Nasdaq is a global operator of stock market, derivatives, and other exchanges. The company provides trading, clearing, regulatory, securities listing, and information services.
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Book value of equity per share||$34.50||-0.9%||2.1%||8.2%|
|BV including aggregate dividends||3.1%||4.6%||9.6%|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
A company creates wealth for its long-term shareholders in 2 main ways - through dividend payments and through the accumulation of retained earnings. This graph shows the accumulation of per-share equity of long-term shareholders (green bars), which consists of the retained earnings plus all capital invested in the company, and the cumulative dividends the company has paid over time per share of its stock (blue bars).
In the words of Warren Buffett: "We're looking for... businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt."
Return on equity is a key metric of financial performance, indicating a company's ability to generate earnings using shareholder capital. Over time, ROE is one of the major determinants of the rate at which a company creates shareholder wealth. The average ROE for large U.S. companies is 12%, and many investors use it as a threshold for attractive investments.
Companies can boost ROE by increasing leverage, which reduces the safety of the investment. Therefore, it is useful to look at the return on assets (ROA), which measures a company's earning power regardless of its capital structure. A widening gap between ROE and ROA may be a warning sign that should be thoroughly investigated.
Earnings per share is a popular metric used to value a company (using P/E ratio); growth in EPS is often used to judge company growth potential. However, many investors believe that EPS is an inferior metric to ROE, because it ignores the amount of capital the company used to generate earnings.
Free cash flow shows how much cash a company generates from operations, above and beyond what is required to maintain or expand its productive assets. This cash can be returned to investors, or spent by management on growing the company or paying back its debts.
Balance sheets of many companies contain intangible assets such as goodwill, trademarks, patents, etc. Many investors consider intangibles more difficult to value than physical assets. If intangible assets had been valued incorrectly, they must be impaired, resulting in a loss charged against shareholder equity. This chart demonstrates the potential loss to shareholder equity from such impairments.
Nasdaq, Inc. is a financial company. Financial companies, by their nature, typically have high debt to equity leverage, which is not a meaningful analytical metric. We suggest you use the equity to assets ratio instead.
This chart shows shareholder equity as a percentage of total assets, allowing investors to judge the overall leverage. Companies with a higher proportion of equity can be viewed as safer investments. This metric is particularly important for highly leveraged institutions, such as banks, where it must be at least 4% according to government regulations.
The ratio of current assets to current liabilities is known as the current ratio. This metric is a quick measure of the company's ability to pay its short-term obligations. A current ratio below 1 is a warning sign that should be investigated, especially for companies that cannot count on adequate cash flow from operations.
This chart shows the cumulative dilution of investor ownership in a company over time. Dilution reduces an investor's participation in the future earnings. Dilution increases when a company issues new shares, and decreases when a company buys its shares back. Many investors avoid companies with large chronic dilution.
The dividend payout ratio tells investors what percentage of earnings a company returns to shareholders, and what percentage it retains and reinvests. This ratio represents a major capital allocation decision by the company, and can be used to judge management rationality. Rational management should pay out all earnings that cannot be productively reinvested. Therefore, a low dividend payout ratio for a profitable company with a low growth potential may be a warning sign.
Many investors use the P/B ratio as a quick way of judging company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - specifically seek out companies with low P/B ratios. However, investors should be careful not to make investment decisions on this metric alone, without considering a company's earning and growth potential, since a low P/B ratio can be a sign of a bleak future for the business.
P/E ratio is a popular way of making a quick judgment of a company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - often seek solid companies with low P/E ratios as investment opportunities. However, P/E ratio represents an oversimplified approach to business valuation, and can often lead to incorrect investment decisions.
On March 8, 2002, Nasdaq completed a two-stage repurchase of 33,768,895 shares of Nasdaq's common stock, par value $0.01 per share owned by the National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc. (the "NASD"), which represented all of the remaining outstanding shares of Common Stock owned by the NASD, except for the 43,225,976 shares of Common Stock underlying the warrants issued by the NASD as part of its restructuring of the ownership in Nasdaq (the "Restructuring"). Nasdaq purchased the Common Stock for $305.2 million in aggregate cash consideration, 1,338,402 shares of Nasdaq's Series A Cumulative Preferred Stock (face and liquidation value of $100 per share, plus any accumulated unpaid dividends), and one share of Nasdaq's Series B Preferred Stock, (face and liquidation value of $1.00 per share). The NASD owns all of the outstanding shares of Series A and Series B Preferred Stock. All of the shares of Common Stock repurchased by Nasdaq from the NASD are no longer outstanding.
On September 7, 2004, Nasdaq announced the completion of its acquisition of Brut, the owner of the Brut ECN and affiliated entities, from SunGard for a total consideration of $190.0 million in cash, subject to certain post-closing adjustments. As a result of this acquisition, Nasdaq expects that its customers will benefit from enhanced execution quality, additional quote information and a deeper pool of liquidity in Nasdaq-listed securities and securities listed on other exchanges. Nasdaqs customers also benefit from the ability to access liquidity from multiple destinations outside the Nasdaq Market Center through the use of Bruts sophisticated order routing technology.
On December 8, 2005, we completed our acquisition of Instinet Group Incorporated and the immediate resale of Instinets Institutional Brokerage division to an affiliate of Silver Lake Partners, or SLP, a private equity firm. As a result of these transactions, Nasdaq owns INET ECN. The aggregate purchase price for all outstanding shares of Instinet was approximately $1.878 billion in cash. Nasdaq paid total cash consideration of approximately $934.5 million, subject to post-closing adjustments, and SLP paid approximately $207.5 million of the purchase price pursuant to the sale of the Institutional Brokerage division. The balance of the $1.878 billion reflects, in part, Instinets available cash, and, in part, a cash dividend of approximately $109.0 million, which Instinet previously paid to its stockholders from the net after-tax proceeds of the sale of Instinets Lynch, Jones & Ryan, Inc., or LJR, brokerage subsidiary. As of December 31, 2005, Nasdaq incurred direct acquisition costs of $34.3 million in connection with the acquisition of Instinet.
On February 27, 2008, Nasdaq and OMX combined their businesses. The total purchase consideration was $4,309.4 million.
On May 31, 2013, we acquired the Thomson Reuters Corporate Solutions businesses, which provide insight, analytics and communications solutions, for $390 million ($366 million cash paid plus $24 million in working capital adjustments). We acquired net liabilities, at fair value, totaling $37 million and purchased intangible assets of $91 million which consisted of $89 million in customer relationships and $2 million in technology. The TR Corporate Solutions businesses are part of our Corporate Solutions business within our Technology Solutions segment.
On June 28, 2013, we acquired eSpeed from BGC for $1.2 billion. We acquired net assets, at fair value, totaling $5 million and purchased intangible assets of $715 million which consisted of $578 million for the eSpeed trade name, $121 million in customer relationships and $16 million in technology. The eSpeed businesses are part of our Market Services and Information Services segments.
On January 30, 2015, we completed the acquisition of DWA for $226 million ($225 million cash paid plus $1 million in working capital adjustments). We acquired net assets, at fair value, totaling $8 million and recorded a deferred tax liability of $34 million related to differences in the U.S. GAAP and tax basis of our investment in DWA. DWA is part of our Data Products and Index Licensing and Services businesses within our Information Services segment. Nasdaq used cash on hand and borrowed $100 million under the revolving credit commitment of the 2014 Credit Facility to fund this acquisition.
In February 2016, we acquired Marketwired for $111 million ($109 million in cash paid plus $2 million in working capital adjustments). We acquired net liabilities, at fair value, totaling $1 million and recorded a deferred tax liability of $10 million related to differences in the U.S. GAAP and tax basis of our investment in Marketwired. In the second quarter of 2016, we recorded a measurement period adjustment of $5 million to the estimated fair value of deferred tax liabilities to reflect a revised assessment following the receipt of new information. The adjustment resulted in a decrease to both deferred tax liabilities recorded and goodwill. The adjustment did not result in an impact to our Consolidated Statements of Income. Marketwired is part of our Corporate Solutions business within our Corporate Services segment. Nasdaq borrowed $109 million under the revolving credit commitment of the 2014 Credit Facility to fund this acquisition.
In February 2016, we acquired Nasdaq CXC for $116 million ($115 million in cash paid plus $1 million in working capital adjustments). We acquired net assets, at fair value, totaling $6 million and recorded a deferred tax liability of $20 million related to differences in the U.S. GAAP and tax basis of our investment in Nasdaq CXC. Nasdaq CXC is part of our Market Services segment and our Data Products business within our Information Services segment. Nasdaq used cash on hand and borrowed $55 million under the revolving credit commitment of the 2014 Credit Facility to fund this acquisition.
In May 2016, we acquired Boardvantage for $242 million ($197 million in cash paid plus $45 million in working capital adjustments, which primarily includes cash acquired). We acquired net assets, at fair value, totaling $28 million and recorded a net deferred tax liability of $45 million, comprised of a deferred tax liability of $46 million and a deferred tax asset of $1 million, related to differences in the U.S. GAAP and tax basis of our investment in Boardvantage. This acquisition expanded our Corporate Solutions governance business within our Corporate Services segment. Nasdaq borrowed $197 million under the revolving credit commitment of the 2014 Credit Facility to fund this acquisition.
On June 30, 2016, we acquired ISE for $1,070 million. The acquisition of ISE, an operator of three electronic options exchanges, is expected to allow us to improve efficiencies for clients, broaden our technology offering, and provide the capability within the equity options industry to further innovate. We acquired net assets, at fair value, totaling $83 million and recorded a deferred tax liability of $266 million and a deferred tax asset of $81 million related to differences in the U.S. GAAP and tax basis of our investment in ISE, resulting in total net liabilities acquired of $102 million. ISE is part of our Market Services, Information Services and Technology Solutions segments.