McAfee was acquired by Intel in August 2010. The company provided computer security solutions for enterprises, governments, small and medium-sized businesses and consumers either directly or through a network of distribution partners.
A company creates wealth for its long-term shareholders in 2 main ways - through dividend payments and through the accumulation of retained earnings. This graph shows the accumulation of per-share equity of long-term shareholders (green bars), which consists of the retained earnings plus all capital invested in the company, and the cumulative dividends the company has paid over time per share of its stock (blue bars).
In the words of Warren Buffett: "We're looking for... businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt."
Return on equity is a key metric of financial performance, indicating a company's ability to generate earnings using shareholder capital. Over time, ROE is one of the major determinants of the rate at which a company creates shareholder wealth. The average ROE for large U.S. companies is 12%, and many investors use it as a threshold for attractive investments.
Companies can boost ROE by increasing leverage, which reduces the safety of the investment. Therefore, it is useful to look at the return on assets (ROA), which measures a company's earning power regardless of its capital structure. A widening gap between ROE and ROA may be a warning sign that should be thoroughly investigated.
Earnings per share is a popular metric used to value a company (using P/E ratio); growth in EPS is often used to judge company growth potential. However, many investors believe that EPS is an inferior metric to ROE, because it ignores the amount of capital the company used to generate earnings.
Free cash flow shows how much cash a company generates from operations, above and beyond what is required to maintain or expand its productive assets. This cash can be returned to investors, or spent by management on growing the company or paying back its debts.
Balance sheets of many companies contain intangible assets such as goodwill, trademarks, patents, etc. Many investors consider intangibles more difficult to value than physical assets. If intangible assets had been valued incorrectly, they must be impaired, resulting in a loss charged against shareholder equity. This chart demonstrates the potential loss to shareholder equity from such impairments.
Companies often use debt financing to increase their return on equity. However, as the amount of debt financing increases relative to the amount of equity financing, the company becomes more sensitive to down turns and other negative events. As a result, many investors use the ratio of debt to equity as a measure of a company's financial risk, and avoid companies that have this ratio above 1.
This chart shows shareholder equity as a percentage of total assets, allowing investors to judge the overall leverage. Companies with a higher proportion of equity can be viewed as safer investments. This metric is particularly important for highly leveraged institutions, such as banks, where it must be at least 4% according to government regulations.
The ratio of current assets to current liabilities is known as the current ratio. This metric is a quick measure of the company's ability to pay its short-term obligations. A current ratio below 1 is a warning sign that should be investigated, especially for companies that cannot count on adequate cash flow from operations.
This chart shows the cumulative dilution of investor ownership in a company over time. Dilution reduces an investor's participation in the future earnings. Dilution increases when a company issues new shares, and decreases when a company buys its shares back. Many investors avoid companies with large chronic dilution.
analysis provides insight into factors affecting the Return On Equity of a company.
The DuPont equation decomposes ROE as follows:
ROE = (Net margin) * (Asset turnover) * (Asset to equity ratio)
Net margin indicates operating efficiency, Asset turnover measures the total asset use efficiency, and the Asset to equity ratio is a measure of financial leverage.
The dividend payout ratio tells investors what percentage of earnings a company returns to shareholders, and what percentage it retains and reinvests. This ratio represents a major capital allocation decision by the company, and can be used to judge management rationality. Rational management should pay out all earnings that cannot be productively reinvested. Therefore, a low dividend payout ratio for a profitable company with a low growth potential may be a warning sign.
Many investors use the P/B ratio as a quick way of judging company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - specifically seek out companies with low P/B ratios. However, investors should be careful not to make investment decisions on this metric alone, without considering a company's earning and growth potential, since a low P/B ratio can be a sign of a bleak future for the business.
P/E ratio is a popular way of making a quick judgment of a company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - often seek solid companies with low P/E ratios as investment opportunities. However, P/E ratio represents an oversimplified approach to business valuation, and can often lead to incorrect investment decisions.
On December 1, 1997, the Company acquired Network General, a provider of network fault and performance management solutions for approximately 17.9 million shares of the common stock. The Company also assumed and exchanged all options to purchase Network General stock for options to purchase approximately 3.3 million shares of the Company's common stock. The transaction was accounted for as a pooling of interests and therefore, all prior period financial statements have been restated to include the results of Network General for all periods presented. On December 2, 1997, in connection with the merger, McAfee changed its name to Networks Associates, Inc.
On April 28, 1998, the Company completed the acquisition of Trusted Information Systems ("TIS"), a publicly-held provider of comprehensive security systems for computer networks. In the acquisition, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company merged with and into TIS; TIS became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company; and all outstanding common stock of TIS was converted into approximately 6.8 million shares of Common Stock of the Company, at an exchange ratio of 0.4845. The Company also assumed all outstanding options and other rights to acquire TIS capital stock. The TIS acquisition will be accounted for as a pooling of interests;however, historical results have not been restated to reflect the TISacquisition.
On August 13, 1998, the Company acquired Dr Solomon's Group PLC ("Dr Solomon's"), (the "Acquisition"), a European-based publicly-held provider of anti-virus software products for approximately 15.3 million shares of the Company's Common Stock (including 1.7 million shares held in trust pending the exercise of certain outstanding and fully vested Dr Solomon's options). In the Acquisition, each outstanding ordinary share of Dr Solomon's was exchanged for 0.27625 shares of Common Stock of the Company. The Company assumed all outstanding options to acquire Dr Solomon's ordinary shares. The Acquisition was accounted for as a pooling of interests and therefore all prior period financial statements have been restated to include the results of Dr Solomon's for all periods presented.
In November 2007, we acquired SafeBoot Holding B.V., an enterprise security software company for data protection via encryption and access control, for $346.6 million. For convenience, we designated October 31, 2007, as the effective date for this acquisition and have recorded $1.0 million of imputed interest as a charge to results of operations.
In November 2008, we acquired 100% of the outstanding shares of Secure Computing for $490.1 million.
Aug. 19, 2010 - Intel Corporation has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire McAfee, Inc., through the purchase of all of the company's common stock at $48 per share in cash, for approximately $7.68 billion.