Oracle provides enterprise IT products and services, including database and middleware software, application software, cloud infrastructure software, server, storage, networking hardware, and related services.
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Book value of equity per share||$6.53||-43.2%||-9.1%||2.7%|
|BV including aggregate dividends||-36.1%||-1.3%||8.5%|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
A company creates wealth for its long-term shareholders in 2 main ways - through dividend payments and through the accumulation of retained earnings. This graph shows the accumulation of per-share equity of long-term shareholders (green bars), which consists of the retained earnings plus all capital invested in the company, and the cumulative dividends the company has paid over time per share of its stock (blue bars).
In the words of Warren Buffett: "We're looking for... businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt."
Return on equity is a key metric of financial performance, indicating a company's ability to generate earnings using shareholder capital. Over time, ROE is one of the major determinants of the rate at which a company creates shareholder wealth. The average ROE for large U.S. companies is 12%, and many investors use it as a threshold for attractive investments.
Companies can boost ROE by increasing leverage, which reduces the safety of the investment. Therefore, it is useful to look at the return on assets (ROA), which measures a company's earning power regardless of its capital structure. A widening gap between ROE and ROA may be a warning sign that should be thoroughly investigated.
Earnings per share is a popular metric used to value a company (using P/E ratio); growth in EPS is often used to judge company growth potential. However, many investors believe that EPS is an inferior metric to ROE, because it ignores the amount of capital the company used to generate earnings.
Free cash flow shows how much cash a company generates from operations, above and beyond what is required to maintain or expand its productive assets. This cash can be returned to investors, or spent by management on growing the company or paying back its debts.
Balance sheets of many companies contain intangible assets such as goodwill, trademarks, patents, etc. Many investors consider intangibles more difficult to value than physical assets. If intangible assets had been valued incorrectly, they must be impaired, resulting in a loss charged against shareholder equity. This chart demonstrates the potential loss to shareholder equity from such impairments.
Companies often use debt financing to increase their return on equity. However, as the amount of debt financing increases relative to the amount of equity financing, the company becomes more sensitive to down turns and other negative events. As a result, many investors use the ratio of debt to equity as a measure of a company's financial risk, and avoid companies that have this ratio above 1.
This chart shows shareholder equity as a percentage of total assets, allowing investors to judge the overall leverage. Companies with a higher proportion of equity can be viewed as safer investments. This metric is particularly important for highly leveraged institutions, such as banks, where it must be at least 4% according to government regulations.
The ratio of current assets to current liabilities is known as the current ratio. This metric is a quick measure of the company's ability to pay its short-term obligations. A current ratio below 1 is a warning sign that should be investigated, especially for companies that cannot count on adequate cash flow from operations.
This chart shows the cumulative dilution of investor ownership in a company over time. Dilution reduces an investor's participation in the future earnings. Dilution increases when a company issues new shares, and decreases when a company buys its shares back. Many investors avoid companies with large chronic dilution.
analysis provides insight into factors affecting the Return On Equity of a company.
The DuPont equation decomposes ROE as follows:
ROE = (Net margin) * (Asset turnover) * (Asset to equity ratio)
Net margin indicates operating efficiency, Asset turnover measures the total asset use efficiency, and the Asset to equity ratio is a measure of financial leverage.
The dividend payout ratio tells investors what percentage of earnings a company returns to shareholders, and what percentage it retains and reinvests. This ratio represents a major capital allocation decision by the company, and can be used to judge management rationality. Rational management should pay out all earnings that cannot be productively reinvested. Therefore, a low dividend payout ratio for a profitable company with a low growth potential may be a warning sign.
Many investors use the P/B ratio as a quick way of judging company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - specifically seek out companies with low P/B ratios. However, investors should be careful not to make investment decisions on this metric alone, without considering a company's earning and growth potential, since a low P/B ratio can be a sign of a bleak future for the business.
P/E ratio is a popular way of making a quick judgment of a company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - often seek solid companies with low P/E ratios as investment opportunities. However, P/E ratio represents an oversimplified approach to business valuation, and can often lead to incorrect investment decisions.
In January 2005, we completed the acquisition of PeopleSoft, Inc., a provider of enterprise application software products for approximately $11.1 billion.
On January 31, 2006, we completed our acquisition of Siebel pursuant to our Merger Agreement dated September 12, 2005. We acquired Siebel to expand our customer relationship management (CRM) applications offerings. The total purchase price for Siebel was $6.1 billion.
On January 26, 2010 we completed our acquisition of Sun Microsystems, Inc., a provider of hardware systems, software and services, by means of a merger of one of our wholly owned subsidiaries with and into Sun such that Sun became a wholly owned subsidiary of Oracle. We acquired Sun to, among other things, expand our product offerings by adding Sun's existing hardware systems business and broadening our software and services offerings. We have included the financial results of Sun in our consolidated financial statements from the date of acquisition. For fiscal 2010, we estimate that Sun's contribution to our total revenues was $2.8 billion, which included allocations of revenues from our software and services businesses that were not separately identifiable due to our integration activities. For fiscal 2010, Sun reduced our operating income by $620 million, which included management's allocations and estimates of revenues and expenses that were not separately identifiable due to our integration activities, intangible asset amortization, restructuring expenses and stock-based compensation expenses. The total purchase price for Sun was approximately $7.3 billion.
On February 6, 2014, we completed our acquisition of Responsys, Inc. (Responsys), a provider of enterprise-scale cloud-based business-to-consumer marketing software. We have included the financial results of Responsys in our consolidated financial statements from the date of acquisition. The total purchase price for Responsys was approximately $1.6 billion, which consisted of approximately $1.4 billion in cash and $147 million for the fair value of stock options and restricted stock-based awards assumed. We have recorded $32 million of net tangible liabilities, related primarily to deferred tax liabilities, $580 million of identifiable intangible assets, and $14 million of in-process research and development, based on their estimated fair values, and $1.0 billion of residual goodwill.
On June 22, 2014, we entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (Merger Agreement) with MICROS Systems, Inc. (MICROS), a provider of integrated software, hardware and services solutions to the hospitality and retail industries. On July 3, 2014, pursuant to the Merger Agreement, we commenced a tender offer to purchase all of the issued and outstanding shares of common stock of MICROS at a purchase price of $68.00 per share. The total consideration was $5,247 Million.
On July 28, 2016, we entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger with NetSuite Inc., a provider of cloud-based enterprise resource planning software and related applications and, as described further below, a related party to Oracle. Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, we commenced a tender offer on August 18, 2016 to purchase all of the issued and outstanding shares of NetSuite common stock (NetSuite Shares) at a purchase price of $109.00 per share, net to the seller in cash, without interest thereon, based upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Offer to Purchase dated August 18, 2016, and in the related Letter of Transmittal. On November 7, 2016, pursuant to the terms of the tender offer and applicable Delaware law, we accepted and paid for the substantial majority of outstanding NetSuite Shares and effectuated the merger of NetSuite with and into a wholly-owned subsidiary of Oracle and NetSuite became an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of Oracle. Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, NetSuite Shares that remained outstanding and were not acquired by us were converted into, and cancelled in exchange for, the right to receive $109.00 per share in cash. The unvested equity awards to acquire NetSuite Shares that were outstanding immediately prior to the conclusion of the merger were converted into equity awards denominated in shares of Oracle common stock based on formulas contained in the Merger Agreement. We acquired NetSuite to, among other things, expand our cloud software as a service offerings with a complementary set of cloud ERP and related cloud software applications for customers. We have included the financial results of NetSuite in our consolidated financial statements from the date of acquisition. Lawrence J. Ellison, Oracles Chairman of the Board and Chief Technology Officer and Oracles largest stockholder, is an affiliate of NetSuites largest stockholder, NetSuite Restricted Holdings LLC (a single member LLC investment entity whose interests are beneficially owned by a trust controlled by Mr. Ellison), which owned approximately 40% of the issued and outstanding NetSuite Shares immediately prior to the conclusion of the merger. Oracles Board of Directors appointed a Special Committee (comprised solely of directors who are independent of the management of Oracle, Mr. Ellison, his family members and any affiliated entities, and NetSuite) to which it delegated the full and exclusive power, authority and discretion of the Board to evaluate, assess, and approve the NetSuite transaction on its behalf. The Special Committee engaged its own independent legal counsel and its own independent financial advisor to advise it on the transaction. The financial advisor provided the Special Committee with a fairness opinion in connection with the transaction. After extensive deliberations, the Special Committee concluded that the transaction terms were fair to Oracle and the transaction was in the best interests of Oracle and its stockholders. The Special Committee unanimously approved the transaction on behalf of Oracle and the Board. The total preliminary purchase price for NetSuite was approximately $9.1 billion, which consisted of approximately $9.0 billion in cash and $74 million for the fair values of restricted stock-based awards and stock options assumed.