Microsoft products include operating systems for computing devices, servers, and phones; server applications for distributed computing environments; cross-device productivity applications; business solution applications; desktop and server management tools; software development tools; video games; and online advertising.
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Book value of equity per share||$13.90||24.1%||4.9%||11.6%|
|BV including aggregate dividends||40.5%||14.8%||18.8%|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
A company creates wealth for its long-term shareholders in 2 main ways - through dividend payments and through the accumulation of retained earnings. This graph shows the accumulation of per-share equity of long-term shareholders (green bars), which consists of the retained earnings plus all capital invested in the company, and the cumulative dividends the company has paid over time per share of its stock (blue bars).
In the words of Warren Buffett: "We're looking for... businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt."
Return on equity is a key metric of financial performance, indicating a company's ability to generate earnings using shareholder capital. Over time, ROE is one of the major determinants of the rate at which a company creates shareholder wealth. The average ROE for large U.S. companies is 12%, and many investors use it as a threshold for attractive investments.
Companies can boost ROE by increasing leverage, which reduces the safety of the investment. Therefore, it is useful to look at the return on assets (ROA), which measures a company's earning power regardless of its capital structure. A widening gap between ROE and ROA may be a warning sign that should be thoroughly investigated.
Earnings per share is a popular metric used to value a company (using P/E ratio); growth in EPS is often used to judge company growth potential. However, many investors believe that EPS is an inferior metric to ROE, because it ignores the amount of capital the company used to generate earnings.
Free cash flow shows how much cash a company generates from operations, above and beyond what is required to maintain or expand its productive assets. This cash can be returned to investors, or spent by management on growing the company or paying back its debts.
Balance sheets of many companies contain intangible assets such as goodwill, trademarks, patents, etc. Many investors consider intangibles more difficult to value than physical assets. If intangible assets had been valued incorrectly, they must be impaired, resulting in a loss charged against shareholder equity. This chart demonstrates the potential loss to shareholder equity from such impairments.
Companies often use debt financing to increase their return on equity. However, as the amount of debt financing increases relative to the amount of equity financing, the company becomes more sensitive to down turns and other negative events. As a result, many investors use the ratio of debt to equity as a measure of a company's financial risk, and avoid companies that have this ratio above 1.
This chart shows shareholder equity as a percentage of total assets, allowing investors to judge the overall leverage. Companies with a higher proportion of equity can be viewed as safer investments. This metric is particularly important for highly leveraged institutions, such as banks, where it must be at least 4% according to government regulations.
The ratio of current assets to current liabilities is known as the current ratio. This metric is a quick measure of the company's ability to pay its short-term obligations. A current ratio below 1 is a warning sign that should be investigated, especially for companies that cannot count on adequate cash flow from operations.
This chart shows the cumulative dilution of investor ownership in a company over time. Dilution reduces an investor's participation in the future earnings. Dilution increases when a company issues new shares, and decreases when a company buys its shares back. Many investors avoid companies with large chronic dilution.
analysis provides insight into factors affecting the Return On Equity of a company.
The DuPont equation decomposes ROE as follows:
ROE = (Net margin) * (Asset turnover) * (Asset to equity ratio)
Net margin indicates operating efficiency, Asset turnover measures the total asset use efficiency, and the Asset to equity ratio is a measure of financial leverage.
The dividend payout ratio tells investors what percentage of earnings a company returns to shareholders, and what percentage it retains and reinvests. This ratio represents a major capital allocation decision by the company, and can be used to judge management rationality. Rational management should pay out all earnings that cannot be productively reinvested. Therefore, a low dividend payout ratio for a profitable company with a low growth potential may be a warning sign.
Many investors use the P/B ratio as a quick way of judging company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - specifically seek out companies with low P/B ratios. However, investors should be careful not to make investment decisions on this metric alone, without considering a company's earning and growth potential, since a low P/B ratio can be a sign of a bleak future for the business.
P/E ratio is a popular way of making a quick judgment of a company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - often seek solid companies with low P/E ratios as investment opportunities. However, P/E ratio represents an oversimplified approach to business valuation, and can often lead to incorrect investment decisions.
On July 20, 2004, our Board of Directors approved a plan to buy back up to $30 billion in Microsoft common stock over four years. The specific timing and amount of repurchases will vary based on market conditions, securities law limitations, and other factors. The repurchases will be made using our cash resources.
Cash and short-term investments totaled $37.75 billion as of June 30, 2005 compared to $60.59 billion as of June 30, 2004. The decline is primarily attributable to the special dividend of $3.00 per share, or $32.64 billion, paid on December 2, 2004, and to common stock repurchases of 312 million shares for $8.0 billion during 2005.
On August 10, 2007, we acquired all the outstanding shares of aQuantive, Inc. for $5.9 billion, which was paid primarily in cash. Headquartered in Seattle, Washington, aQuantive is a digital marketing business that we expect will play a key role in the future development of our Online Services Business.
On October 13, 2011, we acquired all of the issued and outstanding shares of Skype Global S.a r.l. (Skype), a leading global provider of software applications and related Internet communications products based in Luxembourg, for $8.6 billion primarily in cash. Our purchase price allocations are preliminary and subject to revision as more detailed analyses are completed and additional information about fair value of assets and liabilities becomes available, including additional information relating to tax matters and finalization of our valuation of identified intangible assets. The major classes of assets and liabilities to which we preliminarily allocated the purchase price were: goodwill of $7.1 billion; identifiable intangible assets of $1.6 billion with a weighted average estimated useful life of 13 years, primarily marketing-related (trade name) and technology-based intangibles with estimated useful lives of 15 years and 5 years, respectively; and unearned revenue of $222 million. The goodwill recognized in connection with the acquisition is primarily attributable to our expectation of extending Skypes brand and the reach of its networked platform, while enhancing Microsofts existing portfolio of real-time communications products and services. We preliminarily assigned the goodwill to the following segments: $4.2 billion to Entertainment and Devices Division, $2.8 billion to Microsoft Business Division, and $54 million to Online Services Division. Skype was consolidated into our results of operations starting October 13, 2011, the acquisition date.
Online Services Divisions fiscal year 2012 operating loss reflects a goodwill impairment charge of $6.2 billion, which we recorded as a result of our annual goodwill impairment test in the fourth quarter. The non-cash, non-tax-deductible charge related mainly to goodwill acquired through our 2007 acquisition of aQuantive, Inc. While the search business has been improving, our expectations for future growth and profitability for OSD are lower than our previous estimates. We do not expect this impairment charge to affect OSDs ongoing business or financial performance.
On April 25, 2014, we acquired substantially all of Nokia Corporations Devices and Services business (NDS) for a total purchase price of $9.4 billion, including cash acquired of $1.5 billion. The purchase price consisted primarily of cash of $7.1 billion and Nokias repurchase of convertible notes of $2.1 billion, which was a non-cash transaction, and liabilities assumed of $0.2 billion. The Acquisition was expected to accelerate the growth of our D&C business through faster innovation, synergies, and unified branding and marketing.
On November 6, 2014, we acquired Mojang Synergies AB, the Swedish video game developer of the Minecraft gaming franchise, for $2.5 billion in cash, net of cash acquired. The addition of Minecraft and its community enhances our gaming portfolio across Windows, Xbox, and other ecosystems besides our own. Our purchase price allocation is preliminary and subject to revision as more detailed analyses are completed and additional information about fair value of assets and liabilities becomes available, including additional information relating to tax matters and finalization of our valuation of identified intangible assets. The significant classes of assets and liabilities to which we preliminarily allocated the purchase price were goodwill of $1.8 billion and identifiable intangible assets of $928 million, primarily marketing-related (trade names). The goodwill recognized in connection with the acquisition is primarily attributable to anticipated synergies from future growth, and is not expected to be deductible for tax purposes. We assigned the goodwill to our Devices and Consumer (D&C) Other segment. Identifiable intangible assets were assigned a total weighted-average amortization period of 6.3 years. Mojang has been included in our consolidated results of operations since the acquisition date.
Impairment, integration, and restructuring expenses were $10.0 billion for fiscal year 2015, compared to $127 million for fiscal year 2014. The increase was mainly due to impairment charges of $7.5 billion related to our Phone Hardware business in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2015. Our annual goodwill impairment test as of May 1, 2015 indicated that the carrying value of Phone Hardware goodwill exceeded its estimated fair value. Accordingly, we recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $5.1 billion, reducing Phone Hardwares goodwill from $5.4 billion to $116 million, net of foreign currency remeasurements, as well as an impairment charge of $2.2 billion related to the write-down of Phone Hardware intangible assets. Restructuring charges were $2.1 billion, including employee severance expenses and the write-down of certain assets in connection with our restructuring activities. Integration expenses increased $308 million, due to a full-year of integration activities in fiscal year 2015 associated with the acquisition of NDS.
On December 8, 2016, we completed our acquisition of all of the issued and outstanding shares of LinkedIn, the worlds largest professional network on the Internet, for a preliminary total purchase price of $27.0 billion. The purchase price primarily consisted of cash of $26.4 billion. The acquisition is expected to accelerate the growth of LinkedIn, Office 365, and Dynamics 365. The financial results of LinkedIn have been included in our consolidated financial statements since the date of the acquisition.