Utility’s transmission system.  The Utility owns and operates compressors and other facilities at these storage fields that are used to inject gas into the fields for storage and later withdrawal.  In addition, four independent storage operators are interconnected to the Utility's northern California transmission system. Changes to gas storage safety requirements by DOGGR have led the Utility to develop and propose in its 2019 GT&S rate case application a natural gas storage strategy which includes the discontinuation (through closure or sale) of operations at two gas storage fields. (For more information, see “Regulatory Matters” in Item 7. MD&A.)

In 2018, the Utility continued upgrading transmission pipeline to allow for the use of in-line inspection tools and continued its work on the final NTSB recommendation from its San Bruno investigation to hydrostatically test all high consequence pipeline mileage. The Utility currently plans to complete this NTSB recommendation by 2022 for remaining short pipeline segments that include tie-in pieces, fittings or smaller diameter off-takes from the larger transmission pipelines.

Natural Gas Operating Statistics

The following table shows the Utility's operating statistics from 2016 through 2018 (excluding subsidiaries) for natural gas, including the classification of revenues by type of service. No single customer of the Utility accounted for 10% or more of consolidated revenues for bundled gas sales in 2018, 2017 and 2016.
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Customers (average for the year)(1)
4,495,279

 
4,467,657

 
4,442,379

Gas purchased (MMcf)
219,061

 
234,181

 
208,260

Average price of natural gas purchased
$
2.02

 
$
2.30

 
$
1.83

Bundled gas sales (MMcf):
 
 
 
 
 
  Residential
156,917

 
160,969

 
149,483

  Commercial
51,357

 
50,329

 
46,507

Total Bundled Gas Sales
208,274

 
211,298

 
195,990

Revenues (in millions):
 
 
 
 
 
Bundled gas sales:
 
 
 
 
 
  Residential
$
2,042

 
$
2,298

 
$
1,968

  Commercial
537

 
541

 
439

  Other
75

 
(25
)
 
149

Bundled gas revenues
2,654

 
2,814

 
2,556

Transportation service only revenue
1,151

 
976

 
800

      Subtotal
3,805

 
3,790

 
3,356

  Regulatory balancing accounts (2)
242

 
221

 
446

Total operating revenues
$
4,047

 
$
4,011

 
$
3,802

Selected Statistics:
 
 
 
 
 
Average annual residential usage (Mcf)
38

 
38

 
36

Average billed bundled gas sales revenues per Mcf:
 
 
 
 
 
  Residential
$
12.67

 
$
14.27

 
$
13.10

  Commercial
9.04

 
11.36

 
9.45

Net plant investment per customer
$
3,417

 
$
3,093

 
$
2,808

 
 
 
 
 
 
(1) These amounts include natural gas provided to direct access customers and CCAs who procure their own supplies of natural gas.
(2) These amounts represent revenues authorized to be billed.


20



Competition

Competition in the Electricity Industry

California law allows qualifying non-residential electric customers of investor-owned electric utilities to purchase electricity from energy service providers rather than from the utilities up to certain annual and overall GWh limits that have been specified for each utility. This arrangement is known as “direct access.” In addition, California law permits cities, counties, and certain other public agencies that have qualified to become a CCA to generate and/or purchase electricity for their local residents and businesses. By law, a CCA can procure electricity for all of its residents and businesses that do not affirmatively elect to continue to receive electricity generated or procured by a utility. In 2018 the California legislature passed a bill to expand the statewide DA cap by 4,000 GWh, and directed the CPUC to consider whether DA should be further expanded. The CPUC is required to issue an order implementing the expansion by June 1, 2019.

The Utility continues to provide transmission, distribution, metering, and billing services to direct access customers, although these customers can choose to obtain metering and billing services from their energy service provider. The CCA customers continue to obtain transmission, distribution, metering, and billing services from the Utility. In addition to collecting charges for transmission, distribution, metering, and billing services that it provides, the Utility is able to collect charges intended to recover the generation-related costs that the Utility incurred on behalf of direct access and CCA customers while they were the Utility’s customers. The Utility remains the electricity provider of last resort for these customers.

The Utility is also impacted by the increasing viability of distributed generation and energy storage. The levels of self-generation of electricity by customers (primarily solar installations) and the use of customer NEM, which allows self-generating customers to receive bill credits at the full retail rate, are increasing, putting upward rate pressure on remaining customers. New NEM customers are required to pay an interconnection fee, utilize time of use rates, and are required to pay certain non-bypassable charges to help fund some of the costs of low income, energy efficiency, and other programs that other customers pay. Significantly higher bills for remaining customers may result in a decline of the number of such customers as they may seek alternative energy providers. The CPUC has indicated that it intends to commence a new proceeding to revisit its rules related to NEM customers in 2019.

Further, in some circumstances, governmental entities such as cities and irrigation districts, which have authority under the state constitution or state statute to provide retail electric service, may seek to acquire the Utility’s distribution facilities, generally through eminent domain. These same entities may, and sometimes do, construct duplicate distribution facilities to serve existing or new Utility customers.

The effect of such types of retail competition generally is to reduce the amount of electricity purchased by customers from the Utility.

The Utility also competes for the opportunity to develop and construct certain types of electric transmission facilities within, or interconnected to, its service territory through a competitive bidding process managed by the CAISO.

(For risks in connection with increasing competition, see Item 1A. Risk Factors.)

Competition in the Natural Gas Industry

The Utility competes with other natural gas pipeline companies for customers transporting natural gas into the southern California market on the basis of transportation rates, access to competitively priced supplies of natural gas, and the quality and reliability of transportation services. The Utility also competes for storage services with other third-party storage providers, primarily in northern California.


21



Environmental Regulation

The Utility’s operations are subject to extensive federal, state and local laws and requirements relating to the protection of the environment and the safety and health of the Utility's personnel and the public. These laws and requirements relate to a broad range of activities, including the remediation of hazardous and radioactive substances; the discharge of pollutants into the air, water, and soil; the reporting and reduction of CO2 and other GHG emissions; the transportation, handling, storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel; and the environmental impacts of land use, including endangered species and habitat protection. The penalties for violation of these laws and requirements can be severe and may include significant fines, damages, and criminal or civil sanctions. These laws and requirements also may require the Utility, under certain circumstances, to interrupt or curtail operations. (See Item 1A. Risk Factors.) Generally, the Utility recovers most of the costs of complying with environmental laws and regulations in the Utility's rates, subject to reasonableness review. Environmental costs associated with the clean-up of most sites that contain hazardous substances are subject to a ratemaking mechanism described in Note 14 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.

Hazardous Waste Compliance and Remediation

The Utility's facilities are subject to various regulations adopted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, including the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 as amended. The Utility is also subject to the regulations adopted by other federal agencies responsible for implementing federal environmental laws. The Utility also must comply with environmental laws and regulations adopted by the State of California and various state and local agencies. These federal and state laws impose strict liability for the release of a hazardous substance on the (1) owner or operator of the site where the release occurred, (2) on companies that disposed of, or arranged for the disposal of, the hazardous substances, and (3) in some cases, their corporate successors. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, these persons (known as “potentially responsible parties”) may be jointly and severally liable for the costs of cleaning up the hazardous substances, monitoring and paying for the harm caused to natural resources, and paying for the costs of health studies.

The Utility has a comprehensive program in place to comply with these federal, state, and local laws and regulations. Under federal and California laws, the Utility may be responsible for remediation of hazardous substances even if it did not deposit those substances on the site. The Utility’s remediation activities are overseen by the California DTSC, several California regional water quality control boards, and various other federal, state, and local agencies. The Utility has incurred significant environmental remediation liabilities associated with former manufactured gas plant sites, power plant sites, gas gathering sites, sites where natural gas compressor stations are located, and sites used by the Utility for the storage, recycling, or disposal of potentially hazardous substances. Groundwater at the Utility’s Hinkley and Topock natural gas compressor stations contains hexavalent chromium as a result of the Utility’s past operating practices. The Utility is responsible for remediating this groundwater contamination and for abating the effects of the contamination on the environment.

For more information about environmental remediation liabilities, see Note 14 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.

Air Quality and Climate Change

The Utility's electric generation plants, natural gas pipeline operations, vehicle fleet, and fuel storage tanks are subject to numerous air pollution control laws, including the federal Clean Air Act, as well as state and local statutes. These laws and regulations cover, among other pollutants, those contributing to the formation of ground-level ozone, CO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2), mono-nitrogen oxide (NOx), particulate matter, and other GHG emissions.

Federal Regulation

At the federal level, the EPA is charged with implementation and enforcement of the Clean Air Act. Although there have been several legislative attempts to address climate change through imposition of nationwide regulatory limits on GHG emissions, comprehensive federal legislation has not yet been enacted. In the absence of federal legislative action, the EPA has used its existing authority under the Clean Air Act to address GHG emissions.

The federal administration of President Donald Trump has led to significant uncertainty with regard to what further actions may occur regarding climate change at the federal level. In light of the policy reversal at the federal level, the State of California has indicated that it intends to continue and enhance its leadership on climate change nationally and globally.


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State Regulation

California’s AB 32, the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, provides for the gradual reduction of state-wide GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. The CARB has approved various regulations to achieve the 2020 target, including GHG emissions reporting and a state-wide, comprehensive cap-and-trade program that sets gradually declining limits (or “caps”) on the amount of GHGs that may be emitted by major GHG emission sources within different sectors of the economy.

The cap-and-trade program’s first compliance period, which began on January 1, 2013, applied to the electric generation and large industrial sectors. The next compliance period, which began on January 1, 2015, expanded to include the natural gas and transportation sectors, effectively covering all the economy’s major sectors until 2020. The Utility’s compliance obligation as a natural gas supplier applies to the GHG emissions attributable to the combustion of natural gas delivered to the Utility’s customers other than natural gas delivery customers that are separately regulated as covered entities and have their own compliance obligation. During each year of the program, the CARB issues emission allowances (i.e., the rights to emit GHGs) equal to the amount of GHG emissions allowed for that year. Emitters can obtain allowances from the CARB at quarterly auctions or from third parties or exchanges. Emitters may also satisfy a portion of their compliance obligation through the purchase of offset credits; e.g., credits for GHG reductions achieved by third parties (such as landowners, livestock owners, and farmers) that occur outside of the emitters’ facilities through CARB-qualified offset projects such as reforestation or biomass projects.

SB 32 (2016) requires that CARB ensures a 40% reduction in greenhouse gases by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. In 2017, AB 398 extended the cap-and-trade program to 2030. The Utility expects all costs and revenues associated with the GHG cap-and-trade program to be passed through to customers. The California RPS program that requires the utilities to gradually increase the amount of renewable energy delivered to their customers is also expected to help reduce GHG emissions in California. In September 2018, SB 100 was signed into law and accelerates the state’s 50% RPS target to December 31, 2026, increases the RPS target to 60% by December 31, 2030, and further amends the RPS statute to set a policy of meeting 100% of retail sales from eligible renewables and zero-carbon resources by December 31, 2045.

Climate Change Resilience Strategies

During 2018, the Utility continued its programs to mitigate the impact of the Utility’s operations (including customer energy usage) on the environment and to plan for the actions that it will need to take to increase its resilience in light of the impacts of climate change on the Utility’s operations. The Utility regularly reviews the most relevant scientific literature on climate change such as rising sea levels, major storm events, increasing temperatures and heatwaves, wildfires, drought and land subsidence, to help the Utility identify and evaluate climate change-related risks and develop the necessary resilience strategies. The Utility maintains emergency response plans and procedures to address a range of near-term risks, including wildfires, extreme storms, and heat waves and uses its risk-assessment process to prioritize infrastructure investments for longer-term risks associated with climate change. The Utility also engages with leaders from business, government, academia, and non-profit organizations to share information and plan for the future.

The Utility is working to better understand the current and future impacts of climate change. In 2017, the Utility filed its first RAMP submittal with the CPUC, which examined Utility safety risks. The Climate Resilience RAMP model indicated potential additional Utility safety consequences due to climate change, including in the near term. The Utility is conducting foundational work to help anticipate and plan for evolving conditions in terms of weather and climate-change related events. This work is guiding efforts to design a Utility-wide climate change risk integration strategy. This strategy will inform resource planning and investment, operational decisions, and potential additional programs to identify and pursue mitigations that will incorporate the resilience and safety of the Utility’s assets, infrastructure, operations, employees, and customers.

With respect to electric operations, climate scientists project that, sometime in the next several decades, climate change will lead to increased electricity demand due to more extreme, persistent, and frequent hot weather. The Utility believes its strategies to reduce GHG emissions through energy efficiency and demand response programs, infrastructure improvements, and the use of renewable energy and energy storage are effective strategies for adapting to the expected changes in demand for electricity. The Utility is making substantial investments to build a more modern and resilient system that can better withstand extreme weather and related emergencies. Over the long-term, the Utility also faces the risk of higher flooding and inundation potential at coastal and low elevation facilities due to sea level rise combined with high tides, storm runoff and storm surges. As the state continues to face increased risk of wildfires, the Utility’s activities, including vegetation management, will continue to play an important role to help reduce the risk of wildfire and its impact on electric and gas facilities.


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Climate scientists predict that climate change will result in varying temperatures and levels of precipitation in the Utility’s service territory. This could, in turn, affect the Utility’s hydroelectric generation. To plan for this potential change, the Utility is engaging with state and local stakeholders and is also adopting strategies such as maintaining higher winter carryover reservoir storage levels, reducing discretionary reservoir water releases, and collaborating on research and new modeling tools.

With respect to natural gas operations, both safety-related pipeline strength testing and normal pipeline maintenance and operations release the GHG methane into the atmosphere. The Utility has taken steps to reduce the release of methane by implementing techniques including drafting and cross-compression, which reduce the pressure and volume of natural gas within pipelines prior to venting.  In addition, the Utility continues to achieve reductions in methane emissions by implementing improvements in leak detection and repair, upgrades at metering and regulating stations, and maintenance and replacement of other pipeline materials.

Emissions Data

PG&E Corporation and the Utility track and report their annual environmental performance results across a broad spectrum of areas. The Utility reports its GHG emissions to the CARB and the EPA on a mandatory basis. On a voluntary basis, the Utility reports a more comprehensive emissions inventory to The Climate Registry, a non-profit organization. The Utility’s third-party verified voluntary GHG inventory reported to The Climate Registry for 2017, the most recent data available, totaled about
46 million metric tonnes of CO2 equivalent, more than three-quarters of which came from customer natural gas use. The following table shows the 2017 GHG emissions data the Utility reported to the CARB under AB 32. PG&E Corporation and the Utility also publish additional GHG emissions data in their annual Corporate Responsibility and Sustainability Report.
Source
Amount (metric tonnes CO2)
Fossil Fuel-Fired Plants (1)
2,292,309

Natural Gas Compressor Stations and Storage Facilities (2)
269,133

Distribution Fugitive Natural Gas Emissions
630,249

Customer Natural Gas Use (3)
38,202,174

 
 
(1) Includes nitrous oxide and methane emissions from the Utility’s generating stations.
(2) Includes emissions from compressor stations and storage facilities that are reportable to CARB.
(3) Includes emissions from the combustion of natural gas delivered to all entities on the Utility’s distribution system, with the exception of gas delivered to other natural gas local distribution companies.

The following table shows the Utility’s third-party-verified CO2 emissions rate associated with the electricity delivered to customers in 2017 as compared to the national average for electric utilities:
 
Amount (pounds of CO2 per MWh)
U.S. Average (1)
998

Pacific Gas and Electric Company (2)
210

 
 
(1) Source: EPA eGRID.
(2) Since the Utility purchases a portion of its electricity from the wholesale market, the Utility is not able to track some of its delivered electricity back to a specific generator. Therefore, there is some unavoidable uncertainty in the Utility’s emissions rate.

Air Emissions Data for Utility-Owned Generation

In addition to GHG emissions data provided above, the table below sets forth information about the air emissions from the Utility’s owned generation facilities. The Utility’s owned generation (primarily nuclear and hydroelectric facilities) comprised more than one-half of the Utility’s delivered electricity in 2017. PG&E Corporation and the Utility also publish air emissions data in their annual Corporate Responsibility and Sustainability Report.
 
2017
 
2016
Total NOx Emissions (tons)
155

 
141

NOx Emissions Rate (pounds/MWh)
0.01
 
0.01
Total SO2
14

 
13

SO2
0.001

 
0.001



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Water Quality

In 2014, the EPA issued final regulations to implement the requirements of the federal Clean Water Act that require cooling water intake structures at electric power plants, such as the nuclear generation facilities at Diablo Canyon, to reflect the best technology available to minimize adverse environmental impacts. Various industry and environmental groups have challenged the federal regulations in proceedings pending in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. California’s once-through cooling policy discussed below is considered to be at least as stringent as the new federal regulations. Therefore, California’s implementation process for the state policy will likely continue without any significant change.

At the state level, in 2010, the California Water Board adopted a policy on once-through cooling that generally requires the installation of cooling towers or other significant measures to reduce the impact on marine life from existing power generation facilities in California by at least 85%. The policy also provided for an alternative compliance approach for nuclear plants if certain criteria were met. As required by the policy, the California Water Board appointed a committee to evaluate the feasibility and cost of using alternative technologies to achieve compliance at Diablo Canyon. The committee’s consultant submitted its final report to the California Water Board in September 2014. The report addressed feasibility, costs and timeframes to install alternative technologies at Diablo Canyon, such as cooling towers.

On June 20, 2016, the Utility entered into a joint proposal with certain parties to retire Diablo Canyon’s two nuclear power reactor units at the expiration of their current operating licenses in 2024 and 2025. As a result of the planned retirement, the California Water Board will no longer need to address alternative compliance measures for Diablo Canyon. As required under the policy, the Utility paid an annual interim mitigation fee beginning in 2017, which it will continue to pay until operations cease in 2025.

Additionally, the Utility expects that its decision to retire Diablo Canyon will affect the terms of a final settlement agreement between the Utility, the Central Coast Board and the California Attorney General’s Office regarding the thermal component of the plant’s once-through cooling discharge. (For more information, see “Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant” in Item 3. Legal Proceedings below.)

Nuclear Fuel Disposal

Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the DOE and electric utilities with commercial nuclear power plants were authorized to enter into contracts under which the DOE would be required to dispose of the utilities’ spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste by January 1998, in exchange for fees paid by the utilities’ customers. The DOE has been unable to meet its contractual obligation with the Utility to dispose of nuclear waste from the Utility’s two nuclear generating units at Diablo Canyon and the retired nuclear facility at Humboldt Bay. As a result, the Utility constructed interim dry cask storage facilities to store its spent fuel onsite at Diablo Canyon and at Humboldt Bay until the DOE fulfills its contractual obligation to take possession of the spent fuel. The Utility and other nuclear power plant owners sued the DOE to recover the costs that they incurred to construct interim storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel.

In September 2012, the U.S. Department of Justice and the Utility executed a settlement agreement that provided a claims process by which the Utility submits annual requests for reimbursement of its ongoing spent fuel storage costs.  The claim for the period June 1, 2017 through May 31, 2018, totaled approximately $25 million and is currently under review by the DOE.  Amounts reimbursed by DOE are refunded to customers through rates.  A new settlement agreement, for costs through 2019 was executed in March 2017. Considerable uncertainty continues to exist regarding when and whether the DOE will meet its contractual obligation to the Utility and other nuclear power plant owners to dispose of spent fuel.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial results can be affected by many factors, including estimates and assumptions used in the critical accounting policies described in MD&A, that can cause their actual financial results to differ materially from historical results or from anticipated future financial results.  The following discussion of key risk factors should be considered in evaluating an investment in PG&E Corporation and the Utility and should be read in conjunction with MD&A and the Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this Form 10-K.  Any of these factors, in whole or in part, could materially affect PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.


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Risks Related to Chapter 11 Proceedings and Liquidity

PG&E Corporation and the Utility filed voluntary petitions for relief under Chapter 11 and are subject to the risks and uncertainties associated with their bankruptcy cases.

On the Petition Date, PG&E Corporation and the Utility filed voluntary petitions for relief under Chapter 11 in the Bankruptcy Court. For the duration of the Chapter 11 Cases, the financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows of PG&E Corporation and the Utility will be subject to various risks, including but not limited to the following:

the ability to develop, consummate, and implement a plan of reorganization with respect to PG&E Corporation and the Utility during the Chapter 11 Cases;

the ability to develop and obtain applicable Bankruptcy Court, creditor, and regulatory approval of a successful plan of reorganization and the effect of any alternative proposals, views, and objections of official committees, creditors, state and federal regulators, and other stakeholders, which may make it difficult to develop and consummate a successful plan of reorganization in a timely manner;

the ability to obtain Bankruptcy Court approval with respect to motions in the Chapter 11 Cases and the outcomes of Bankruptcy Court rulings and of the Chapter 11 Cases in general;

risks associated with third-party motions or adversary proceedings in the Chapter 11 Cases, which may interfere with business operations, including additional collateral requirements, or the ability to formulate and implement a plan of reorganization;

increased costs related to the Chapter 11 Cases and related litigation;

potential for an increase in general unsecured claims as a result of the rejection of any executory contracts or unexpired leases as permitted under the Bankruptcy Code;

the ability to maintain or obtain sufficient financing sources for ongoing operations during the pendency of the Chapter 11 Cases or thereafter or to fund a plan of reorganization and meet future obligations, including commitments outlined in the Utility's 2020 GRC and other regulatory proceedings;

the potential for a material decrease in the number of counterparties that are willing to engage in transactions, including commodity-related transactions, with PG&E Corporation or the Utility and a significant increase in the amount of collateral required to engage in any such transactions;

the potential for a loss of, or a disruption in the materials or services received from, suppliers, contractors or service providers with whom the Utility has commercial relationships or adverse developments in the commercial and financial terms on which such providers engage in such relationships with PG&E Corporation and the Utility;

risks associated with the potential that the Utility will not be able to comply with the capital structure requirements authorized by the CPUC, to the extent applicable, during the pendency of the Chapter 11 Cases or thereafter;

potential increased difficulty in retaining and motivating key employees and potential increased difficulty in attracting new employees during the pendency of the Chapter 11 Cases and thereafter;

the significant time and effort required to be spent by senior management in dealing with the Chapter 11 Cases and restructuring activities rather than focusing exclusively on business operations; and

the ability to continue as a going concern.


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PG&E Corporation and the Utility will also be subject to risks and uncertainties with respect to the actions and decisions of creditors and other third parties who have claims or interests in the Chapter 11 Cases that may be inconsistent with PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s plans. These risks and uncertainties could materially affect PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows in various ways that cannot be predicted and may significantly increase the time PG&E Corporation and the Utility have to operate in Chapter 11. Because of the risks and uncertainties associated with the Chapter 11 Cases, it is not possible to predict or quantify the ultimate impact that events occurring during the Chapter 11 Cases may have on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows, nor is it possible to predict the ultimate impact that events occurring during the Chapter 11 Cases may have on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s corporate and capital structure.

PG&E Corporation and the Utility will be required to seek approvals of the Bankruptcy Court and certain regulators in connection with the Chapter 11 Cases, and certain parties may object, intervene and protest approval, absent the imposition of terms or conditions to resolve their concerns. Such approvals may be denied, conditioned or delayed.

Operating under Chapter 11 may restrict the ability of PG&E Corporation and the Utility to pursue strategic and operational initiatives.

Under Chapter 11, transactions outside the ordinary course of business are subject to the prior approval of the Bankruptcy Court, which may limit PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to respond in a timely manner to certain events or take advantage of certain opportunities or to adapt to changing market or industry conditions. These limitations include, among other things, PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to:

sell assets outside the normal course of business;

make capital investments outside the normal course of business;

consolidate or merge or sell or otherwise dispose of assets outside the normal course of business;

grant liens; and

finance operations, investments or other capital needs or engage in other business activities, including the ability to achieve California’s renewable energy goals.

PG&E Corporation and the Utility may experience increased levels of employee attrition as a result of the filing of the Chapter 11 Cases.

As a result of the filing of the Chapter 11 Cases, PG&E Corporation and the Utility may experience increased levels of employee attrition, and their employees will likely face considerable distraction and uncertainty. A loss of key personnel or material erosion of employee morale could materially affect PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows. PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to engage, motivate and retain key employees or take other measures intended to motivate and incentivize key employees to remain with PG&E Corporation or the Utility, as applicable, through the pendency of the Chapter 11 Cases is limited by restrictions on implementation of retention and incentive programs under the Bankruptcy Code. The loss of services of members of senior management could impair PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to execute their strategies and implement operational initiatives, which would likely have a material effect on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

As a result of the Chapter 11 Cases, PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s historical financial information may not be indicative of future financial performance.

PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s capital structure will likely be significantly altered under any plan of reorganization confirmed by the Bankruptcy Court. Under fresh-start accounting rules that may apply to PG&E Corporation and the Utility upon the effective date of a plan of reorganization, their assets and liabilities would be adjusted to fair value. Accordingly, if fresh-start accounting rules apply, PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition and results of operations following emergence from Chapter 11 would not be comparable to the financial condition and results of operations reflected in their historical financial statements. In connection with the Chapter 11 Cases and the development of a plan of reorganization, it is also possible that additional restructuring and related charges may be identified and recorded in future periods. Such charges could be material to PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.


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If PG&E Corporation and the Utility are not able to develop and consummate a consensual plan of reorganization, PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected by a protracted restructuring.

PG&E Corporation and the Utility have commenced the Chapter 11 Cases without the benefit of a restructuring support agreement or agreed consensual plan of reorganization with any of its creditors or other key constituents. The Bankruptcy Code gives PG&E Corporation and the Utility the exclusive right to file a plan of reorganization for 120 days after the filing and, subject to extension for cause, up to a maximum of 18 months from the Petition Date, and prohibits creditors, equity security holders and others from proposing a plan of reorganization during this period. PG&E Corporation and the Utility have currently retained the exclusive right to file a plan of reorganization until at least May 29, 2019. If that right is terminated, however, or the exclusivity period is not extended or expires, there could be a material effect on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to achieve confirmation of a plan of reorganization that would enable PG&E Corporation and the Utility to reach their stated goals.

Accordingly, no assurance can be provided as to the length of time during which the Chapter 11 Cases will be pending, whether a consensual or other plan of reorganization can be successfully developed and consummated, what the terms of any reorganization of PG&E Corporation and the Utility may be, and what effect any such plan or reorganization would have on the capital structure (or any part thereof) of PG&E Corporation and the Utility or on any of their respective equity, debt and other stakeholders, including as to matters of taxation and recovery or distributions upon consummation of any plan of reorganization.

If PG&E Corporation and the Utility are not able to develop and consummate a consensual plan of reorganization within the exclusivity period, one or more third parties may propose a competing plan of reorganization. PG&E Corporation and the Utility may have limited ability to prevent an alternative plan of reorganization from being approved by the Bankruptcy Court, even if PG&E Corporation and the Utility do not believe such plan is in their best interest and the best interests of their stakeholders. Even if PG&E Corporation and the Utility are successful in obtaining confirmation of a plan of reorganization following the expiration of their exclusivity period, the process may be lengthy, costly and disruptive. A contested plan of reorganization proceeding would likely have a more pronounced material effect on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows than a consensual plan of reorganization. Even if PG&E Corporation and the Utility are able to obtain requisite stakeholder approval, the Bankruptcy Court may not confirm a plan of reorganization.

The uncertainty surrounding a prolonged restructuring would also have other material effects on PG&E Corporation and the Utility including, but not limited to:

the ability of PG&E Corporation and the Utility to raise additional capital;

PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s liquidity;

how PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s business is viewed by regulators, investors, lenders and credit ratings agencies;

PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s enterprise value; and

PG&E Corporation's and the Utility's ability to continue as a going concern.

PG&E Corporation and the Utility may be subject to claims that will not be discharged in their Chapter 11 Cases, which could have a material effect on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

The Bankruptcy Code provides that the confirmation of a plan of reorganization discharges a debtor from substantially all claims arising prior to its filing under Chapter 11. With few exceptions, all claims that arose prior to PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s Chapter 11 Cases: (i) would be subject to compromise and/or treatment under the plan of reorganization and (ii) would be discharged in accordance with the Bankruptcy Code and the terms of the plan of reorganization. Any claims not ultimately discharged through a plan of reorganization could be asserted against the reorganized entities and may have a material effect on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows on a post-reorganization basis and may cast substantial doubt on PG&E Corporation's and the Utility's ability to continue as a going concern.


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The DIP Facilities may be insufficient to fund PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s cash requirements through their emergence from bankruptcy.

PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s liquidity, including PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to meet their ongoing operational obligations, is dependent upon, among other things: (i) PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to comply with the terms and conditions of any post-petition financing and cash collateral order entered by the Bankruptcy Court in connection with the Chapter 11 Cases, including the financing orders entered with respect to the DIP Credit Agreement, (ii) PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to maintain adequate cash on hand, (iii) PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to generate cash flow from operations, (iv) PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to develop, confirm and consummate a plan of reorganization or other alternative restructuring transaction and (v) the cost, duration and outcome of the Chapter 11 Cases. For the duration of the Chapter 11 Cases, PG&E Corporation and the Utility will be subject to various risks, including but not limited to (i) the inability to maintain or obtain sufficient financing sources for operations or to fund any plan of reorganization and meet future obligations, and (ii) increased legal and other professional costs associated with the Chapter 11 Cases and the reorganization.

PG&E Corporation and the Utility have entered into the DIP Credit Agreement. As a result of the Bankruptcy Court’s interim approval of the DIP Credit Agreement on January 31, 2019 and the satisfaction of the other conditions thereof, the DIP Credit Agreement became effective on February 1, 2019, and a portion of the DIP Revolving Facility in the amount of $1.5 billion (including $750 million of the letter of credit subfacility) was made available to PG&E Corporation and the Utility. As of February 28, 2019, the remainder of the DIP Revolving Facility (including the remainder of the $1.5 billion letter of credit subfacility), the DIP Initial Term Loan Facility and the DIP Delayed Draw Term Loan Facility are unavailable for borrowing and will remain unavailable until and unless the Bankruptcy Court approves the availability thereof following a final hearing. PG&E Corporation and the Utility are unable to predict the date of the final hearing, but it is currently scheduled for March 13, 2019. There can be no assurances that the Bankruptcy Court will grant final approval of the DIP Facilities at the final hearing, or at all. For more information on the DIP Credit Agreement, see Note 4 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.

The DIP Credit Agreement will mature on December 31, 2020, subject to the Utility’s option to extend the maturity to December 31, 2021 if certain terms and conditions are satisfied, including the payment of an extension fee.

PG&E Corporation and the Utility will face uncertainty regarding the adequacy of their liquidity and capital resources during the pendency of the Chapter 11 Cases, and will have limited, if any, access to additional financing. PG&E Corporation and the Utility cannot provide assurance that cash on hand, cash flow from operations, distributions received from their subsidiaries and borrowings available under the DIP Credit Agreement will be sufficient to continue to fund operations during the pendency of the Chapter 11 Cases. The ability of PG&E Corporation and the Utility to maintain adequate liquidity depends in part upon industry conditions and general economic, financial, competitive, regulatory and other factors beyond their control. In the event that cash on hand, cash flow from operations, distributions received from subsidiaries and availability under the DIP Credit Agreement are not sufficient to meet these liquidity needs, PG&E Corporation and the Utility may be required to seek additional financing, and can provide no assurance that additional financing would be available or, if available, offered on acceptable terms.

The DIP Credit Agreement imposes a number of restrictions on PG&E Corporation and the Utility that may, among other things, limit their ability to conduct their business, or pursue new business opportunities and strategies. Additionally, PG&E Corporation and the Utility may be unable to comply with the covenants imposed by the DIP Credit Agreement. Such non-compliance could result in an event of default under the DIP Credit Agreement that, if not cured or waived, could have a material effect on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

The DIP Credit Agreement imposes a number of restrictions on PG&E Corporation and the Utility, including, among other things, affirmative covenants requiring PG&E Corporation and the Utility to provide financial information, cash flow forecasts, variance reports and other information to the administrative agent. The DIP Credit Agreement also contains general affirmative covenants such as compliance with all applicable laws, maintenance of licenses from necessary governmental authorities, maintenance of property and preservation of corporate existence. Negative covenants contained in the DIP Credit Agreement include restrictions on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to, among other things, incur additional indebtedness, create liens on assets, make investments, loans or advances, engage in mergers, consolidations, sales of assets and acquisitions, pay dividends and distributions, and make payments in respect of junior or pre-petition indebtedness, in each case subject to customary exceptions. The Utility’s ability to borrow under the DIP Credit Agreement is subject to the satisfaction of certain customary conditions precedent set forth therein. For more information on the DIP Credit Agreement, see Note 4 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.

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As a result of these covenants and restrictions, PG&E Corporation and the Utility may be limited in their ability to conduct their business, and respond to changing business, market, and economic conditions. These provisions may also limit PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to pursue new business opportunities and strategies.

PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to comply with these provisions may be affected by events beyond their control and their failure to comply, or obtain a waiver in the event PG&E Corporation or the Utility cannot comply with a covenant, could result in an event of default under the agreements governing the DIP Credit Agreement that, if not cured or waived, could have a material effect on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

PG&E Corporation and the Utility may not be able to obtain exit financing to, among other things, repay borrowings under the DIP Credit Agreement, and even if they are able to obtain such exit financing, the agreement governing such exit financing may significantly restrict PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financing and operational flexibility. The ability of PG&E Corporation and the Utility to emerge from bankruptcy will likely depend on obtaining financings from a number of potential sources, and there can be no assurance that any such financings or other potential sources can be obtained expeditiously or on favorable terms, if at all.

It is expected that the DIP Credit Agreement will be repaid using, in whole or in part, the proceeds from borrowings under exit financings. PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to obtain such exit financing will depend on, among other things, the timing and outcome of various ongoing matters in the Chapter 11 Cases, their business, operations and financial condition, and market conditions. There can be no assurance that PG&E Corporation and the Utility will be able to obtain such exit financings on reasonable economic terms, or at all. If exit financing cannot be obtained, they may not be able to repay the DIP Credit Agreement at maturity or emerge from bankruptcy. Any exit financing that PG&E Corporation and the Utility are able to obtain may include a number of significant restrictive or financial covenants which could impair their financial and operational flexibility and make it difficult to react to market conditions and satisfy their ongoing capital needs and unanticipated cash requirements.

The ability of PG&E Corporation and the Utility to emerge from bankruptcy will likely depend on proceeds received from a number of potential sources. These potential sources may include financings in the capital and credit markets, securitization, proceeds of asset sales or other dispositions, and other potential sources. The ability to execute on any such financings or other potential sources will be subject to a variety of factors, many of which will be beyond the control of PG&E Corporation and the Utility, and may require consent or other action of federal and state regulators (including the FERC and the CPUC), the state legislature and executive branch, the Bankruptcy Court, other governmental entities, and other potential sources of third-party financing. There can be no assurance that any such financings or other potential sources can be obtained expeditiously or on favorable terms, if at all.

PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared assuming that PG&E Corporation and the Utility will continue as a going concern. PG&E Corporation and the Utility are facing extraordinary challenges relating to a series of catastrophic wildfires that occurred in 2018 and 2017.  Uncertainty regarding these matters raises substantial doubt about PG&E Corporation's and the Utility's abilities to continue as going concerns. In addition, there is inherent uncertainty regarding the outcome of the Chapter 11 Cases. PG&E Corporation and the Utility have not included any financial statement adjustments that might result from the outcome of these uncertainties.

The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements to this Annual Report on Form 10-K have been prepared assuming that PG&E Corporation and the Utility will continue as a going concern. PG&E Corporation and the Utility are facing extraordinary challenges relating to a series of catastrophic wildfires that occurred in 2018 and 2017. Management has concluded that these circumstances raise substantial doubt about PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to continue as going concerns, and their independent registered public accountants have included an explanatory paragraph in their auditors’ report which states certain conditions exist which raise substantial doubt about PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to continue as going concerns in relation to the foregoing. In addition, there is inherent uncertainty regarding the outcome of the Chapter 11 Cases. For further discussion of such uncertainty, see the risk factors above in “Risks Related to Chapter 11 Proceedings and Liquidity” in this Item 1A. PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s plans in regard to these matters are described in Note 1 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8. The Consolidated Financial Statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of these uncertainties. See “Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm” in Item 8.


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Trading in PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s securities during the pendency of the Chapter 11 Cases is highly speculative and poses substantial risks.

Trading in PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s securities during the pendency of the Chapter 11 Cases is highly speculative and poses substantial risks. The ultimate recovery, if any, by holders of PG&E Corporation’s or the Utility’s securities in the Chapter 11 Cases could differ substantially from any value that may be implied by the trading prices of such securities at any particular time during the pendency of the Chapter 11 Cases.

Risks Related to Wildfires

PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected by potential losses resulting from the impact of the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires, notwithstanding the commencement of the Chapter 11 Cases.

PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected by potential losses resulting from the impact of the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires, notwithstanding the commencement of the Chapter 11 Cases. As detailed below in Note 13 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8, PG&E Corporation and the Utility are subject to numerous lawsuits in connection with the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires by various plaintiffs, including wildfire victims, insurance carriers, and various government entities, under multiple theories of liability. These lawsuits generally assert that the Utility’s alleged failure to maintain and repair its distribution and transmission lines and failure to properly maintain the vegetation surrounding such lines were the causes of the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires.

Due to the commencement of the Chapter 11 Cases, these plaintiffs have been stayed from continuing to prosecute pending litigation and from commencing new lawsuits against PG&E Corporation or the Utility on account of pre-petition obligations. PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s obligations with respect to such claims are expected to be determined through the Chapter 11 process. If the Utility’s facilities, such as its electric distribution and transmission lines, are determined to be the substantial cause of one or more fires, and the doctrine of inverse condemnation applies, the Utility could be liable for property damage, business interruption, interest, and attorneys’ fees without having been found negligent, which liability, in the aggregate, could be substantial and have a material adverse effect on PG&E Corporation and the Utility, including on PG&E Corporation's and the Utility's ability to develop and consummate a successful plan of reorganization. (See “The doctrine of inverse condemnation, if applied by courts in litigation to which PG&E Corporation or the Utility are subject, could significantly expand the potential liabilities from such litigation and materially affect PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows” below.) In addition to such claims for property damage, business interruption, interest, and attorneys’ fees, the Utility could be liable for fire suppression costs, evacuation costs, medical expenses, personal injury damages, punitive damages, and other damages under other theories of liability, including if the Utility were found to have been negligent, which liability, in the aggregate, could be substantial and have a material adverse effect on PG&E Corporation and the Utility, including on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to develop and consummate a successful plan of reorganization. Among other things, it is uncertain at this time as to the number of wildfire-related claims that will be filed in the Chapter 11 Cases, the number of current and future claims that will be settled in a plan of reorganization, how claims for punitive damages and claims by variously situated persons will be treated and whether such claims will be allowed, and the impact that historical settlement values for wildfire claims may have on the estimation of wildfire liability in the Chapter 11 Cases.

Further, the Utility could be subject to material fines or penalties if the CPUC or any law enforcement agency brought an enforcement action, including a criminal proceeding, and determined that the Utility failed to comply with applicable laws and regulations. Such actions would not be subject to the automatic stay.


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As described below in Note 13 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8, based on information made available by the California Department of Insurance, insurers have received an aggregate amount of approximately $18.4 billion of insurance claims made as of the dates noted below related to the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires. PG&E Corporation and the Utility expect that additional claims have been submitted and will continue to be submitted to insurers, particularly with respect to the 2018 Camp fire. These claims reflect insured property losses only. The $18.4 billion of insurance claims described below does not account for uninsured or underinsured property losses, interest, attorneys’ fees, fire suppression and clean-up costs, evacuation costs, personal injury or wrongful death damages, medical expenses or other costs, such as potential punitive damages, fines or penalties, or damages for claims related to the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires that have not manifested yet ("future claims"), each of which could be significant and could materially affect the financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows of PG&E Corporation and the Utility. The scope of all claims related to the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires is not known at this time because of the applicable statutes of limitations under California law. PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s obligations with respect to such claims are expected to be determined through the Chapter 11 process.

If PG&E Corporation or the Utility were to be found liable for certain or all of the costs, expenses and other losses described above with respect to the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires, the amount of such liability could exceed $30 billion, which amount does not include potential punitive damages, fines and penalties or damages related to future claims. In certain circumstances, PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s liability could be substantially greater than such amount. As a result, PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected.

Potential liabilities related to the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires depend on various factors, including but not limited to the cause of each fire, contributing causes of the fires (including alternative potential origins, weather and climate related issues), the number, size and type of structures damaged or destroyed, the contents of such structures and other personal property damage, the number and types of trees damaged or destroyed, attorneys’ fees for claimants, the nature and extent of any personal injuries, including the loss of lives, the extent to which future claims arise, the amount of fire suppression and clean-up costs, other damages the Utility may be responsible for if found negligent, and the amount of any penalties or fines that may be imposed by governmental entities. There are a number of unknown facts and legal considerations that may impact the amount of any potential liability, including the total scope and nature of claims that may be asserted against PG&E Corporation and the Utility and the treatment of such claims in the Chapter 11 Cases.

For more information about the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires, see “2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires” in Note 13 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.

PG&E Corporation and the Utility are the subject of lawsuits and could be the subject of additional investigations, citations, fines or enforcement actions in connection with the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires.

PG&E Corporation and the Utility are the subject of a number of lawsuits that have been filed against PG&E Corporation and the Utility in Sonoma, Napa and San Francisco Counties’ Superior Courts in connection with the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires, several of which seek to be certified as class actions, asserting damages that include wrongful death, personal injury, property damage, evacuation costs, medical expenses, punitive damages, attorneys’ fees, and other damages. Insurance carriers who have made payments to their insureds for property damage arising out of the 2017 Northern California wildfires have filed 48 subrogation complaints in the San Francisco County Superior Court as of January 28, 2019. These complaints allege, among other things, negligence, inverse condemnation, trespass and nuisance.  The allegations are similar to the ones made by individual plaintiffs. Insurance carriers have filed 37 similar subrogation complaints with respect to the 2018 Camp fire in the Sacramento County Superior Court. Further, PG&E Corporation and the Utility have been named as defendants in securities class action litigation related to the 2017 Northern California wildfires and 2018 Camp fire.

Due to the commencement of the Chapter 11 Cases, these plaintiffs have been stayed from continuing to prosecute pending litigation and from commencing new lawsuits against PG&E Corporation or the Utility on account of pre-petition obligations. However, PG&E Corporation and the Utility could be the subject of additional lawsuits on account of obligations arising after the commencement of the Chapter 11 Cases or the Bankruptcy Court could lift the automatic stay with respect to such pre-petition obligations. Further, PG&E Corporation and the Utility could be the subject of additional investigations, citations, fines or enforcement actions in connection with the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires. The wildfire litigation could take a number of years to be resolved through the Chapter 11 process because of the complexity of the matters, including the ongoing investigation into the causes of the fires and the growing number of parties and claims involved. The ultimate number and allowed amount of such claims are not presently known and cannot be reasonably estimated at this time.


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If PG&E Corporation or the Utility were to be found liable for any punitive damages or subject to fines or penalties in connection with the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires, their financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected.

If PG&E Corporation or the Utility were to be found liable for any punitive damages or subject to fines or penalties, the amount of such punitive damages, fines and penalties could be significant and could materially affect PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows, as well as PG&E Corporation's and the Utility’s ability to develop and consummate a successful plan of reorganization. The Utility has received significant fines and penalties in connection with past incidents. For example, in 2015, the CPUC approved a decision that imposed penalties on the Utility totaling $1.6 billion in connection with natural gas explosion that occurred in the City of San Bruno on September 9, 2010 (the “San Bruno explosion”). These penalties represented nearly three times the underlying liability for the San Bruno explosion of approximately $558 million incurred for third-party claims, exclusive of shareholder derivative lawsuits and legal costs incurred. The amount of punitive damages, fines and penalties imposed on PG&E Corporation or the Utility could likewise be a significant amount in relation to the underlying liabilities with respect to the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires.

The amount of potential losses resulting from the impact of the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires is expected to greatly exceed the amount of PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s insurance coverage for wildfire events and securing liability insurance in future years is expected to be increasingly difficult and expensive, if available at all.

The amount of potential losses resulting from the impact of the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires is expected to greatly exceed the amount of PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s insurance coverage for wildfire events. PG&E Corporation and the Utility have $842 million of insurance coverage for liabilities, including wildfire events, for the period from August 1, 2017 through July 31, 2018, subject to an initial self-insured retention of $10 million per occurrence and further retentions of approximately $40 million per occurrence. During the third quarter of 2018, PG&E Corporation and the Utility renewed their liability insurance coverage for wildfire events in an aggregate amount of approximately $1.4 billion for the period from August 1, 2018 through July 31, 2019, comprised of $700 million for general liability (subject to an initial self-insured retention of $10 million per occurrence), and $700 million for property damages only, which property damage coverage includes an aggregate amount of approximately $200 million through the reinsurance market where a catastrophe bond was utilized. In addition, coverage limits within these wildfire insurance policies could result in further material self-insured costs in the event each fire were deemed to be a separate occurrence under the terms of the insurance policies.

PG&E Corporation and the Utility may not be able to recover the full amount of their insurance. If PG&E Corporation and the Utility are unable to recover the full amount of their insurance, PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected. Even if PG&E Corporation and the Utility were to recover the full amount of their insurance, PG&E Corporation and the Utility expect their losses in connection with the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires will greatly exceed their available insurance.

In addition, it could take a number of years before the Utility’s final liability in connection with the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires is known and the Utility could apply for recovery of costs in excess of insurance. While the CPUC has authorized the Utility to track certain wildfire costs in its WEMA, the Utility will be required to submit a separate request with the CPUC in the future for recovery of those costs.  The Utility may be unable to fully recover costs in excess of insurance through regulatory mechanisms and, even if such recovery is possible, it could take a number of years to resolve and a number of years to collect.

If PG&E Corporation or the Utility were to be found liable for certain or all of the costs, expenses, and other losses described above with respect to the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires, the amount of such liability could exceed $30 billion, which amount does not include potential punitive damages, fines and penalties or damages related to future claims. In certain circumstances, PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s liability could be substantially greater than such amount. For further discussion of the potential magnitude of PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s liability, see “PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected by potential losses resulting from the impact of the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires, notwithstanding the commencement of the Chapter 11 Cases” and “PG&E Corporation and the Utility are the subject of lawsuits and could be the subject of additional investigations, citations, fines or enforcement actions in connection with the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires” above.


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Accordingly, PG&E Corporation and the Utility expect losses in connection with the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires will greatly exceed their available insurance. PG&E Corporation and the Utility also expect to face increasing difficulty securing liability insurance in future years due to availability and to face significantly increased insurance costs. PG&E Corporation's and the Utility's obligations with respect to such claims are expected to be determined through the Chapter 11 process.

PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected by the ultimate amount of third-party liability of the Utility in connection with the 2015 Butte fire.

PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected by the ultimate amount of third-party liability that the Utility incurs in connection with the 2015 Butte fire. As described below in Note 13 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8, PG&E Corporation and the Utility are subject to numerous lawsuits in connection with the 2015 Butte fire by various plaintiffs, including individual plaintiffs, insurance carriers, and various government entities, under multiple theories of liability. Plaintiffs also seek punitive damages. The number of individual claimants may still increase in the future through the Chapter 11 process.

In connection with the 2015 Butte fire, the Utility may be liable for property damages, interest, and attorneys’ fees without having been found negligent, through the doctrine of inverse condemnation. (See “The doctrine of inverse condemnation, if applied by courts in litigation to which PG&E Corporation or the Utility are subject, could significantly expand the potential liabilities from such litigation and materially affect PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows” below.) In addition, the Utility may be liable for fire suppression costs, personal injury damages, and other damages if the Utility were found to have been negligent. PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s obligations with respect to such claims are expected to be determined through the Chapter 11 process. While the Utility believes it was not negligent, there can be no assurance that a court would agree with the Utility.

The Utility currently believes that it is probable that it will incur a loss of $1.1 billion in connection with the 2015 Butte fire. While this amount includes the Utility’s assumptions about fire suppression costs (including its assessment of the Cal Fire loss), it does not include any portion of the estimated claim from the OES. The Utility still does not have sufficient information to reasonably estimate the probable loss it may have for that additional claim. A change in management’s estimates or assumptions could result in an adjustment that could have a material effect on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows, as well as PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to develop and consummate a successful plan of reorganization. (See Note 13 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.)

If the Utility is unable to recover all or a significant portion of its excess costs in connection with the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires and the 2015 Butte fire through ratemaking mechanisms and in a timely manner, PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected.

As of December 31, 2018, the Utility incurred substantial costs in connection with the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires and the 2015 Butte fire in excess of costs currently in rates, some of which currently are or are expected to be recorded in the future in its WEMA, CEMA and FHPMA accounts.

There can be no assurance that the Utility will be allowed to recover costs recorded in those accounts in the future, even if a court decision were to determine that the Utility is liable as a result of the application of the doctrine of inverse condemnation. For example, while the CPUC previously approved WEMA tracking accounts for San Diego Gas & Electric Company in 2010, in December 2017, the CPUC denied recovery of costs that San Diego Gas & Electric Company stated it incurred as a result of the doctrine of inverse condemnation, holding that the inverse condemnation principles of strict liability are not relevant to the CPUC’s prudent manager standard. San Diego Gas & Electric, the Utility, and Southern California Edison filed requests for rehearing of that decision. On July 12, 2018, the CPUC voted out a decision denying the requests for rehearing. On November 13, 2018, the California Court of Appeal denied San Diego Gas & Electric’s petition for writ of review, and on January 30, 2019, the California Supreme Court denied San Diego Gas & Electric’s petition for review.


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SB 901, signed into law on September 21, 2018, requires the CPUC to establish a customer harm threshold, directing the CPUC to limit certain disallowances in the aggregate, so that they do not exceed the maximum amount that the Utility can pay without harming ratepayers or materially impacting its ability to provide adequate and safe service (the “Customer Harm Threshold”). SB 901 also authorizes the CPUC to issue a financing order that permits recovery, through the issuance of recovery bonds (also referred to as “securitization”), of wildfire-related costs found to be just and reasonable by the CPUC and, only for the 2017 Northern California wildfires, any amounts in excess of the Customer Harm Threshold. SB 901 does not authorize securitization with respect to possible 2018 Camp fire costs, as the bill does not address fires that occurred in 2018.

On January 10, 2019, the CPUC adopted an OIR, which establishes a process to develop criteria and a methodology to inform determinations of the Customer Harm Threshold in future applications under Section 451.2(a) of the Public Utilities Code for cost recovery of 2017 wildfire costs. In the OIR, the CPUC stated that “consistent with Section 451.2(a), the determination of what costs and expenses are just and reasonable must be made in the context of an application for the recovery of specific costs related to the 2017 wildfires.” Based on the CPUC’s interpretation of Section 451.2 as outlined in the OIR, PG&E Corporation and the Utility believe that any securitization of costs relating to the 2017 Northern California wildfires would not occur, if at all, until (a) the Utility has paid claims relating to the 2017 Northern California wildfires, (b) the Utility has filed application for recovery of such costs, and (c) the CPUC makes a determination that such costs are just and reasonable or in excess of the Customer Harm Threshold. PG&E Corporation and the Utility therefore do not expect the CPUC to permit the Utility to securitize costs relating to the 2017 Northern California wildfires on an expedited or emergency basis. Based on the OIR, as well as prior experience and precedent, and unless the CPUC alters the position expressed in the OIR, PG&E Corporation and the Utility believe it likely would take years to obtain authorization to securitize any amounts relating to the 2017 Northern California wildfires.

On February 11, 2019, PG&E Corporation and the Utility filed opening comments in response to the OIR in which they argued, among other things, the CPUC should (1) promptly set a Customer Harm Threshold, or at least define the methodology for setting the Customer Harm Threshold with sufficient specificity to enable PG&E Corporation and the Utility and potential investors to anticipate that amount; (2) determine the Customer Harm Threshold based on the capital needed to resolve claims arising from both the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires to be provided for in a plan of reorganization; (3) define how the Customer Harm Threshold will be applied to any future wildfires; and (4) establish the Customer Harm Threshold based on the amount of debt PG&E Corporation and the Utility can raise. Based on assumptions set forth in the comments, PG&E Corporation and the Utility indicated that they could borrow up to approximately $3 billion to fund wildfire claims costs as part of a plan of reorganization.

The inability to recover all or a significant portion of costs in excess of insurance through increases in rates and by collecting such rates in a timely manner could have a material effect on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected in the event of non-compliance with the terms of probation or in the event of modifications to the conditions of probation.

PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected in the event of non-compliance with the terms of probation or in the event of modifications to the conditions of probation. On January 26, 2017, following the federal criminal trial against the Utility in connection with the San Bruno explosion, in which the Utility was found guilty on six felony counts, the Utility was sentenced to, among other things, a five-year corporate probation period and oversight by a third-party monitor for a period of five years, with the ability to apply for early termination after three years. The probation includes a requirement that the Utility not commit any local, state, or federal crimes during the probation period. As part of the probation, the Utility has retained a third-party monitor at the Utility’s expense. The goal of the third-party monitor is to help ensure that the Utility takes reasonable and appropriate steps to maintain the safety of its gas and electric operations, and to maintain effective ethics, compliance and safety related incentive programs on a Utility-wide basis.


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In 2018 and 2019, the court overseeing the Utility’s probation, issued various orders related to the Utility’s probation. On November 27, 2018, the court issued an order requiring that the Utility, the United States Attorney’s Office for the Northern District of California and the third-party monitor provide written answers to a series of questions regarding the Utility’s compliance with the terms of its probation. On December 5, 2018, the court issued an order requesting that the Office of the California Attorney General advise the court of its view on “the extent to which, if at all, the reckless operation or maintenance of PG&E power lines would constitute a crime under California law.” The response of the Utility was submitted on December 31, 2018. On January 3, 2019 and January 4, 2019, the court issued two new orders requesting further information regarding each of the eighteen October 2017 Northern California wildfires that Cal Fire has attributed to the Utility’s facilities, and the Utility submitted its responses on January 10, 2019. On January 9, 2019, the court ordered the Utility to appear in court on January 30, 2019, as a result of the court’s finding that “there is probable cause to believe there has been a violation of the conditions of supervision” with respect to reporting requirements related to the 2017 Honey fire. In addition, on January 9, 2019, the court issued an order proposing to add new conditions of probation and ordered the Utility to show cause by January 23, 2019, as to why the Utility’s conditions of probation should not be modified as proposed. The Utility's response was submitted on January 23, 2019. On January 30, 2019, the court found that the Utility had violated a condition of its probation with respect to reporting requirements related to the 2017 Honey fire. The court issued an order stating that a sentencing hearing on the probation violation will be set at a later date. For more information about the Utility’s probation and the court’s orders, see “U.S. District Court Matters and Probation" in Item 3. Legal Proceedings and "U.S. District Court Matters and Probation” in Note 15 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8. Such proceedings are not subject to the automatic stay imposed as a result of the commencement of the Chapter 11 Cases.

The Utility could incur material costs, not recoverable through rates, in the event of non-compliance with the terms of its probation and in connection with the monitorship (including but not limited to costs resulting from recommendations of the third-party monitor). The Utility could also incur material costs, not recoverable through rates, in the event of modifications to the conditions of its probation.

The Utility’s conviction and the outcome of probation could harm the Utility’s relationships with customers, regulators, legislators, communities, business partners, or other constituencies and make it more difficult to recruit qualified personnel and senior management. Further, they could negatively affect the outcome of future ratemaking and regulatory proceedings, for example, by enabling parties to argue that the Utility should not be allowed to recover costs that the parties allege are somehow related to the criminal charges on which the Utility was found guilty. They could also result in increased regulatory or legislative scrutiny with respect to various aspects of how the Utility’s business is conducted or organized. (See “Enforcement and Litigation Matters” in Item 7. MD&A.)

The doctrine of inverse condemnation, if applied by courts in litigation to which PG&E Corporation or the Utility are subject, could significantly expand the potential liabilities from such litigation and materially affect PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

California law includes a doctrine of inverse condemnation that is routinely invoked in California. Inverse condemnation imposes strict liability (including liability for attorneys’ fees) for damages as a result of the design, construction and maintenance of utility facilities, including utilities’ electric transmission lines. Courts have imposed liability under the doctrine of inverse condemnation in legal actions brought by property holders against utilities on the grounds that losses borne by the person whose property was damaged through a public use undertaking should be spread across the community that benefitted from such undertaking, and based on the assumption that utilities have the ability to recover these costs from their customers. Plaintiffs have asserted the doctrine of inverse condemnation in lawsuits related to the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires and the 2015 Butte fire, and it is possible that plaintiffs could be successful in convincing courts to apply this doctrine in these or other litigations. For example, on June 22, 2017, the Superior Court for the County of Sacramento found that the doctrine of inverse condemnation applies to the Utility with respect to the 2015 Butte fire. Although the Utility has filed a renewed motion for a legal determination of inverse condemnation liability, there can be no assurance that the Utility will be successful in its arguments that the doctrine of inverse condemnation does not apply in the 2015 Butte fire or other litigation against PG&E Corporation or the Utility.

Furthermore, a court could determine that the doctrine of inverse condemnation applies even in the absence of an open CPUC proceeding for cost recovery, or before a potential cost recovery decision is issued by the CPUC. Although the imposition of liability is premised on the assumption that utilities have the ability to automatically recover these costs from their customers, there can be no guarantee that the CPUC would authorize cost recovery whether or not a previous court decision imposes liability on a utility under the doctrine of inverse condemnation. In December 2017, the CPUC denied recovery of costs that San Diego Gas & Electric Company stated it incurred as a result of the doctrine of inverse condemnation, holding that the inverse condemnation principles of strict liability are not relevant to the CPUC’s prudent manager standard. That determination is being challenged by San Diego Gas & Electric as well as by the Utility and Southern California Edison.

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If PG&E Corporation or the Utility were to be found liable for damage under the doctrine of inverse condemnation, but is unable to secure a cost recovery decision from the CPUC to pay for such costs through increases in rates or to collect such rates in a timely manner, the financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows of PG&E Corporation and the Utility would be materially affected by potential losses resulting from the impact of the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires. (See “PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected by potential losses resulting from the impact of the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires, notwithstanding the commencement of the Chapter 11 Cases”, “PG&E Corporation and the Utility are the subject of lawsuits and could be the subject of additional investigations, citations, fines or enforcement actions in connection with the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires” and “PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected by the ultimate amount of third-party liability of the Utility in connection with the 2015 Butte fire” above.)

Risks Related to the Outcome of Other Enforcement Matters, Investigations, and Regulatory Proceedings

PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial results could be materially affected as a result of legislative and regulatory developments.

The Utility’s financial results could be materially affected as a result of SB 901 adopted in 2018 by the California legislature. In December 2018, the CPUC opened an OIR in connection with SB 901 that will adopt criteria and a methodology for use by the CPUC in future applications for cost recovery of wildfire costs. Following SB 901, in applications for cost recovery in connection with the 2017 wildfires, the CPUC is expected to consider the Utility’s financial status and determine the maximum amount the Utility can pay without harming customers or materially impacting its ability to provide adequate and safe service, and ensure that the costs or expenses that are disallowed for recovery in rates assessed for the wildfires, in the aggregate, do not exceed that amount. The Utility is unable to predict the timing or outcome of such future determination by the CPUC and its impact on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

In addition, SB 901 requires utilities to submit annual wildfire mitigation plans for approval by the CPUC on a schedule to be established by the CPUC.  SB 901 establishes factors to be considered by the CPUC when setting penalties for failure to substantially comply with the plan.  The Utility is unable to predict the timing or outcome of the CPUC’s review of the wildfire mitigation plan, the results of the CPUC compliance review of wildfire mitigation plan implementation, or the timing or extent of cost recovery for wildfire mitigation plan activities. (See “Regulatory Matters - Other Regulatory Proceedings” in Item 7. MD&A.)

Finally, SB 901 established a Commission on Catastrophic Wildfire Cost and Recovery to evaluate wildfire reforms, including inverse condemnation reform, a potential state wildfire insurance fund, and other wildfire mitigation measures. The recommendations of the CPUC and the response by the Governor and legislature to those recommendations could materially affect PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows. (See “Regulatory Matters - Legislative and Regulatory Initiatives” in Item 7. MD&A.)

The Utility is subject to extensive regulations and the risk of enforcement proceedings in connection with such regulations, PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected by the outcomes of the CPUC’s investigative enforcement proceedings against the Utility, other known enforcement matters, and other ongoing state and federal investigations and requests for information. The Utility could incur material costs and fines in connection with compliance with penalties from closed investigations or enforcement actions or in connection with future investigations, citations, audits, or enforcement actions.

The Utility is subject to extensive regulations, including federal, state and local energy, environmental and other laws and regulations, and the risk of enforcement proceedings in connection with such regulations. The Utility could incur material charges, including fines and other penalties, in connection with the ex parte OII, safety culture OII, the locate and mark OII, and other matters that the CPUC’s SED may be investigating. The SED could launch investigations at any time on any issue it deems appropriate. Such proceedings are likely not subject to the automatic stay imposed as a result of the commencement of the Chapter 11 Cases; however, collection efforts in connection with fines or penalties arising out of such proceedings are stayed.


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The SED has discretion whether to issue a penalty for each violation, but if it assesses a penalty for a violation, it is required to impose the maximum statutory penalty of $50,000, with an administrative limit of $8 million per citation issued. For offenses occurred after January 1, 2019, the maximum statutory penalty is $100,000, as provided in SB 901. The SED may, at its discretion, impose penalties on a daily basis, or on less than a daily basis, for violations that continued for more than one day. While it is uncertain how the CPUC will calculate the number of violations or the penalty for any violations, such fines or penalties could be significant and materially affect PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s liquidity and results of operations. (See “Regulatory Environment” in Item 1. Business and Note 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.)

The Utility also is a target of a number of investigations, in addition to certain investigations in connection with the wildfires. (See "Risks Related to Wildfires," above.) In 2014, both the U.S. Attorney's Office in San Francisco and the California Attorney General's office opened investigations into matters related to allegedly improper communication between the Utility and CPUC personnel. The Utility also is unable to predict the outcome of, or costs and expenses associate with, pending investigations, including whether any charges will be brought against the Utility.

If these investigations result in enforcement action against the Utility, the Utility could incur additional fines or penalties the amount of which could be substantial and, in the event of a judgment against the Utility, suffer further ongoing negative consequences. Furthermore, a negative outcome in any of these investigations, or future enforcement actions, could negatively affect the outcome of future ratemaking and regulatory proceedings to which the Utility may be subject; for example, by enabling parties to challenge the Utility’s request to recover costs that the parties allege are somehow related to the Utility’s violations. (See also “PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected in the event of non-compliance with the terms of probation or in the event of modifications to the conditions of probation” above.)

The Utility could be subject to additional regulatory or governmental enforcement action in the future with respect to compliance with federal, state or local laws, regulations or orders that could result in additional fines, penalties or customer refunds, including those regarding renewable energy and resource adequacy requirements; customer billing; customer service; affiliate transactions; vegetation management; design, construction, operating and maintenance practices; safety and inspection practices; compliance with CPUC general orders or other applicable CPUC decisions or regulations; federal electric reliability standards; and environmental compliance. CPUC staff could also impose penalties on the Utility in the future in accordance with its authority under the gas and electric safety citation programs. The amount of such fines, penalties, or customer refunds could have a material effect on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial results primarily depend on the outcomes of regulatory and ratemaking proceedings and the Utility’s ability to manage its operating expenses and capital expenditures so that it is able to earn its authorized rate of return in a timely manner.

As a regulated entity, the Utility’s rates are set by the CPUC or the FERC on a prospective basis and are generally designed to allow the Utility to collect sufficient revenues to recover reasonable costs of providing service, including a return on its capital investments. PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial results could be materially affected if the CPUC or the FERC does not authorize sufficient revenues for the Utility to safely and reliably serve its customers and earn its authorized ROE. The outcome of the Utility’s ratemaking proceedings can be affected by many factors, including the level of opposition by intervening parties; potential rate impacts; increasing levels of regulatory review; changes in the political, regulatory, or legislative environments; and the opinions of the Utility’s regulators, consumer and other stakeholder organizations, and customers, about the Utility’s ability to provide safe, reliable, and affordable electric and gas services. Further, the increasing amount of Reliability Must Run (“RMR”) electric generation in the CAISO could increase the Utility’s costs of procuring capacity needed for reliable service to its customers.

In addition to the amount of authorized revenues, PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial results could be materially affected if the Utility’s actual costs to safely and reliably serve its customers differ from authorized or forecast costs. The Utility may incur additional costs for many reasons including changing market circumstances, unanticipated events (such as wildfires, storms, earthquakes, accidents, or catastrophic or other events affecting the Utility’s operations), or compliance with new state laws or policies. Although the Utility may be allowed to recover some or all of the additional costs, there may be a substantial time lag between when the Utility incurs the costs and when the Utility is authorized to collect revenues to recover such costs. Alternatively, the CPUC or the FERC may disallow costs that they determine were not reasonably or prudently incurred by the Utility.


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The Utility also is required to incur costs to comply with legislative and regulatory requirements and initiatives, such as those relating to the development of a state-wide electric vehicle charging infrastructure, the deployment of distributed energy resources, implementation of demand response and customer energy efficiency programs, energy storage and renewable energy targets, underground gas storage, and the construction of the California high-speed rail project. The Utility’s ability to recover costs, including its investments, associated with these and other legislative and regulatory initiatives will depend, in large part, on the final form of legislative or regulatory requirements, and whether the associated ratemaking mechanisms can be timely adjusted to reflect a lower customer demand for the Utility’s electricity and natural gas services.

PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial results depend upon the Utility’s continuing ability to recover “pass-through” costs, including electricity and natural gas procurement costs, from customers in a timely manner. The CPUC may disallow procurement costs for a variety of reasons. In addition, the Utility’s ability to recover these costs could be affected by the loss of Utility customers and decreased new customer growth, if the CPUC fails to adjust the Utility’s rates to reflect such events.

The Utility meets customer demand for electricity from a variety of sources, including electricity generated from the Utility’s own generation facilities, electricity provided by third parties under power purchase agreements, and purchases on the wholesale electricity market.  The Utility must manage these sources using the commercial and CPUC regulatory principles of “least cost dispatch” and prudent administration of power purchase agreements in compliance with its CPUC-approved long-term procurement plan. The CPUC could disallow procurement costs incurred by the Utility if the CPUC determines that the Utility did not comply with these principles or if the Utility did not comply with its procurement plan.

Further, the contractual prices for electricity under the Utility’s current or future power purchase agreements could become uneconomic in the future for a variety of reasons, including developments in alternative energy technology, increased self-generation by customers, an increase in distributed generation, and lower customer demand due to adverse economic conditions or the loss of the Utility’s customers to other retail providers. Despite the CPUC’s current approval of the contracts, the CPUC could disallow contract costs in the future if it determines that the terms of such contracts, including price, do not meet the CPUC reasonableness standard.

The Utility’s ability to recover the costs it incurs in the wholesale electricity market may be affected by whether the CAISO wholesale electricity market continues to function effectively. Although market mechanisms are designed to limit excessive prices, these market mechanisms could fail, or the related systems and software on which the market mechanisms rely may not perform as intended which could result in excessive market prices.  The CPUC could prohibit the Utility from passing through the higher costs of electricity to customers.

Further, PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial results could be affected by the loss of Utility customers and decreasing bundled load that occurs through municipalization of the Utility’s facilities, an increase in the number of CCAs who provide electricity to their residents, and an increase in the number of consumers who become direct access customers of alternative generation providers. (See “Competition in the Electricity Industry” in Item 1.) As the number of bundled customers (i.e., those customers who receive electricity and distribution service from the Utility) declines, the rates for remaining customers could increase as the Utility would have a smaller customer base from which to recover certain procurement costs. Although the Utility is permitted to collect non-bypassable charges for above market generation-related costs incurred on behalf of former customers, the charges may not be sufficient for the Utility to fully recover these costs. In addition, the Utility’s ability to collect non-bypassable charges has been, and may continue to be, challenged by certain customer groups. Furthermore, if the former customers return to receiving electricity supply from the Utility, the Utility could incur costs to meet their electricity needs that it may not be able to timely recover through rates or that it may not be able to recover at all.

In addition, increasing levels of self-generation of electricity by customers (primarily solar installations) and the use of customer NEM, which allows self-generating customers to receive bill credits for surplus power at the full retail rate, puts upward rate pressure on remaining customers, who may incur significantly higher bills due to an increase in customers seeking alternative energy providers.


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A confluence of technology-related cost declines and sustained federal or state subsidies could make a combination of distributed generation and energy storage a viable, cost-effective alternative to the Utility’s bundled electric service which could further threaten the Utility’s ability to recover its generation, transmission, and distribution investments. If the number of the Utility’s customers decreases or grows at a slower rate than anticipated, the Utility’s level of authorized capital investment could decline as well, leading to a slower growth in rate base and earnings. Reduced energy demand or significantly slowed growth in demand due to customer migration to other energy providers, adoption of energy efficient technology, conservation, increasing levels of distributed generation and self-generation, unless substantially offset through regulatory cost allocations, could materially affect PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.
 
Further, changes in commodity prices also may have an adverse effect on the Utility’s ability to timely recover its operating costs and earn its authorized ROE.  Although the Utility generally recovers its electricity and natural gas procurement costs from customers as “pass-through” costs, a significant and sustained rise in commodity prices could create overall rate pressures that make it more difficult for the Utility to recover its costs that are not categorized as “pass-through” costs.  To relieve some of this upward rate pressure, the CPUC could authorize lower revenues than the Utility requested or disallow full cost recovery.

If the Utility is unable to recover a material portion of its procurement costs and/or if the CPUC fails to adjust the Utility’s rates to reflect the impact of changing loads, the wide deployment of distributed generation, and the development of new electricity generation and energy storage technologies, PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected.

Risks Related to Operations and Information Technology

The Utility’s electricity and natural gas operations are inherently hazardous and involve significant risks which, if they materialize, can materially affect PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

The Utility owns and operates extensive electricity and natural gas facilities, including two nuclear generation units and an extensive hydroelectric generating system.  (See “Electric Utility Operations” and “Natural Gas Utility Operations” in Item 1. Business above.)  The Utility’s ability to earn its authorized ROE depends on its ability to efficiently maintain, operate, and protect its facilities, and provide electricity and natural gas services safely and reliably.  The Utility undertakes substantial capital investment projects to construct, replace, and improve its electricity and natural gas facilities.  In addition, the Utility is obligated to decommission its electricity generation facilities at the end of their useful operating lives, and the CPUC approved retirement of Diablo Canyon by 2024 and 2025.

The Utility’s ability to safely and reliably operate, maintain, construct and decommission its facilities is subject to numerous risks, many of which are beyond the Utility’s control, including those that arise from:

the breakdown or failure of equipment, electric transmission or distribution lines, or natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines, that can cause explosions, fires, or other catastrophic events;

an overpressure event occurring on natural gas facilities due to equipment failure, incorrect operating procedures or failure to follow correct operating procedures, or welding or fabrication-related defects, that results in the failure of downstream transmission pipelines or distribution assets and uncontained natural gas flow;

the failure to maintain adequate capacity to meet customer demand on the gas system that results in customer curtailments, controlled/uncontrolled gas outages, gas surges back into homes, serious personal injury or loss of life;

a prolonged statewide electrical black-out that results in damage to the Utility’s equipment or damage to property owned by customers or other third parties;

the failure to fully identify, evaluate, and control workplace hazards that result in serious injury or loss of life for employees or the public, environmental damage, or reputational damage;

the release of radioactive materials caused by a nuclear accident, seismic activity, natural disaster, or terrorist act;

the failure of a large dam or other major hydroelectric facility, or the failure of one or more levees that protect land on which the Utility’s assets are built;


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the failure to take expeditious or sufficient action to mitigate operating conditions, facilities, or equipment, that the Utility has identified, or reasonably should have identified, as unsafe, which failure then leads to a catastrophic event (such as a wild land fire or natural gas explosion);

inadequate emergency preparedness plans and the failure to respond effectively to a catastrophic event that can lead to public or employee harm or extended outages;

operator or other human error;

an ineffective records management program that results in the failure to construct, operate and maintain a utility system safely and prudently;

construction performed by third parties that damages the Utility’s underground or overhead facilities, including, for example, ground excavations or “dig-ins” that damage the Utility’s underground pipelines;

the release of hazardous or toxic substances into the air, water, or soil, including, for example, gas leaks from natural gas storage facilities; flaking lead-based paint from the Utility’s facilities, and leaking or spilled insulating fluid from electrical equipment; and

attacks by third parties, including cyber-attacks, acts of terrorism, vandalism, or war.
    
The occurrence of any of these events could interrupt fuel supplies; affect demand for electricity or natural gas; cause unplanned outages or reduce generating output; damage the Utility’s assets or operations; damage the assets or operations of third parties on which the Utility relies; damage property owned by customers or others; and cause personal injury or death.  As a result, the Utility could incur costs to purchase replacement power, to repair assets and restore service, and to compensate third parties.  Any of such incidents also could lead to significant claims against the Utility.

Further, although the Utility often enters into agreements for third-party contractors to perform work, such as patrolling and inspection of facilities or the construction or demolition or facilities, the Utility may retain liability for the quality and completion of the contractor’s work and can be subject to penalties or other enforcement action if the contractor violates applicable laws, rules, regulations, or orders.  The Utility may also be subject to liability, penalties or other enforcement action as a result of personal injury or death caused by third-party contractor actions.

Insurance, equipment warranties, or other contractual indemnification requirements may not be sufficient or effective to provide full or even partial recovery under all circumstances or against all hazards or liabilities to which the Utility may become subject.  An uninsured loss could have a material effect on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

The Utility’s insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover losses caused by an operating failure or catastrophic events, including severe weather events, or may not be available at a reasonable cost, or available at all.

The Utility has experienced increased costs and difficulties in obtaining insurance coverage for wildfires that could arise from the Utility’s ordinary operations.  PG&E Corporation, the Utility or its contractors and customers could continue to experience coverage reductions and/or increased wildfire insurance costs in future years.  No assurance can be given that future losses will not exceed the limits of the Utility’s insurance coverage.  Uninsured losses and increases in the cost of insurance may not be recoverable in customer rates.  A loss that is not fully insured or cannot be recovered in customer rates could materially affect PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

As a result of the potential application to investor-owned utilities of a strict liability standard under the doctrine of inverse condemnation, recent losses recorded by insurance companies, the risk of increased wildfires including as a result of the ongoing drought, the 2018 Camp fire, the 2017 Northern California wildfires, and the 2015 Butte fire, the Utility may not be able to obtain sufficient insurance coverage in the future at a reasonable cost, or at all.  In addition, the Utility is unable to predict whether it would be allowed to recover in rates the increased costs of insurance or the costs of any uninsured losses.

If the amount of insurance is insufficient or otherwise unavailable, or if the Utility is unable to obtain insurance at a reasonable cost or recover in rates the costs of any uninsured losses, PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected.


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The electric power industry is undergoing significant change driven by technological advancements and a decarbonized economy, which could materially affect the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

The electric power industry is undergoing transformative change driven by technological advancements enabling customer choice (for example, customer-owned generation and energy storage) and state climate policy supporting a decarbonized economy.  The electric grid is a critical enabler of the adoption of new energy technologies that support California's climate change and GHG reduction objectives, which continue to be publicly supported by California policymakers.  California's environmental policy objectives are accelerating the pace and scope of the industry change.  For instance, SB 100, which was signed into law on September 10, 2018, increases from 50% to 60%, the percentage of California’s electricity portfolio that must come from renewables by 2030. SB 100 establishes a further goal to have an electric grid that is entirely powered by clean energy by 2045. California utilities also are experiencing increasing deployment by customers and third parties of DERs, such as on-site solar generation, energy storage, fuel cells, energy efficiency, and demand response technologies.  These developments will require modernization of the electric distribution grid to, among other things, accommodate two-way flows of electricity, increase the grid's capacity, and interconnect DERs.

In order to enable the California clean energy economy, sustained investments are required in grid modernization, renewable integration projects, energy efficiency programs, energy storage options, EV infrastructure and state infrastructure modernization (e.g. rail and water projects).

To this end, the CPUC is conducting proceedings to: evaluate changes to the planning and operation of the electric distribution grid in order to prepare for higher penetration of DERs and, consider future grid modernization and grid reinforcement investments; evaluate if traditional grid investments can be deferred by DERs, and if feasible, what, if any, compensation to utilities would be appropriate for enabling those investments; and clarify the role of the electric distribution grid operator. The CPUC also authorized development of two new, five-year programs aimed at accelerating widespread electric vehicle adoption and combating climate change. The new programs will increase fast charging options for consumers as well as electric charging infrastructure for non-light-duty fleet vehicles.

The industry change, costs associated with complying with new regulatory developments and initiatives and with technological advancements, or the Utility’s inability to successfully adapt to changes in the electric industry, could materially affect the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

A cyber incident, cyber security breach, severe natural event or physical attack on the Utility’s operational networks and information technology systems could have a material effect on its financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

The Utility’s electricity and natural gas systems rely on a complex, interconnected network of generation, transmission, distribution, control, and communication technologies, which can be damaged by natural events-such as severe weather or seismic events-and by malicious events, such as cyber and physical attacks.  Private and public entities, such as the North American Electric Reliability Corporation, and U.S. Government Departments, including the Departments of Defense, Homeland Security and Energy, and the White House, have noted that cyber-attacks targeting utility systems are increasing in sophistication, magnitude, and frequency.  The Utility’s operational networks also may face new cyber security risks due to modernizing and interconnecting the existing infrastructure with new technologies and control systems.  Any failure or decrease in the functionality of the Utility’s operational networks could cause harm to the public or employees, significantly disrupt operations, negatively impact the Utility’s ability to safely generate, transport, deliver and store energy and gas or otherwise operate in the most safe and efficient manner or at all, and damage the Utility’s assets or operations or those of third parties.

The Utility also relies on complex information technology systems that allow it to create, collect, use, disclose, store and otherwise process sensitive information, including the Utility’s financial information, customer energy usage and billing information, and personal information regarding customers, employees and their dependents, contractors, and other individuals. In addition, the Utility often relies on third-party vendors to host, maintain, modify, and update its systems, and to provide other services to the Utility or the Utility’s customers. In addition, the Utility is increasingly being required to disclose large amounts of data (including customer energy usage and personal information regarding customers) to support changes to California’s electricity market related to grid modernization and customer choice. These third-party vendors could cease to exist, fail to establish adequate processes to protect the Utility’s systems and information, or experience security incidents or inadequate security measures. Any incidents or disruptions in the Utility’s information technology systems could impact the Utility’s ability to track or collect revenues and to maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting.


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The Utility and its third-party vendors have been subject to, and will likely continue to be subject to, breaches and attempts to gain unauthorized access to the Utility’s information technology systems or confidential data (including information about customers and employees), or to disrupt the Utility’s operations.  None of these breaches or attempts has individually or in the aggregate resulted in a security incident with a material effect on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.  Despite implementation of security and control measures, there can be no assurance that the Utility will be able to prevent the unauthorized access to its operational networks, information technology systems or data, or the disruption of its operations.  Such events could subject the Utility to significant expenses, claims by customers or third parties, government inquiries, penalties for violation of applicable privacy laws, investigations, and regulatory actions that could result in material fines and penalties, loss of customers and harm to PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s reputation, any of which could have a material effect on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

The Utility maintains cyber liability insurance that covers certain damages caused by cyber incidents.  However, there is no guarantee that adequate insurance will continue to be available at rates the Utility believes are reasonable or that the costs of responding to and recovering from a cyber incident will be covered by insurance or recoverable in rates.

The operation and decommissioning of the Utility’s nuclear generation facilities expose it to potentially significant liabilities and the Utility may not be able to fully recover its costs if regulatory requirements change or the plant ceases operations before the licenses expire.

The operation of the Utility’s nuclear generation facilities exposes it to potentially significant liabilities from environmental, health and financial risks, such as risks relating to the storage, handling and disposal of spent nuclear fuel, and the release of radioactive materials caused by a nuclear accident, seismic activity, natural disaster, or terrorist act. If the Utility incurs losses that are either not covered by insurance or exceed the amount of insurance available, such losses could have a material effect on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows. In addition, the Utility may be required under federal law to pay up to $275 million of liabilities arising out of each nuclear incident occurring not only at the Utility’s Diablo Canyon facility but at any other nuclear power plant in the United States. 

On January 11, 2018, the CPUC approved the retirement of Diablo Canyon units by 2024 and 2025. However, the Utility continues to face public concern about the safety of nuclear generation and nuclear fuel. Some of these nuclear opposition groups regularly file petitions at the NRC and in other forums challenging the actions of the NRC and urging governmental entities to adopt laws or policies in opposition to nuclear power. Although an action in opposition may ultimately fail, regulatory proceedings may take longer to conclude and be more costly to complete. It is also possible that public pressure could grow leading to adverse changes in legislation, regulations, orders, or their interpretation. As a result, operations at the Utility’s two nuclear generation units at Diablo Canyon could cease before their respective licenses expire in 2024 and 2025. In such an instance, the Utility could be required to record a charge for the remaining amount of its unrecovered investment and such charge could have a material effect on PG&E Corporation's and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

In addition, in order to retain highly skilled personnel necessary to safely operate Diablo Canyon during the remaining years of operations, the Utility will incur costs in connection with (i) an employee retention program to ensure adequate staffing levels at Diablo Canyon, and (ii) an employee retraining and development program, to facilitate redeployment of a portion of Diablo Canyon personnel to the decommissioning project and elsewhere in the Utility.  In its January 11, 2018 decision, the CPUC authorized rate recovery up to $211.3 million and in its November 29, 2018 decision, the CPUC authorized rate recovery up to $352.1 million as originally requested by the Utility for an employee retention program, but there can be no assurance that the Utility will be successful in retaining highly skilled personnel under such program.

The Utility has incurred, and may continue to incur, substantial costs to comply with NRC regulations and orders.  (See “Regulatory Environment” in Item 1. Business above.)  If the Utility were unable to recover these costs, PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial results could be materially affected.  The Utility may determine that it cannot comply with the new regulations or orders in a feasible and economic manner and voluntarily cease operations; alternatively, the NRC may order the Utility to cease operations until the Utility can comply with new regulations, orders, or decisions.  The Utility may incur a material charge if it ceases operations at Diablo Canyon’s two nuclear generation units before their respective licenses expire in 2024 and 2025. At December 31, 2018, the Utility’s unrecovered investment in Diablo Canyon was $1.7 billion.


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The Utility also has an obligation to decommission its electricity generation facilities, including its nuclear facilities, as well as gas transmission system assets, at the end of their useful lives.  (See Note 2: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies - "Asset Retirement Obligations" of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statement in Item 8.)  The CPUC authorizes the Utility to recover its estimated costs to decommission its nuclear facilities through nuclear decommissioning charges that are collected from customers and held in nuclear decommissioning trusts to be used for the eventual decommissioning of each nuclear unit.  If the Utility’s actual decommissioning costs, including the amounts held in the nuclear decommissioning trusts, exceed estimated costs, PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected.

For certain critical technologies, products and services, the Utility relies on a limited number of suppliers and, in some cases, sole suppliers.  In the event these suppliers are unable to perform, the Utility could experience delays and disruptions in its operations while it transitions to alternative plans or suppliers.

The Utility relies on a limited number of sole source suppliers for certain of its technologies, products and services.  Although the Utility has long-term agreements with such suppliers, if the suppliers are unable to deliver these technologies, products or services, the Utility could experience delays and disruptions while it implements alternative plans and makes arrangements with acceptable substitute suppliers.  As a result, the Utility’s business, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially affected.  As an example, the Utility relies on Westinghouse Electric Company LLC (recently acquired by Brookfield Business Partners L.P.) for its nuclear fuel assemblies, and Silver Spring Networks, Inc. and Aclara Technologies LLC as suppliers of proprietary SmartMeter™ devices and software, and of managed services, utilized in its advanced metering system that collects electric and natural gas usage data from customers.  If these suppliers encounter performance difficulties or are unable to supply these devices or maintain and update their software, or provide other services to maintain these systems, the Utility’s metering, billing, and electric network operations could be impacted and disrupted.


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Risks Related to Environmental Factors

Severe weather conditions, extended drought and shifting climate patterns could materially affect PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

Extreme weather, extended drought and shifting climate patterns have intensified the challenges associated with wildfire management in California. The Utility's service territory encompasses some of the most densely forested areas in California and, as a consequence, is subject to higher risk from vegetation-related ignition events than other California IOUs. Further, environmental extremes, such as drought conditions followed by periods of wet weather, can drive additional vegetation growth (which can then fuel fires) and influence both the likelihood and severity of extraordinary wildfire events.  In California, over the past five years, inconsistent and extreme precipitation, coupled with more hot days, have increased the wildfire risk and made wildfire outbreaks increasingly difficult to manage.  In particular, the risk posed by wildfires has increased in the Utility’s service area as a result of an extended period of drought, bark beetle infestations in the California forest and wildfire fuel increases due to record rainfall following the drought, and strong wind events, among other environmental factors. Contributing factors other than environmental can include local land use policies and historical forestry management practices.  The combined effects of extreme weather and climate change also impact this risk. For example, in 2017, there were nearly double the number of wildfires than the annual average, including five of the most devastating wildfires in California's history. On January 19, 2018, the CPUC approved a statewide fire-threat map that shows that approximately half of the Utility's service territory is facing "elevated" or "extreme" fire danger. Approximately 25,000 circuit miles of the Utility's nearly 81,000 distribution overhead circuit miles and approximately 5,500 miles of the nearly 18,000 transmission overhead circuit miles are in such high-fire threat areas, significantly more in total than other California IOUs.

Severe weather events and other natural disasters, including wildfires and other fires, storms, tornadoes, floods, heat waves, drought, earthquakes, tsunamis, rising sea levels, pandemics, solar events, electromagnetic events, or other natural disasters such as wildfires, could result in severe business disruptions, prolonged power outages, property damage, injuries or loss of life, significant decreases in revenues and earnings, and/or significant additional costs to PG&E Corporation and the Utility.  Any such event could have a material effect on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.  Any of such events also could lead to significant claims against the Utility. Further, these events could result in regulatory penalties and disallowances, particularly if the Utility encounters difficulties in restoring power to its customers on a timely basis or if the related losses are found to be the result of the Utility’s practices and/or the failure of electric and other equipment of the Utility.

Further, the Utility has been studying the potential effects of climate change (increased temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, rising sea levels) on the Utility’s operations and is developing contingency plans to adapt to those events and conditions that the Utility believes are most significant.  Scientists project that climate change will increase electricity demand due to more extreme, persistent and hot weather.  As a result, the Utility’s hydroelectric generation could change and the Utility would need to consider managing or acquiring additional generation.  If the Utility increases its reliance on conventional generation resources to replace hydroelectric generation and to meet increased customer demand, it may become more costly for the Utility to comply with GHG emissions limits. In addition, flooding caused by rising sea levels could damage the Utility’s facilities, including gas, generation, and electric transmission and distribution assets.  The Utility could incur substantial costs to repair or replace facilities, restore service, or compensate customers and other third parties for damages or injuries.  The Utility anticipates that the increased costs would be recovered through rates, but as rate pressures increase, the likelihood of disallowance or non-recovery may increase.

Events or conditions caused by climate change could have a greater impact on the Utility’s operations than the Utility’s studies suggest and could result in lower revenues or increased expenses, or both.  If the CPUC fails to adjust the Utility’s rates to reflect the impact of events or conditions caused by climate change, PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected.


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The Utility’s operations are subject to extensive environmental laws and changes in or liabilities under these laws could adversely affect PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial results.

The Utility’s operations are subject to extensive federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, and orders, relating to air quality, water quality and usage, remediation of hazardous wastes, and the protection and conservation of natural resources and wildlife. The Utility incurs significant capital, operating, and other costs associated with compliance with these environmental statutes, rules, and regulations. The Utility has been in the past, and may be in the future, required to pay for environmental remediation costs at sites where it is identified as a potentially responsible party under federal and state environmental laws. Although the Utility has recorded liabilities for known environmental obligations, these costs can be difficult to estimate due to uncertainties about the extent of contamination, remediation alternatives, the applicable remediation levels, and the financial ability of other potentially responsible parties. (For more information, see Note 14 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.)

Environmental remediation costs could increase in the future as a result of new legislation, the current trend toward more stringent standards, and stricter and more expansive application of existing environmental regulations. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations, or failure to comply with the terms of licenses or permits issued by environmental or regulatory agencies, could expose the Utility to claims by third parties or the imposition of civil or criminal fines or other sanctions.

The CPUC has authorized the Utility to recover its environmental remediation costs for certain sites through various ratemaking mechanisms. One of these mechanisms allows the Utility rate recovery for 90% of its hazardous substance remediation costs for certain approved sites without a reasonableness review. The CPUC may discontinue or change these ratemaking mechanisms in the future or the Utility may incur environmental costs that exceed amounts the CPUC has authorized the Utility to recover in rates.

Some of the Utility’s environmental costs, such as the remediation costs associated with the Hinkley natural gas compressor site, are not recoverable through rates or insurance. (See “Environmental Regulation” in Item 1. and Note 14 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.) The Utility’s costs to remediate groundwater contamination near the Hinkley natural gas compressor site and to abate the effects of the contamination have had, and may continue to have, a material effect on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial results. Their financial results also can be materially affected by changes in estimated costs and by the extent to which actual remediation costs differ from recorded liabilities.

State climate policy requires reductions in greenhouse gases of 40% by 2030 and 80% by 2050.  Various proposals for addressing these reductions have the potential to reduce natural gas usage and increase natural gas costs. The future recovery of the increased costs associated with compliance is uncertain.

The CARB is the state’s primary regulator for GHG emission reduction programs.  Natural gas providers have been subject to compliance with CARB’s Cap-and-Trade Program since 2015, and natural gas end-use customers have an increasing exposure to carbon costs under the Program through 2030 when the full cost will be reflected in customer bills. CARB’s Scoping Plan also proposes various methods of reducing GHG emissions from natural gas.  These include more aggressive energy efficiency programs to reduce natural gas end use, increased renewable portfolio standards generation in the electric sector reducing noncore gas load, and replacement of natural gas appliances with electric appliances, leading to further reduced demand.  These natural gas load reductions may be partially offset by CARB’s proposals to deploy natural gas to replace wood fuel in home heating and diesel in transportation applications.  CARB also proposes a displacement of some conventional natural gas with above-market renewable natural gas.  The combination of reduced load and increased costs could result in higher natural gas customer bills and a potential mandate to deliver renewable natural gas could lead to cost recovery risk.

Other Risk Factors

The Utility may be required to incur substantial costs in order to obtain or renew licenses and permits needed to operate the Utility’s business and the Utility may be subject to fines and penalties for failure to comply or obtain license renewal.

The Utility must comply with the terms of various governmental permits, authorizations, and licenses, including those issued by the FERC for the continued operation of the Utility’s hydroelectric generation facilities, and those issued by environmental and other federal, state and local governmental agencies. Many of the Utility’s capital investment projects, and some maintenance activities, often require the Utility to obtain land use, construction, environmental, or other governmental permits. These permits, authorizations, and licenses may be difficult to obtain on a timely basis, causing work delays. Further, existing permits and licenses could be revoked or modified by the agencies that granted them if facts develop that differ significantly from the facts assumed when they were issued. In addition, the Utility often seeks periodic renewal of a license or permit, such as a waste discharge permit or a FERC operating license for a hydroelectric generation facility.

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If a license or permit is not renewed for a particular facility and the Utility is required to cease operations at that facility, the Utility could incur an impairment charge or other costs. Before renewing a permit or license, the issuing agency may impose additional requirements that may increase the Utility’s compliance costs. In particular, in connection with a license renewal for one or more of the Utility’s hydroelectric generation facilities or assets, the FERC may impose new license conditions that could, among other things, require increased expenditures or result in reduced electricity output and/or capacity at the facility.

In addition, local governments may attempt to assert jurisdiction over various utility operations by requiring permits or other approvals that the Utility has not been previously required to obtain. 

The Utility may incur penalties and sanctions for failure to comply with the terms and conditions of licenses and permits which could have a material effect on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows. If the Utility cannot obtain, renew, or comply with necessary governmental permits, authorizations, licenses, ordinances, or other requirements, or if the Utility cannot recover the increase in associated compliance and other costs in a timely manner, PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected.

Poor investment performance or other factors could require PG&E Corporation and the Utility to make significant unplanned contributions to its pension plan, other postretirement benefits plans, and nuclear decommissioning trusts.

PG&E Corporation and the Utility provide defined benefit pension plans and other postretirement benefits for eligible employees and retirees. The Utility also maintains three trusts for the purposes of providing funds to decommission its nuclear facilities. The performance of the debt and equity markets affects the value of plan assets and trust assets. A decline in the market value may increase the funding requirements for these plans and trusts. The cost of providing pension and other postretirement benefits is also affected by other factors, including interest rates used to measure the required minimum funding levels, the rate of return on plan assets, employee demographics, discount rates used in determining future benefit obligations, rates of increase in health care costs, future government regulation, and prior contributions to the plans. Similarly, funding requirements for the nuclear decommissioning trusts are affected by the rates of return on trust assets, changes in the laws or regulations regarding nuclear decommissioning or decommissioning funding requirements as well as changes in assumptions or forecasts related to decommissioning dates, technology and the cost of labor, materials and equipment. (See Note 2: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.) If the Utility is required to make significant unplanned contributions to fund the pension and postretirement plans or if actual nuclear decommissioning costs exceed the amount of nuclear decommissioning trust funds and the Utility is unable to recover the contributions or additional costs in rates, PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows could be materially affected.

The Utility’s success depends on the availability of the services of a qualified workforce and its ability to maintain satisfactory collective bargaining agreements which cover a substantial number of employees. PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s results may suffer if the Utility is unable to attract and retain qualified personnel and senior management talent, or if prolonged labor disruptions occur.

The Utility’s workforce is aging and many employees are or will become eligible to retire within the next few years. Although the Utility has undertaken efforts to recruit and train new field service personnel, the Utility may be faced with a shortage of experienced and qualified personnel. The majority of the Utility’s employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements with three unions. Labor disruptions could occur depending on the outcome of negotiations to renew the terms of these agreements with the unions or if tentative new agreements are not ratified by their members. In addition, some of the remaining non-represented Utility employees could join one of these unions in the future.

PG&E Corporation and the Utility also may face challenges in attracting and retaining senior management talent especially if they are unable to restore the reputational harm generated by the negative publicity stemming from the ongoing enforcement proceedings and the Chapter 11 Cases. Any such occurrences could materially affect PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

47




The Utility’s business activities are concentrated in one region, as a result of which, its future performance may be affected by events and factors unique to California.

The Utility’s business activities are concentrated in Northern California. As a result, the Utility’s future performance may be affected by events and economic factors unique to California or by regional regulation or legislation, for example the doctrine of inverse condemnation. (See “The doctrine of inverse condemnation, if applied by courts in litigation to which PG&E Corporation and the Utility are subject, could significantly expand the potential liabilities from such litigation and materially affect PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and cash flows” above.)

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

The Utility owns or has obtained the right to occupy and/or use real property comprising the Utility's electricity and natural gas distribution facilities, electric generation facilities, natural gas gathering facilities and generation facilities, and natural gas and electricity transmission facilities, which are described in Item 1. Business, under “Electric Utility Operations” and “Natural Gas Utility Operations.” The Utility occupies or uses real property that it does not own primarily through various leases, easements, rights-of-way, permits, or licenses from private landowners or governmental authorities. In total, the Utility occupies 11 million square feet of real property, including 8 million square feet owned by the Utility. The Utility's corporate headquarters comprises approximately 1.7 million square feet located in several Utility-owned buildings in San Francisco, California.

PG&E Corporation also leases approximately 42,000 square feet of office space from a third party in San Francisco, California. This lease will expire in 2022.
 
The Utility currently owns approximately 160,000, acres of land, including approximately 131,000 acres of watershed lands. In 2002 the Utility agreed to implement its LCC to permanently preserve the six “beneficial public values” on all the watershed lands through conservation easements or equivalent protections, as well as to make approximately 70,000 acres of the watershed lands available for donation to qualified organizations. The six “beneficial public values” being preserved by the LCC include: natural habitat of fish, wildlife, and plants; open space; outdoor recreation by the general public; sustainable forestry; agricultural uses; and historic values. The Utility’s goal is to implement all the transactions needed to implement the LCC by the end of 2022, subject to securing all required regulatory approvals.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

In addition to the following proceedings, PG&E Corporation and the Utility are parties to various lawsuits and regulatory proceedings in the ordinary course of their business.  For more information regarding material lawsuits and proceedings, see Item 7. MD&A, and Notes 13, 14, and 15 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.

U.S. District Court Matters and Probation

On August 9, 2016, the jury in the federal criminal trial against the Utility in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, in San Francisco, found the Utility guilty on one count of obstructing a federal agency proceeding and five counts of violations of pipeline integrity management regulations of the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act. On January 26, 2017, the court issued a judgment of conviction against the Utility. The court sentenced the Utility to a five-year corporate probation period, oversight by a third-party monitor for a period of five years, with the ability to apply for early termination after three years, a fine of $3 million to be paid to the federal government, certain advertising requirements, and community service.

The probation includes a requirement that the Utility not commit any local, state, or federal crimes during the probation period. As part of the probation, the Utility has retained a third-party monitor at the Utility’s expense. The goal of the third-party monitor is to help ensure that the Utility takes reasonable and appropriate steps to maintain the safety of its gas and electric operations, and to maintain effective ethics, compliance and safety related incentive programs on a Utility-wide basis.


48



On November 27, 2018, the court overseeing the Utility’s probation, issued an order requiring that the Utility, the United States Attorney’s Office for the Northern District of California (the “USAO”) and the third-party monitor provide written answers to a series of questions regarding the Utility’s compliance with the terms of its probation, including what requirements of the Utility’s probation “might be implicated were any wildfire started by reckless operation or maintenance of PG&E power lines” or “might be implicated by any inaccurate, slow, or failed reporting of information about any wildfire by PG&E.” The court also ordered the Utility to provide “an accurate and complete statement of the role, if any, of PG&E in causing and reporting the recent 2018 Camp fire in Butte County and all other wildfires in California” since January 2017 (“Question 4 of the November 27 Order”). On December 5, 2018, the court issued an order requesting that the Office of the California Attorney General advise the court of its view on “the extent to which, if at all, the reckless operation or maintenance of PG&E power lines would constitute a crime under California law.” The responses of the Attorney General were submitted on December 28, 2018, and the responses of the Utility, the USAO and the third-party monitor were submitted on December 31, 2018.

On January 3, 2019, the court issued a new order requiring that the Utility provide further information regarding the Atlas fire.  the court noted that “[t]his order postpones the question of the adequacy of PG&E’s response” to Question 4 of the November 27 Order.  On January 4, 2019, the court issued another order requiring that the Utility provide “with respect to each of the eighteen October 2017 Northern California wildfires that [Cal Fire] has attributed to [the Utility’s] facilities,” information regarding the wind conditions in the vicinity of each fire’s origin and information about the equipment allegedly involved in each fire’s ignition.  The responses of the Utility were submitted on January 10, 2019.

On January 9, 2019, the court ordered the Utility to appear in court on January 30, 2019, as a result of the court’s finding that “there is probable cause to believe there has been a violation of the conditions of supervision” with respect to reporting requirements related to the 2017 Honey fire.  In addition, on January 9, 2019, the court issued an order (the “January 9 Order”) proposing to add new conditions of probation that would require the Utility, among other things, to:

prior to June 21, 2019, “re-inspect all of its electrical grid and remove or trim all trees that could fall onto its power lines, poles or equipment in high-wind conditions, . . . identify and fix all conductors that might swing together and arc due to slack and/or other circumstances under high-wind conditions[,] identify and fix damaged or weakened poles, transformers, fuses and other connectors [and] identify and fix any other condition anywhere in its grid similar to any condition that contributed to any previous wildfires”,

“document the foregoing inspections and the work done and . . . rate each segment’s safety under various wind conditions” and

at all times from and after June 21, 2019, “supply electricity only through those parts of its electrical grid it has determined to be safe under the wind conditions then prevailing.”

The Utility was ordered to show cause by January 23, 2019 as to why the Utility’s conditions of probation should not be modified as proposed.  The Utility's response was submitted on January 23, 2019. The court requested that Cal Fire file a public statement, and invited the CPUC to comment, by January 25, 2019.  On January 30, 2019, the court found that the Utility had violated a condition of its probation with respect to reporting requirements related to the 2017 Honey fire. The court issued an order stating that a sentencing hearing on the probation violation will be set at a later date. Also on January 30, 2019, the court ordered the Utility to submit to the court on February 6, 2019 the 2019 Wildfire Safety Plan that the Utility was required to submit to the CPUC by February 6, 2019 in accordance with SB 901, and invited interested parties to comment on such plan by February 20, 2019. In addition, on February 14, 2019, the court ordered the Utility to provide additional information, including on its vegetation clearance requirements. The Utility submitted its response to the court on February 22, 2019. As of February 24, 2019, to the Utility’s knowledge, no parties have submitted comments to the court on the 2019 Wildfire Safety Plan.

49




Order Instituting an Investigation into the Utility’s Safety Culture

On August 27, 2015, the CPUC began a formal investigation into whether the organizational culture and governance of PG&E Corporation and the Utility prioritize safety and adequately direct resources to promote accountability and achieve safety goals and standards. The CPUC directed the SED to evaluate the Utility’s and PG&E Corporation’s organizational culture, governance, policies, practices, and accountability metrics in relation to the Utility’s record of operations, including its record of safety incidents. The SED engaged a consultant to assist in the SED’s investigation and the preparation of a report containing the SED’s assessment, and subsequently, to report on the implementation by the Utility of the consultant's recommendations.

On May 8, 2017, the CPUC released the consultant’s report, accompanied by a scoping memo and ruling. The scoping memo established a second phase in the OII in which the CPUC evaluated the safety recommendations of the consultant. Phase two of the proceeding also considered all necessary measures, including, but not limited to, a potential reduction of the Utility’s return on equity. On November 17, 2017, the CPUC issued a phase two scoping memo and procedural schedule. The scoping memo directed the Utility to file testimony addressing a number of issues including: adoption of the safety recommendations from the consultant, the Utility’s implementation process for the safety recommendations of the consultant, the Utility’s Board of Director’s actions and initiatives related to safety culture and the consultant’s recommendations, the Utility’s corrective action program, and the Utility’s response to certain specified safety incidents that occurred in 2013 through 2015.

The Utility’s testimony was submitted to the CPUC on January 8, 2018 and stated that the Utility agrees with all the recommendations of the consultant and supports their adoption by the CPUC. Other parties’ responsive testimony was submitted on February 16, 2018, followed by the Utility’s rebuttal testimony on February 23, 2018.

On November 29, 2018, the CPUC approved the PD in connection with this proceeding. The decision directed the Utility to implement the recommendations set forth in the May 2017 consultant report no later than July 1, 2019, and to submit quarterly reports on the Utility's implementation status beginning in the fourth quarter of 2018.

On December 21, 2018, the CPUC issued a Scoping Memo and Ruling (the “Scoping Memo”) setting forth the scope to be addressed in the next phase of its ongoing investigation into whether the organizational culture and governance of PG&E Corporation and the Utility prioritize safety and adequately directs resources to promote accountability and achieve safety goals and standards (the “Safety Culture OII”). The Scoping Memo provides that the CPUC “will examine [PG&E’s] current corporate governance, structure, and operations to determine if the utility is positioned to provide safe electrical and gas service, and will review alternatives to the current management and operational structures of providing electric and gas service in Northern California.”

In the Scoping Memo, the CPUC alleges that the Utility has had “serious safety problems with both its gas and electric operations for many years” and despite penalties and other remedial measures in connection with these problems, PG&E Corporation and the Utility have failed to develop “a comprehensive enterprise-wide approach to addressing safety.” The Scoping Memo outlines a number of proposals to address the CPUC’s concerns regarding PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s safety culture, including, but not limited to, (i) replacement of all or part of PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s existing boards of directors and corporate management, (ii) separating the Utility’s gas and electric distribution and transmission businesses into separate companies, (iii) reorganizing the Utility into regional subsidiaries based on regional distinctions, (iv) reconstituting the Utility as a publicly owned utility or utilities, (v) providing for entities other than the Utility to provide generation services and (vi) conditioning the Utility’s return on equity on safety performance. The Scoping Memo does not propose penalties and states that this phase “is not a punitive phase.” The Utility submitted its background filing to the CPUC on January 16, 2019 and opening comments were filed on February 13, 2019. Reply comments are due on February 28, 2019.

PG&E Corporation and the Utility are unable to predict whether additional fines, penalties, or other ratemaking tools such as a potential reduction of the Utility's return on equity will be adopted by the CPUC in future phases of this proceeding.

50




Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant

The Utility's Diablo Canyon power plant employs a “once-through” cooling water system that is regulated under a Clean Water Act permit issued by the Central Coast Board. This permit allows the Diablo Canyon power plant to discharge the cooling water at a temperature no more than 22 degrees above the temperature of the ambient receiving water, and requires that the beneficial uses of the water be protected.  The beneficial uses of water in this region include industrial water supply, marine and wildlife habitat, shellfish harvesting, and preservation of rare and endangered species.  In January 2000, the Central Coast Board issued a proposed draft cease and desist order alleging that, although the temperature limit has never been exceeded, the Utility's Diablo Canyon power plant's discharge was not protective of beneficial uses.

In October 2000, the Utility and the Central Coast Board reached a tentative settlement under which the Central Coast Board agreed to find that the Utility's discharge of cooling water from the Diablo Canyon power plant protects beneficial uses and that the intake technology reflects the best technology available, as defined in the federal Clean Water Act.  As part of the tentative settlement, the Utility agreed to take measures to preserve certain acreage north of the plant and to fund approximately $6 million in environmental projects and future environmental monitoring related to coastal resources.  On March 21, 2003, the Central Coast Board voted to accept the settlement agreement.  On June 17, 2003, the settlement agreement was executed by the Utility, the Central Coast Board and the California Attorney General's Office.  A condition to the effectiveness of the settlement agreement was that the Central Coast Board renew Diablo Canyon's permit.

However, at its July 10, 2003 meeting, the Central Coast Board did not renew the permit and continued the permit renewal hearing indefinitely.  Several Central Coast Board members indicated that they no longer supported the settlement agreement, and the Central Coast Board requested a team of independent scientists to develop additional information on possible mitigation measures for Central Coast Board staff.  In 2005, the Central Coast Board reviewed the scientists' draft report recommending several such mitigation measures, but no action was taken.

In 2010, the California Water Board adopted a policy on once-through cooling that generally requires the installation of cooling towers or other significant measures to reduce the impact on marine life from existing power generation facilities in California by at least 85%. The policy also provided for an alternative compliance approach for nuclear plants if certain criteria were met. As required by the policy, the California Water Board appointed a committee to evaluate the feasibility and cost of using alternative technologies to achieve compliance at Diablo Canyon. The committee’s consultant submitted its final report to the California Water Board in September 2014. The report addressed feasibility, costs and timeframes to install alternative technologies at Diablo Canyon, such as cooling towers.

On January 11, 2018, the CPUC approved the retirement of Diablo Canyon Unit 1 by 2024 and Unit 2 by 2025. As a result of the planned retirement, the California Water Board will no longer need to address alternative compliance measures for Diablo Canyon. As required under the policy, starting in 2017, the Utility pays an annual interim mitigation fee, which it will continue to pay until operations cease in 2025. Additionally, the Utility expects that its decision to retire Diablo Canyon will affect the terms of a final settlement agreement between the Utility and the Central Coast Board regarding the thermal component of the plant’s once-through cooling discharge.

PG&E Corporation and the Utility believe that the ultimate outcome of this matter will not have a material effect on the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable. 


51



EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANTS

The following individuals serve as executive officers (1) of PG&E Corporation and/or the Utility, as of February 28, 2019. Except as otherwise noted, all positions have been held at Pacific Gas and Electric Company.
Name
 
Age
 
Positions Held Over Last Five Years
 
Time in Position
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
John R. Simon
 
54

 
Interim Chief Executive Officer, PG&E Corporation
 
January 13, 2019 to present
 
 
 
 
Executive Vice President and General Counsel, PG&E Corporation
 
March 1, 2017 to January 13, 2019
 
 
 
 
Executive Vice President, Corporate Services and Human Resources, PG&E Corporation
 
August 17, 2015 to February 28, 2017
 
 
 
 
Senior Vice President, Human Resources, PG&E Corporation and Pacific Gas and Electric Company
 
April 16, 2007 to August 16, 2015
Jason P. Wells
 
41

 
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, PG&E Corporation
 
January 1, 2016 to present
 
 
 
 
Vice President, Business Finance
 
August 1, 2013 to December 31, 2015
Loraine M. Giammona
 
52

 
Senior Vice President and Chief Customer Officer
 
September 18, 2014 to present
 
 
 
 
Vice President, Customer Service
 
January 23, 2012 to September 17, 2014
Julie M. Kane
 
60

 
Senior Vice President, Chief Ethics and Compliance Officer, and Deputy General Counsel, PG&E Corporation and Pacific Gas and Electric Company
 
March 21, 2017 to present
 
 
 
 
Senior Vice President and Chief Ethics and Compliance Officer, PG&E Corporation and Pacific Gas and Electric Company
 
May 18, 2015 to March 20, 2017
 
 
 
 
Vice President, General Counsel and Compliance Officer, North America, Avon Products, Inc.
 
September 30, 2013 to March 31, 2015
 
 
 
 
Vice President, Ethics and Compliance, Novartis Corporation
 
January 1, 2010 to August 31, 2015
Kathleen B. Kay
 
56

 
Senior Vice President and Chief Information Officer
 
September 1, 2018 to present
 
 
 
 
Vice President, Business Technology
 
September 1, 2015 to August 31, 2018
 
 
 
 
Senior Vice President, Application Services, SunTrust Bank, Inc.
 
September 2012 to May 2015
Michael A. Lewis
 
56

 
Senior Vice President, Electric Operations
 
January 8, 2019 to present
 
 
 
 
Vice President, Electric Distribution Operations
 
August 1, 2018 to January 7, 2019
 
 
 
 
Senior Vice President and Chief Distribution Officer, Duke Energy
 
September 2016 to August 2018
 
 
 
 
Senior Vice President and Chief Transmission Officer, Duke Energy
 
January 2015 to August 2016
 
 
 
 
Senior Vice President, Energy Delivery, Progress Energy Florida
 
January 2008 to December 2014

52



Janet C. Loduca
 
51

 
Senior Vice President and Interim General Counsel, PG&E Corporation and Pacific Gas and Electric Company
 
January 13, 2019 to present
 
 
 
 
Senior Vice President and Deputy General Counsel
 
December 1, 2018 to January 13, 2019
 
 
 
 
Vice President and Deputy General Counsel
 
March 1, 2017 to November 30, 2018
 
 
 
 
Vice President, Investor Relations, PG&E Corporation
 
January 1, 2015 to February 28, 2017
 
 
 
 
Vice President, Safety, Health, and Environment
 
April 23, 2014 to December 31, 2014
 
 
 
 
Vice President, Environmental
 
October 1, 2011 to April 22, 2014
Steven E. Malnight
 
46

 
Senior Vice President, Energy Supply and Policy
 
September 1, 2018 to present
 
 
 
 
Senior Vice President, Strategy and Policy, PG&E Corporation and Pacific Gas and Electric Company
 
March 1, 2017 to August 31, 2018
 
 
 
 
Senior Vice President, Regulatory Affairs
 
September 18, 2014 to February 28, 2017
 
 
 
 
Vice President, Customer Energy Solutions
 
May 15, 2011 to September 17, 2014
Dinyar B. Mistry
 
57

 
Senior Vice President, Human Resources and Chief Diversity Officer, PG&E Corporation and Pacific Gas and Electric Company
 
February 1, 2017 to present
 
 
 
 
Senior Vice President, Human Resources, PG&E Corporation and Pacific Gas and Electric Company
 
June 1, 2016 to January 31, 2017
 
 
 
 
Senior Vice President, Human Resources, Chief Financial Officer, and Controller
 
March 1, 2016 to May 31, 2016
 
 
 
 
Senior Vice President, Human Resources and Controller, PG&E Corporation
 
March 1, 2016 to May 31, 2016
 
 
 
 
Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, and Controller
 
October 1, 2011 to February 28, 2016
 
 
 
 
Vice President and Controller, PG&E Corporation
 
March 8, 2010 to February 28, 2016
Jesus Soto, Jr.
 
51

 
Senior Vice President, Gas Operations
 
September 8, 2015 to present
 
 
 
 
Senior Vice President, Engineering, Construction and Operations
 
September 16, 2013 to September 8, 2015
Fong Wan
 
57

 
Senior Vice President, Energy Policy and Procurement, Pacific Gas and Electric Company
 
September 8, 2015 to present
 
 
 
 
Senior Vice President, Energy Procurement
 
October 1, 2008 to September 8, 2015
David S. Thomason
 
43

 
Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, and Controller, Pacific Gas and Electric Company
 
June 1, 2016 to present
 
 
 
 
Vice President and Controller, PG&E Corporation
 
June 1, 2016 to present
 
 
 
 
Senior Director, Financial Forecasting and Analysis
 
March 2, 2015 to May 31, 2016
 
 
 
 
Senior Director, Corporate Accounting
 
March 2, 2014 to March 1, 2015
 
 
 
 
Senior Director, Financial Forecasting and Analysis
 
September 1, 2012 to March 1, 2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(1) Mr. Simon, Mr. Wells, Ms. Kane, Mr. Lewis, Ms. Loduca, Mr. Malnight, Mr. Mistry, and Mr. Soto are executive officers of both PG&E Corporation and the Utility. All other listed officers are executive officers of the Utility only.


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PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

As of February 22, 2019, there were 49,939 holders of record of PG&E Corporation common stock. PG&E Corporation common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is traded under the symbol “PCG”. Shares of common stock of the Utility are wholly owned by PG&E Corporation. Information about the frequency and amount of dividends on common stock declared by PG&E Corporation and the Utility for the two most recent fiscal years and information about the restrictions upon the payment of dividends on their common stock appears in “Liquidity and Financial Resources - Dividends” in Item 7. MD&A and in PG&E Corporation’s Consolidated Statements of Equity, the Utility’s Consolidated Statements of Shareholders’ Equity, and in Note 5 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.

Sales of Unregistered Equity Securities

PG&E Corporation made equity contributions to the Utility totaling $45 million during the quarter ended December 31, 2018. PG&E Corporation did not make any sales of unregistered equity securities during 2018 in reliance on an exemption from registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

During the quarter ended December 31, 2018, PG&E Corporation did not redeem or repurchase any shares of common stock outstanding. PG&E Corporation does not have any preferred stock outstanding. Also, during the quarter ended December 31, 2018, the Utility did not redeem or repurchase any shares of its various series of preferred stock outstanding.


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ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
(in millions, except per share amounts)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
PG&E Corporation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
For the Year 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating revenues
$
16,759

 
$
17,135

 
$
17,666

 
$
16,833

 
$
17,090

Operating income (loss)
(9,700
)
 
2,956

 
2,177

 
1,508

 
2,450

Net income (loss)
(6,837
)
 
1,660

 
1,407

 
888

 
1,450

Net earnings (loss) per common share, basic (1)
(13.25
)
 
3.21

 
2.79

 
1.81

 
3.07

Net earnings (loss) per common share, diluted
(13.25
)
 
3.21

 
2.78

 
1.79

 
3.06

Dividends declared per common share (2)

 
1.55

 
1.93

 
1.82

 
1.82

At Year-End 

 

 


 


 


Common stock price per share
$
23.75

 
$
44.83

 
$
60.77

 
$
53.19

 
$
53.24

Total assets (3)
76,995

 
68,012

 
68,598

 
63,234

 
60,228

Long-term debt (excluding current portion)

 
17,753

 
16,220

 
15,925

 
15,151

Capital lease obligations (excluding current  portion) (3)
9

 
18

 
31

 
49

 
69

Pacific Gas and Electric Company

 

 

 

 

For the Year 

 

 

 

 

Operating revenues
$
16,760

 
$
17,138

 
$
17,667

 
$
16,833

 
$
17,088

Operating income (loss)
(9,699
)
 
2,900

 
2,181

 
1,511

 
2,452

Income (loss) available for common stock
(6,832
)
 
1,677

 
1,388

 
848

 
1,419

At Year-End 

 

 


 


 


Total assets
76,471

 
67,884

 
68,374

 
63,037

 
59,964

Long-term debt (excluding current portion)

 
17,403

 
15,872

 
15,577

 
14,799

Capital lease obligations (excluding current  portion) (3)
9

 
18

 
31

 
49

 
69

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(1) See “Overview – Summary of Changes in Net Income and Earnings per Share” in Item 7. MD&A.
(2) Information about the frequency and amount of dividends and restrictions on the payment of dividends is set forth in “Liquidity and Financial Resources – Dividends” in Item 7. MD&A and in PG&E Corporation’s Consolidated Statements of Equity, the Utility’s Consolidated Statements of Shareholders’ Equity, and Note 5 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.
(3) The capital lease obligations amounts are included in noncurrent liabilities -- other in PG&E's Corporation's and the Utility's Consolidated Balance Sheets.
 
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

OVERVIEW

PG&E Corporation is a holding company whose primary operating subsidiary is the Utility, a public utility serving northern and central California.  The Utility generates revenues mainly through the sale and delivery of electricity and natural gas to customers.

The Utility’s base revenue requirements are set by the CPUC in its GRC and GT&S rate case and by the FERC in its TO rate cases based on forecast costs.  Differences between forecast costs and actual costs can occur for numerous reasons, including the volume of work required and the impact of market forces on the cost of labor and materials.  Differences in costs can also arise from changes in laws and regulations at both the state and federal level.  Generally, differences between actual costs and forecast costs affect the Utility’s ability to earn its authorized return (referred to as “Utility Revenues and Costs that Impacted Earnings” in Results of Operations below).  However, for certain operating costs, such as costs associated with pension benefits, the Utility is authorized to track the difference between actual amounts and forecast amounts and recover or refund the difference through rates (referred to as “Utility Revenues and Costs that did not Impact Earnings” in Results of Operations below).  The Utility also collects revenue requirements to recover certain costs that the CPUC has authorized the Utility to pass on to customers, such as the costs to procure electricity or natural gas for its customers.  Therefore, although these costs can fluctuate, they generally do not impact net income (referred to as “Utility Revenues and Costs that did not Impact Earnings” in Results of Operations below).   See “Ratemaking Mechanisms” in Item 1. Business for further discussion.

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This is a combined report of PG&E Corporation and the Utility, and includes separate Consolidated Financial Statements for each of these two entities.  This combined MD&A should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8. 

Chapter 11 Proceedings

On the Petition Date, PG&E Corporation and the Utility filed voluntary petitions for relief under Chapter 11 in the Bankruptcy Court. PG&E Corporation's and the Utility’s Chapter 11 Cases are being jointly administered under the caption In re: PG&E Corporation and Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Case No. 19-30088 (DM).

PG&E Corporation and the Utility continue to operate their businesses as debtors in possession under the jurisdiction of the Bankruptcy Court and in accordance with applicable provisions of the Bankruptcy Code and the orders of the Bankruptcy Court. As debtors in possession, PG&E Corporation and the Utility are authorized to continue to operate as ongoing businesses, and may pay all debts and honor all obligations arising in the ordinary course of their businesses after the Petition Date. However, PG&E Corporation and the Utility may not pay third-party claims or creditors on account of obligations arising before the Petition Date or engage in transactions outside the ordinary course of business without approval of the Bankruptcy Court.

Under the Bankruptcy Code, third-party actions to collect pre-petition indebtedness owed by PG&E Corporation or the Utility, as well as most litigation pending against PG&E Corporation and the Utility (including the third-party matters described under Note 13 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8), are subject to an automatic stay. Absent an order of the Bankruptcy Court providing otherwise, substantially all pre-petition liabilities will be administered under a Chapter 11 plan of reorganization to be voted upon by creditors and other stakeholders, and approved by the Bankruptcy Court. However, under the Bankruptcy Code, regulatory or criminal proceedings are generally not subject to an automatic stay, and PG&E Corporation and the Utility expect these proceedings to continue during the pendency of the Chapter 11 Cases.

To assure ordinary course operations, on January 31, 2019, PG&E Corporation and the Utility received interim approval from the Bankruptcy Court on a variety of “first day” motions, including motions that authorize them to maintain their existing cash management system, to continue wage and salary payments and other benefits to their employees, to secure debtor in possession financing and other customary relief. On February 27, 2019, PG&E Corporation and the Utility received final approval of the first day motion to continue wage and salary payments and other benefits to their employees (with one limited objection with respect to a discrete matter having been preserved by the Bankruptcy Court) and certain other first day motions for customary relief. Hearings on certain other first day motions, including a hearing to consider final approval of PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s motions to continue their existing cash management system and to approve their debtor in possession financing, have not been held and no assurances can be given that the Bankruptcy Court will approve such motions on a final basis. PG&E Corporation and the Utility are unable to predict the date of the final hearing with respect to such motions, but there are hearings currently scheduled for March 12, March 13 and March 27, 2019.

In connection with the Chapter 11 Cases, PG&E Corporation and the Utility entered into the DIP Credit Agreement, among the Utility, as borrower, PG&E Corporation, as guarantor, JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as administrative agent, Citibank, N.A., as collateral agent, and the DIP Lenders. The DIP Credit Agreement provides for $5.5 billion in the form of (i) the DIP Revolving Facility in an aggregate amount of $3.5 billion, including a $1.5 billion letter of credit subfacility, (ii) the DIP Initial Term Loan Facility in an aggregate principal amount of $1.5 billion and (iii) the DIP Delayed Draw Term Loan Facility in an aggregate principal amount of $500 million, subject to the terms and conditions set forth therein. As a result of the Bankruptcy Court’s interim approval of the DIP Credit Agreement on January 31, 2019, and the satisfaction of the other conditions thereof, the DIP Credit Agreement became effective on February 1, 2019, and a portion of the DIP Revolving Facility in the amount of $1.5 billion (including $750 million of the letter of credit subfacility) was made available to PG&E Corporation and the Utility. As of February 28, 2019, the remainder of the DIP Revolving Facility (including the remainder of the $1.5 billion letter of credit subfacility), the DIP Initial Term Loan Facility and the DIP Delayed Draw Term Loan Facility are unavailable for borrowing and will remain unavailable until and unless the Bankruptcy Court approves the availability thereof following a final hearing. PG&E Corporation and the Utility are unable to predict the date of the final hearing, but it is currently scheduled for March 13, 2019. There can be no assurances that the Bankruptcy Court will grant final approval of the DIP Facilities at the final hearing, or at all.


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Borrowings under the DIP Credit Agreement are senior secured obligations of the Utility, secured by substantially all of the Utility’s assets and entitled to superpriority administrative expense claim status in the Utility’s Chapter 11 Case. The Utility’s obligations under the DIP Credit Agreement are guaranteed by PG&E Corporation, and such guarantee is a senior secured obligation of PG&E Corporation, secured by substantially all of PG&E Corporation’s assets and entitled to superpriority administrative expense claim status in PG&E Corporation’s Chapter 11 Case. The DIP Credit Agreement will mature on December 31, 2020, subject to the Utility’s option to extend the maturity to December 31, 2021 if certain terms and conditions are satisfied, including the payment of an extension fee. The Utility paid customary fees and expenses in connection with obtaining the DIP Credit Agreement.

The commencement of the Chapter 11 Cases constituted an event of default or termination event, and caused an automatic and immediate acceleration of the debt outstanding under or in respect of certain instruments and agreements relating to direct financial obligations of PG&E Corporation and the Utility (the “Accelerated Direct Financial Obligations”). Accordingly, as a result of the commencement of the Chapter 11 Cases, the principal amount of the Accelerated Direct Financial Obligations, together with accrued interest thereon, and in case of certain indebtedness, premium, if any, thereon, immediately became due and payable. However, any efforts to enforce such payment obligations are automatically stayed as of the Petition Date, and are subject to the applicable provisions of the Bankruptcy Code and orders of the Bankruptcy Court. The material Accelerated Direct Financial Obligations include the outstanding senior notes, agreements in respect of certain series of pollution control bonds, and PG&E Corporation's term loan facility, as well as short-term borrowings under PG&E Corporation's and the Utility's revolving credit facilities and the Utility's term loan facility disclosed in Note 4 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8. The filing of the Chapter 11 Cases may also provide the counterparties under certain commodity and related agreements with the right to declare an event of default and to seek termination of such agreements, with such rights subject to the applicable provisions of the Bankruptcy Code and orders of the Bankruptcy Court. (For more information, see "Liquidity and Financial Resources - Financial Resources - Acceleration of Pre-petition Debt Obligations" in Item 7. MD&A.)

Under the priority scheme established by the Bankruptcy Code, certain post-petition and secured or “priority” pre-petition liabilities need to be satisfied before general unsecured creditors and holders of PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s equity are entitled to receive any distribution. No assurance can be given as to what values, if any, will be ascribed in the Chapter 11 Cases to the claims and interests of each of these constituencies. Additionally, no assurance can be given as to whether, when or in what form unsecured creditors and holders of PG&E Corporation's or the Utility’s equity may receive a distribution on such claims or interests.

Under the Bankruptcy Code, PG&E Corporation and the Utility may assume, assume and assign, or reject certain executory contracts and unexpired leases, including, without limitation, leases of real property and equipment, subject to the approval of the Bankruptcy Court and to certain other conditions. Any description of an executory contract or unexpired lease in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including, where applicable, the express termination rights thereunder or a quantification of their obligations, must be read in conjunction with, and is qualified by, any overriding rejection rights PG&E Corporation and the Utility have under the Bankruptcy Code.

For the duration of the Chapter 11 Cases, PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s business is subject to the risks and uncertainties of bankruptcy. For example, the Chapter 11 Cases could adversely affect PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s relationships with suppliers and employees which, in turn, could adversely affect the value of PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s business and assets. At this time, it is not possible to predict with certainty the impact of the Chapter 11 Cases on PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s business or various creditors, or whether or when PG&E Corporation and the Utility will emerge from bankruptcy. PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s future results depend upon the confirmation, and successful implementation, on a timely basis, of a Chapter 11 plan of reorganization. For a discussion of the significant risks and uncertainties related to the Chapter 11 Cases, see “Risks Related to Chapter 11 Proceedings and Liquidity” in Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Going Concern

The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements to this Annual Report on Form 10-K have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the continuity of operations, the realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business. However, PG&E Corporation and the Utility are facing extraordinary challenges relating to a series of catastrophic wildfires that occurred in Northern California in 2017 and 2018. As a result of these challenges, such realization of assets and satisfaction of liabilities are subject to uncertainty. For more information about the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires, see Item 3. Legal Proceedings, Item 7. MD&A, and Note 15 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.


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Management has concluded that uncertainty regarding these matters raises substantial doubt about PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to continue as going concerns, and their independent registered public accountants have included an explanatory paragraph in their auditors’ report which states certain conditions exist which raise substantial doubt about PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s ability to continue as going concerns in relation to the foregoing. The Consolidated Financial Statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty. For more information about these matters, see Note 1 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements and “Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm” in Item 8.

Summary of Changes in Net Income and Earnings per Share

PG&E Corporation’s net losses available for common shareholders were $6.9 billion in 2018, compared to net income available for common shareholders of $1.6 billion in 2017. In 2018, PG&E Corporation recognized charges of $14 billion (pre-tax), offset by probable insurance recoveries of $2.2 billion (pre-tax), associated with third-party claims and legal and other costs related to the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires.

Key Factors Affecting Financial Results

PG&E Corporation and the Utility believe that their financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows may be materially affected by the following factors:

The Outcome of the Chapter 11 Cases. For the duration of the Chapter 11 Cases, PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s business is subject to the risks and uncertainties of bankruptcy. For example, the Chapter 11 Cases could adversely affect the Utility’s relationships with suppliers and employees which, in turn, could adversely affect the value of the business and assets of PG&E Corporation and the Utility. PG&E Corporation and the Utility also expect to incur increased legal and other professional costs associated with the Chapter 11 Cases and the reorganization. At this time, it is not possible to predict with certainty the effect of the Chapter 11 Cases on their business or various creditors, or whether or when PG&E Corporation and the Utility will emerge from bankruptcy. PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s future financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and cash flows depend upon confirming, and successfully implementing, on a timely basis, a plan of reorganization.

The Utility’s Ability to Fund Ongoing Operations and Other Capital Needs. In connection with the Chapter 11 Cases, PG&E Corporation and the Utility entered into the DIP Credit Agreement, and a portion of the DIP Revolving Facility in the amount of $1.5 billion (including $750 million of the letter of credit subfacility) was made available. The remainder of the DIP Facilities are unavailable for borrowing and will remain unavailable until and unless the Bankruptcy Court approves the availability thereof following a final hearing.  For the duration of the Chapter 11 Cases, PG&E Corporation and the Utility expect that the DIP Credit Agreement, together with cash on hand, cash flow from operations and distributions received from subsidiaries, will be the Utility’s primary source of capital to fund ongoing operations and other capital needs and that they will have limited, if any, access to additional financing. In the event that cash on hand, cash flow from operations, distributions received from subsidiaries, and availability under the DIP Credit Agreement are not sufficient to meet these liquidity needs, PG&E Corporation and the Utility may be required to seek additional financing, and can provide no assurance that additional financing would be available or, if available, offered on acceptable terms.  The amount of any such additional financing could be limited by negative covenants in the DIP Credit Agreement, which include restrictions on PG&E Corporation's and the Utility's ability to, among other things, incur additional indebtedness and create liens on assets.

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The Impact of Wildfires.  PG&E Corporation and the Utility face several uncertainties in connection with the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires, related to: the amount of possible loss related to third-party claims (in 2018, the Utility recorded total charges of $13.4 billion, which reflects the low end of the range of reasonably estimated losses and is subject to change based on additional information), which aggregate possible losses, if the Utility were found liable for certain or all of the costs, expenses and other losses in connection with the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires (other than potential punitive damages, fines and penalties or damages related to future claims), could exceed $30 billion; punitive damages, which could be material; fines or penalties, which could be material, if the CPUC or any law enforcement agency brought an enforcement action and determined that the Utility failed to comply with applicable laws and regulations; the amount of damages in respect of future claims, which could be material; the applicability of the doctrine of inverse condemnation in the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires litigation, which the Utility intends to continue to challenge during the pendency of its Chapter 11 Case; the applicability of other theories of liability, including negligence, related to the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfire claims; the recoverability of the above mentioned costs, even if a court decision imposes liability under the doctrine of inverse condemnation; the amount of the Customer Harm Threshold under SB 901 and the timing of any recovery by the Utility in excess of the Customer Harm Threshold in a proceeding before the CPUC; and recoverability of clean-up and repair costs (the Utility incurred costs of $681 million for clean-up and repair of the Utility’s facilities through December 31, 2018). (See Notes 3 and 13 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 and Item 1A. Risk Factors.)

The Outcome of Other Enforcement, Litigation, and Regulatory Matters. The Utility’s financial results may continue to be impacted by the outcome of other current and future enforcement, litigation (to the extent not stayed as a result of the Chapter 11 Cases), and regulatory matters, including the outcome of the Locate and Mark OII, phase two of the Safety Culture OII, the outcome of phase two of the ex parte OII, the sentencing terms of the Utility’s January 27, 2017 federal criminal conviction, including the oversight of the Utility’s probation and the potential recommendations by the third-party monitor, and potential penalties in connection with the Utility’s safety and other self-reports. (See Notes 13 and 14 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.)

The Timing and Outcome of Ratemaking Proceedings. The Utility’s financial results may be impacted by the timing and outcome of its 2019 GT&S rate case, 2020 GRC, FERC TO18, TO19, and TO20 rate cases, future cost of capital proceedings, and its ability to timely recover costs not in rates already incurred and to be incurred in the future, including those tracked in its CEMA, WEMA, FHPMA and the Utility's 2019 Wildfire Safety Plan. The outcome of regulatory proceedings can be affected by many factors, including intervening parties’ testimonies, potential rate impacts, the Utility’s reputation, the regulatory and political environments, and other factors. (See Notes 3 and 14 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 and “Regulatory Matters” below.)

The Utility’s Compliance with the CPUC Capital Structure. The CPUC’s capital structure decisions require the Utility to maintain a 52% equity ratio on average over the period that the authorized capital structure is in place, and to file an application for a waiver to the capital structure condition if an adverse financial event reduces its equity ratio by 1% or more. The CPUC’s decisions state that the Utility shall not be considered in violation of these conditions during the period the waiver application is pending resolution. Due to the net charges recorded in connection with the 2018 Camp fire and the 2017 Northern California wildfires as of December 31, 2018, the Utility intends to submit to the CPUC an application for a waiver of the capital structure condition on February 28, 2019. The waiver is subject to CPUC approval. The Utility is unable to predict the timing and outcome of its waiver application.

For more information about the risks that could materially affect PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows, or that could cause future results to differ from historical results, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in the 2018 Form 10-K.  In addition, this 2018 Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements that are necessarily subject to various risks and uncertainties.  These statements reflect management’s judgment and opinions that are based on current estimates, expectations, and projections about future events and assumptions regarding these events and management’s knowledge of facts as of the date of this report.  See the section entitled “Forward-Looking Statements” below for a list of some of the factors that may cause actual results to differ materially.  PG&E Corporation and the Utility are unable to predict all the factors that may affect future results and do not undertake an obligation to update forward-looking statements, whether in response to new information, future events, or otherwise.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion presents PG&E Corporation’s and the Utility’s operating results for 2018, 2017, and 2016.  See “Key Factors Affecting Financial Results” above for further discussion about factors that could affect future results of operations.

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PG&E Corporation

The consolidated results of operations consist primarily of results related to the Utility, which are discussed in the “Utility” section below.  The following table provides a summary of net income (loss) available for common shareholders:
(in millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Consolidated Total
$
(6,851
)
 
$
1,646

 
$
1,393

PG&E Corporation
(19
)
 
(31
)
 
5

Utility
$
(6,832
)
 
$
1,677

 
$
1,388


PG&E Corporation’s net income (loss) primarily consists of income taxes and interest expense on long-term debt and other income from investments.  The decrease in PG&E Corporation’s net loss for 2018, as compared to 2017, is primarily due to the impact of the San Bruno Derivative Litigation in 2017 with no corresponding activity in 2018, partially offset by additional income taxes in 2017.

PG&E Corporation's net income decreased in 2017, as compared to 2016, primarily due to the impact of the Tax Act and interest expense, partially offset by the impact of the San Bruno Derivative Litigation.

Utility

The table below shows certain items from the Utility’s Consolidated Statements of Income for 2018, 2017, and 2016.  The table separately identifies the revenues and costs that impacted earnings from those that did not impact earnings.  In general, expenses the Utility is authorized to pass through directly to customers (such as costs to purchase electricity and natural gas, as well as costs to fund public purpose programs) and the corresponding amount of revenues collected to recover those pass-through costs, do not impact earnings.  In addition, expenses that have been specifically authorized (such as energy procurement costs) and the corresponding revenues the Utility is authorized to collect to recover such costs, do not impact earnings.


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Revenues that impact earnings are primarily those that have been authorized by the CPUC and the FERC to recover the Utility’s costs to own and operate its assets and to provide the Utility an opportunity to earn its authorized rate of return on rate base.  Expenses that impact earnings are primarily those that the Utility incurs to own and operate its assets.
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
Revenues and Costs:
 
 
 
Revenues and Costs:
 
 
 
Revenues and Costs:
 
 
(in millions)
That Impacted Earnings
 
That Did Not Impact Earnings
 
Total Utility
 
That Impacted Earnings
 
That Did Not Impact Earnings
 
Total Utility
 
That Impacted Earnings
 
That Did Not Impact Earnings
 
Total Utility
Electric operating revenues
$
7,859

 
$
4,854

 
$
12,713

 
$
7,897

 
$
5,230

 
$
13,127

 
7,955

 
5,910

 
13,865

Natural gas operating revenues
3,046

 
1,001

 
4,047

 
2,969

 
1,042

 
4,011

 
2,767

 
1,035

 
3,802

Total operating revenues
10,905

 
5,855

 
16,760

 
10,866

 
6,272

 
17,138

 
10,722

 
6,945

 
17,667

Cost of electricity

 
3,828

 
3,828

 

 
4,309

 
4,309

 

 
4,765

 
4,765

Cost of natural gas

 
671

 
671

 

 
746

 
746

 

 
615

 
615

Operating and maintenance
5,475

 
1,678

 
7,153

 
5,112

 
1,271

 
6,383

 
5,662

 
1,665

 
7,327

Wildfire-related claims, net of insurance recoveries
11,771

 

 
11,771

 

 

 

 
125

 

 
125

Depreciation, amortization, and decommissioning
3,036

 

 
3,036

 
2,854

 

 
2,854

 
2,754

 

 
2,754

Total operating expenses
20,282

 
6,177

 
26,459

 
7,966

 
6,326

 
14,292

 
8,541

 
7,045

 
15,586

Operating income (loss)
(9,377
)
 
(322
)
 
(9,699
)
 
2,900

 
(54
)
 
2,846

 
2,181

 
(100
)
 
2,081

Interest income
74

 

 
74

 
30

 

 
30

 
22

 

 
22

Interest expense 
(914
)
 

 
(914
)
 
(877
)
 

 
(877
)
 
(819
)
 

 
(819
)
Other income, net
104

 
322

 
426

 
65

 
54

 
119

 
88

 
100

 
188

Income (loss) before income taxes
(10,113
)
 

 
(10,113
)
 
2,118

 

 
2,118

 
1,472

 

 
1,472

Income tax provision (benefit) (1)
 

 
 

 
(3,295
)
 
 

 
 

 
427

 
 

 
 

 
70

Net income (loss)
 

 
 

 
(6,818
)
 
 

 
 

 
1,691

 
 

 
 

 
1,402

Preferred stock dividend requirement (1)
 

 
 

 
14

 
 

 
 

 
14

 
 

 
 

 
14

Income (Loss) Available for Common Stock
 

 
 

 
$
(6,832
)
 
 

 
 

 
$
1,677

 
 

 
 

 
$
1,388

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(1) These items impacted earnings.

Utility Revenues and Costs that Impacted Earnings

The following discussion presents the Utility’s operating results for 2018, 2017, and 2016, focusing on revenues and expenses that impacted earnings for these periods.

Operating Revenues

The Utility’s electric and natural gas operating revenues that impacted earnings increased $39 million in 2018 compared to 2017, primarily due to increased base revenues authorized in the 2017 GRC, partially offset by tax benefits resulting from the Tax Act expected to be returned to customers. See "Regulatory Matters" below.  

The Utility’s electric and natural gas operating revenues that impacted earnings increased $144 million, or 1%, in 2017 compared to 2016, primarily due to higher electric transmission revenues.


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Operating and Maintenance

The Utility’s operating and maintenance expenses that impacted earnings increased $363 million, or 7%, in 2018 compared to 2017, primarily due to $209 million for clean up and repair costs relating to the 2017 Northern California wildfires and the 2018 Camp fire, as compared to $17 million relating to the 2017 Northern California wildfires charged in 2017. Also, the Utility recorded charges of $187 million in additional legal and other costs relating to the 2017 Northern California wildfires and the 2018 Camp fire (the Utility recorded $205 million for legal and other costs relating to the 2017 Northern California wildfires and the 2018 Camp fire in 2018, as compared to $18 million in 2017). The Utility also recorded charges of $121 million reflecting the additional write off of insurance premiums for single event coverage policies (the Utility recorded $185 million in 2018 for the write off of insurance premiums, as compared to $64 million in 2017). These increases were partially offset by a $38 million reduction to the estimated disallowance for gas-related capital costs that were expected to exceed authorized amounts in 2018, compared to a $47 million disallowance recorded in 2017 related to the Diablo Canyon settlement. Additionally, the increases were offset by a decrease in legal and other costs relating to the 2015 Butte fire of $20 million in 2018 compared to 2017 (the Utility recorded $40 million for legal and other costs relating to the 2015 Butte fire in 2018 as compared to $60 million in 2017).

The Utility’s operating and maintenance expenses that impacted earnings decreased $550 million, or 10%, in 2017 compared to 2016. In 2017, the Utility incurred $455 million less in disallowed charges (the Utility recorded a $47 million disallowance related to the Diablo Canyon settlement in 2017 as compared to $502 million of disallowed capital charges related to the San Bruno Penalty Decision and 2015 GT&S rate case decision in 2016). This decrease was partially offset by a $64 million write off of insurance premiums for single event coverage policies recorded in 2017, with no corresponding activity in 2016. Additionally, the decrease was offset by a $51 million increase in legal and other costs (the Utility recorded $18 million relating to the 2017 Northern California wildfires and $60 million relating to the 2015 Butte fire in 2017, as compared to $27 million relating to the 2015 Butte fire in 2016).

Wildfire-related claims, net of insurance recoveries

Costs related to wildfires that impacted earnings increased by $11.8 billion in 2018 compared to 2017. In 2018, the Utility recognized charges of $14 billion, offset by probable insurance recoveries of $2.2 billion associated with the 2018 Camp fire and 2017 Northern California wildfires. In 2017, the Utility recognized a charge of $350 million, offset by probable insurance recoveries of $350 million related to the 2015 Butte fire.

In 2016, the Utility recognized a $750 million charge, offset by probable insurance recoveries of $625 million related to the 2015 Butte fire.

Depreciation, Amortization, and Decommissioning

The Utility’s depreciation, amortization, and decommissioning expenses increased by $182 million, or 6%, in 2018 compared to 2017, primarily due to capital additions. In 2017, the Utility's depreciation, amortization, and decommissioning expenses increased by $100 million, or 4%, compared to 2016, primarily due to the impact of capital additions and higher depreciation rates as authorized by the CPUC in the 2017 GRC.

Interest Income

The Utility's interest income increased by $44 million, or 147%, in 2018 as compared to 2017, primarily due to higher interest rates affecting various regulatory balancing accounts and fluctuations in those accounts. There was no material change in the Utility's interest income in 2017 as compared to 2016. The Utility's interest income is primarily affected by changes in regulatory balancing accounts and changes in interest rates.
 
Interest Expense

The Utility’s interest expense increased by $37 million, or 4%, in 2018 compared to 2017. The Utility’s interest expenses increased by $58 million, or 7%, in 2017 compared to 2016, primarily due to the issuance of additional long-term debt.

Other Income, Net

The Utility's other income, net increased by $39 million, or 60%, in 2018 as compared to 2017, primarily due to an increase in AFUDC as the average balance of construction work in progress was higher in 2018 as compared to 2017. There was no material change in the Utility's other income, net in 2017 as compared to 2016.

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Income Tax Provision

The Utility’s income tax provision decreased $3.7 billion in 2018 compared to 2017.  The decrease in the income tax provision and increase in the effective tax rate were primarily the result of pre-tax losses in 2018 versus pre-tax income in 2017, partially offset by a decrease in the corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21% as a result of the Tax Act.

The Utility’s income tax provision increased $357 million in 2017 compared to 2016. The increase in the tax provision was primarily the result of the statutory tax effect of higher pre-tax income in 2017 compared to 2016 and an adjustment required to record the change in deferred tax balances due to tax reform in 2017 with no comparable adjustment in 2016.

The following table reconciles the income tax expense at the federal statutory rate to the income tax provision:
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Federal statutory income tax rate
21.0
 %
 
35.0
 %
 
35.0
 %
Increase (decrease) in income tax rate resulting from:


 


 


State income tax (net of federal benefit) (1)
7.9
 %
 
1.6
 %
 
(2.2
)%
Effect of regulatory treatment of fixed asset differences (2)
3.6