Owens-Illinois is the successor to a business established in 1903. The company manufactures glass containers for alcoholic beverages, food items, soft drinks, teas, juices and pharmaceuticals.
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Book value of equity per share||$5.65||37.5%||-2.1%||-8.9%|
|BV including aggregate dividends||37.5%||-2.1%||-8.9%|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
A company creates wealth for its long-term shareholders in 2 main ways - through dividend payments and through the accumulation of retained earnings. This graph shows the accumulation of per-share equity of long-term shareholders (green bars), which consists of the retained earnings plus all capital invested in the company, and the cumulative dividends the company has paid over time per share of its stock (blue bars).
In the words of Warren Buffett: "We're looking for... businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt."
Return on equity is a key metric of financial performance, indicating a company's ability to generate earnings using shareholder capital. Over time, ROE is one of the major determinants of the rate at which a company creates shareholder wealth. The average ROE for large U.S. companies is 12%, and many investors use it as a threshold for attractive investments.
Companies can boost ROE by increasing leverage, which reduces the safety of the investment. Therefore, it is useful to look at the return on assets (ROA), which measures a company's earning power regardless of its capital structure. A widening gap between ROE and ROA may be a warning sign that should be thoroughly investigated.
Earnings per share is a popular metric used to value a company (using P/E ratio); growth in EPS is often used to judge company growth potential. However, many investors believe that EPS is an inferior metric to ROE, because it ignores the amount of capital the company used to generate earnings.
Free cash flow shows how much cash a company generates from operations, above and beyond what is required to maintain or expand its productive assets. This cash can be returned to investors, or spent by management on growing the company or paying back its debts.
Balance sheets of many companies contain intangible assets such as goodwill, trademarks, patents, etc. Many investors consider intangibles more difficult to value than physical assets. If intangible assets had been valued incorrectly, they must be impaired, resulting in a loss charged against shareholder equity. This chart demonstrates the potential loss to shareholder equity from such impairments.
Companies often use debt financing to increase their return on equity. However, as the amount of debt financing increases relative to the amount of equity financing, the company becomes more sensitive to down turns and other negative events. As a result, many investors use the ratio of debt to equity as a measure of a company's financial risk, and avoid companies that have this ratio above 1.
This chart shows shareholder equity as a percentage of total assets, allowing investors to judge the overall leverage. Companies with a higher proportion of equity can be viewed as safer investments. This metric is particularly important for highly leveraged institutions, such as banks, where it must be at least 4% according to government regulations.
The ratio of current assets to current liabilities is known as the current ratio. This metric is a quick measure of the company's ability to pay its short-term obligations. A current ratio below 1 is a warning sign that should be investigated, especially for companies that cannot count on adequate cash flow from operations.
This chart shows the cumulative dilution of investor ownership in a company over time. Dilution reduces an investor's participation in the future earnings. Dilution increases when a company issues new shares, and decreases when a company buys its shares back. Many investors avoid companies with large chronic dilution.
analysis provides insight into factors affecting the Return On Equity of a company.
The DuPont equation decomposes ROE as follows:
ROE = (Net margin) * (Asset turnover) * (Asset to equity ratio)
Net margin indicates operating efficiency, Asset turnover measures the total asset use efficiency, and the Asset to equity ratio is a measure of financial leverage.
The dividend payout ratio tells investors what percentage of earnings a company returns to shareholders, and what percentage it retains and reinvests. This ratio represents a major capital allocation decision by the company, and can be used to judge management rationality. Rational management should pay out all earnings that cannot be productively reinvested. Therefore, a low dividend payout ratio for a profitable company with a low growth potential may be a warning sign.
Many investors use the P/B ratio as a quick way of judging company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - specifically seek out companies with low P/B ratios. However, investors should be careful not to make investment decisions on this metric alone, without considering a company's earning and growth potential, since a low P/B ratio can be a sign of a bleak future for the business.
P/E ratio is a popular way of making a quick judgment of a company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - often seek solid companies with low P/E ratios as investment opportunities. However, P/E ratio represents an oversimplified approach to business valuation, and can often lead to incorrect investment decisions.
During the second quarter of 1997, the Company implemented a refinancing plan (the "Refinancing Plan") designed to reduce interest expense, reduce the amount of long-term debt, and improve financial flexibility. Through August 13, 1997, completed portions of the Refinancing Plan include a $1.2 billion increase in the borrowing capacity under the Company's Bank Credit Agreement to a total of $3.0 billion, the sale of 16,936,100 shares of common stock, par value $.01 per share, for net proceeds of $464.2 million, the issuance of $300 million aggregate principal amount of 7.85% Senior Notes due May 15, 2004, the issuance of $300 million aggregate principal amount of 8.10% Senior Notes due May 15, 2007, and the retirement of approximately $1.6 billion of higher cost debt. The sale of the shares of common stock and the issuance of the Senior Notes were made pursuant to public offerings (the "Offerings").
On April 30, 1998, the Company completed the acquisition of the worldwide glass and plastics packaging businesses of BTR plc in an all cash transaction valued at approximately $3.6 billion. In the Acquisition, the Company acquired BTR's ACI Glass Packaging ("ACI") glass container operations in the Asia Pacific region (i.e. Australia, New Zealand, China, and Indonesia) and its Continental PET Technologies ("CPT") plastics packaging operations in the United States, South America, Australia, Europe, and Asia, as well as BTR's United Kingdom glass container manufacturer ("Rockware").
During the fourth quarter of 2003, the Company completed its annual impairment testing and determined that an impairment existed in the goodwill of its consumer products reporting unit. The consumer products unit operates in a highly competitive and fragmented industry. During the course of 2003, a number of the product lines within this reporting unit experienced price reductions, principally as a result of the Company's strategy to preserve and expand market share. The reduced pricing, along with continued capital expenditures, caused the Company to lower its earnings and cash flow projections for the consumer products reporting unit for several years following the measurement date (October 1, 2003) resulting in an estimated fair value for the unit that was lower than its book value. Following a review of the valuation of the unit's identifiable assets, the Company recorded an impairment charge of $670.0 million to reduce the reported value of its goodwill.
On June 21, 2004, the Company completed the acquisition of BSN Glasspack, S.A. ("BSN") from Glasspack Participations. Total consideration for the Acquisition was approximately $1.3 billion, including the assumption of approximately $650 million of debt, a portion of which was refinanced in connection with the Acquisition. BSN was the second largest glass container manufacturer in Europe with manufacturing facilities in France, Spain, Germany and the Netherlands. The Acquisition was financed with borrowings under the Company's Second Amended and Restated Secured Credit Agreement. In order to secure the European Commission's approval, the Company committed to divest the Barcelona, Spain, and Corsico, Italy glass plants. The Company completed the sale of these plants in January 2005 and received cash proceeds of approximately Euro 138.2 million.
During the fourth quarter of 2005, the Company completed its annual impairment testing using business enterprise values and determined that impairment existed in the goodwill of its Asia Pacific Glass business unit. Lower projected cash flows as a result of competitive pricing pressures in the Companys Australian glass operations caused the decline in the business enterprise value. Following a review of the valuation of the units identifiable assets, the Company recorded an impairment charge of $494.0 million to reduce the reported value of its goodwill.
On September 1, 2010, the Company completed the acquisition of Brazilian glassmaker Companhia Industrial de Vidros ("CIV") for total consideration of $594 million, consisting of cash of $572 million and acquired debt of $22 million. CIV was the leading glass container manufacturer in northeastern Brazil, producing glass containers for the beverage, food and pharmaceutical industries, as well as tableware. The acquisition includes two plants in the state of Pernambuco and one in the state of Ceara. The acquisition was part of the Company's overall strategy of expanding its presence in emerging markets and expands its Brazilian footprint to align with unfolding consumer trends and customer growth plans. The results of CIV's operations have been included in the Company's consolidated financial statements since September 1, 2010, and are included in the South American operating segment.
During the fourth quarter of 2011, the Company completed its annual impairment testing and determined that impairment existed in the goodwill of its Asia Pacific segment. Lower projected cash flows, principally in the segment's Australian operations, caused the decline in the business enterprise value. The strong Australian dollar in 2011 resulted in many wine producers in the country exporting their wine in bulk shipments and bottling the wine closer to their end markets. This decreased the demand for wine bottles in Australia, which was a significant portion of the Company's sales in that country, and the Company expects this decreased demand to continue into the foreseeable future. Following a review of the valuation of the segment's identifiable assets, the Company recorded an impairment charge of $641 million to reduce the reported of its goodwill.
On September 1, 2015, the Company completed the Vitro Acquisition in a cash transaction valued at approximately $2.297 billion, subject to a working capital adjustment and certain other adjustments. The Vitro Business in Mexico is the largest supplier of glass containers in that country, manufacturing glass containers across multiple end uses, including food, soft drinks, beer, wine and spirits. The Vitro Acquisition included five food and beverage glass container plants in Mexico, a plant in Bolivia and a North American distribution business, and provided the Company with a competitive position in the glass packaging market in Mexico. The results of the Vitro Business have been included in the Companys consolidated financial statements since September 1, 2015. Vitros food and beverage glass container operations in Mexico and Bolivia are included in the Latin American operating segment while its distribution business is included in the North American operating segment. The Company financed the Vitro Acquisition with the proceeds from its recently completed senior notes offering, cash on hand and the incremental term loan facilities.