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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended June 24, 2018
OR
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             .
Commission file number: 0-12933
 LAM RESEARCH CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 
Delaware
 
94-2634797
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
4650 Cushing Parkway, Fremont, California
 
94538
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (510) 572-0200
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, Par Value $0.001 Per Share
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market
(Nasdaq Global Select Market)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
(Title of class) 
_________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨     No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x   No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company”, and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 
x
  
Accelerated filer
 
¨
Non-accelerated filer
 
¨   (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
  
Smaller reporting company
 
¨
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
 
¨
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No x
The aggregate market value of the Registrant’s Common Stock, $0.001 par value, held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, as of December 24, 2017, the last business day of the most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was $24,908,278,746. Common Stock held by each officer and director and by each person who owns 5% or more of the outstanding Common Stock has been excluded from this computation based on the assumption that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination of such status for other purposes.
As of August 9, 2018, the Registrant had 157,579,984 outstanding shares of Common Stock. 
_________________________
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Parts of the Registrant’s Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders expected to be held on or about November 6, 2018, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K. Except as expressly incorporated by reference herein, the Registrant’s proxy statement shall not be deemed to be part of this report.


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 LAM RESEARCH CORPORATION
2018 ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
Page
 
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
 
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 
 
Item 15.
 
 

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PART I
CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
With the exception of historical facts, the statements contained in this discussion are forward-looking statements, which are subject to the safe harbor provisions created by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Certain, but not all, of the forward-looking statements in this report are specifically identified as forward-looking, by use of phrases and words such as “believe,” “estimated,” “anticipate,” “expect,” “probable,” “intend,” “plan,” “aim,” “may,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “will,” “continue,” and other future-oriented terms. The identification of certain statements as “forward-looking” does not mean that other statements not specifically identified are not forward-looking. Forward-looking statements include but are not limited to statements that relate to: trends and opportunities in the global economic environment and the semiconductor industry; the anticipated levels of, and rates of change in, future shipments, margins, market share, capital expenditures, research and development expenditures, international sales, revenue (actual and/or deferred), and operating expenses generally; management’s plans and objectives for our current and future operations and business focus; volatility in our quarterly results; customer and end user requirements and our ability to satisfy those requirements; customer capital spending and their demand for our products and services, and the reliability of indicators of change in customer spending and demand; the effect of variability in our customers’ business plans or demand for our equipment and services; changes in demand for our products and in our market share resulting from, among other things, increases in our customers’ proportion of capital expenditure (with respect to certain technology inflections); hedging transactions; our competition; our ability to defend our market share, and to gain new market share; our ability to obtain and qualify alternative sources of supply; the impact of U.S. tax reform, our estimated annual tax rate and the factors that affect our tax rates; anticipated growth in the industry and the total market for wafer fabrication equipment and our growth relative to such growth; the success of joint development and collaboration relationships with customers, suppliers, or others; outsourced activities; the role of component suppliers in our business; our leadership and competency, and their ability to facilitate innovation; our ability to continue to, including the underlying factors that, create sustainable differentiation; the resources invested to comply with evolving standards and the impact of such efforts; legal and regulatory compliance; the estimates we make, and the accruals we record, in order to implement our critical accounting policies (including but not limited to the adequacy of prior tax payments, future tax benefits or liabilities, and the adequacy of our accruals relating to them); our investment portfolio; our access to capital markets; uses of, payments of, and impact of interest rate fluctuations on, our debt; our intention to pay quarterly dividends and the amounts thereof, if any; our ability and intention to repurchase our shares; credit risks; controls and procedures; recognition or amortization of expenses; our ability to manage and grow our cash position; and the sufficiency of our financial resources to support future business activities (including but not limited to operations, investments, debt service requirements, and capital expenditures). Such statements are based on current expectations and are subject to risks, uncertainties, and changes in condition, significance, value, and effect, including without limitation those discussed below under the heading “Risk Factors” within Item 1A and elsewhere in this report and other documents we file from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), such as our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and our current reports on Form 8-K. Such risks, uncertainties, and changes in condition, significance, value, and effect could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed in this report and in ways not readily foreseeable. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date hereof and are based on information currently and reasonably known to us. We do not undertake any obligation to release the results of any revisions to these forward-looking statements, which may be made to reflect events or circumstances that occur after the date of this report or to reflect the occurrence or effect of anticipated or unanticipated events.
Item 1.
Business

Incorporated in 1980, Lam Research Corporation (“Lam Research,” “Lam,” “we,” “our,” “us,” or the “Company”) is a Delaware corporation, headquartered in Fremont, California. We maintain a network of facilities throughout Asia, Europe, and the United States in order to meet the needs of our dynamic customer base.

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Additional information about Lam Research is available on our website at www.lamresearch.com. The content on any website referred to in this Form 10-K is not a part of or incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K unless expressly noted.
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Forms 10-Q, Current Reports on Forms 8-K, Proxy Statements and all other filings we make with the SEC are available on our website, free of charge, as soon as reasonably practical after we file them with or furnish them to the SEC and are also available online at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Any materials we file with the SEC may also be read and copied at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. To obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room, call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330.
The Lam Research logo, Lam Research, and all product and service names used in this report are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Lam Research Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and/or other countries. All other marks mentioned herein are the property of their respective holders.
We are a global supplier of innovative wafer fabrication equipment and services to the semiconductor industry. We have built a strong global presence with core competencies in areas like nanoscale applications enablement, chemistry, plasma and fluidics, advanced systems engineering and a broad range of operational disciplines. Our products and services are designed to help our customers build smaller, faster, and better performing devices that are used in a variety of electronic products, including mobile phones, personal computers, servers, wearables, automotive devices, storage devices, and networking equipment. Our vision is to realize full value from natural technology extensions of our Company.
Our customer base includes leading semiconductor memory, foundry, and integrated device manufacturers (“IDMs”) that make products such as non-volatile memory (“NVM”), DRAM memory, and logic devices. We aim to increase our strategic relevance with our customers by contributing more to their continued success. Our core technical competency is integrating hardware, process, materials, software, and process control enabling results on the wafer.
Semiconductor manufacturing, our customers’ business, involves the complete fabrication of multiple dies or integrated circuits (“ICs”) on a wafer. This involves the repetition of a set of core processes and can require hundreds of individual steps. Fabricating these devices requires highly sophisticated process technologies to integrate an increasing array of new materials with precise control at the atomic scale. Along with meeting technical requirements, wafer processing equipment must deliver high productivity and be cost-effective.
Demand from cloud computing (the “Cloud”), the Internet of Things (“IoT”), and other markets is driving the need for increasingly powerful and cost-efficient semiconductors. At the same time, there are growing technical challenges with traditional two-dimensional scaling. These trends are driving significant inflections in semiconductor manufacturing, such as the increasing importance of vertical scaling strategies like three-dimensional (“3D”) architectures as well as multiple patterning to enable shrinks.
These demand and technology inflections have significantly expanded our addressable markets from about 26% of wafer fabrication equipment spending in calendar year 2013 to about 36% in calendar year 2017. We believe we are in a strong position with our leadership and competency in deposition, etch, and clean to facilitate some of the most significant innovations in semiconductor device manufacturing. Several factors create opportunity for sustainable differentiation for us: (i) our focus on research and development, with several on-going programs relating to sustaining engineering, product and process development, and concept and feasibility; (ii) our ability to effectively leverage cycles of learning from our broad installed base; (iii) our collaborative focus with semi-ecosystem partners; (iv) our ability to identify and invest in the breadth of our product portfolio to meet technology inflections; and (v) our focus on delivering our multi-product solutions with a goal to enhance the value of Lam’s solutions to our customers.
We also address processes for back-end wafer-level packaging (“WLP”), which is an alternative to traditional wire bonding and can offer a smaller form factor, increased interconnect speed and bandwidth, and lower power consumption, among other benefits. In addition, our products are well-suited for related markets that rely on semiconductor processes and require production-proven manufacturing capability, such as complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor image sensors (“CIS”) and micro-electromechanical systems (“MEMS”).

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Our Customer Support Business Group (“CSBG”) provides products and services to maximize installed equipment performance, predictability, and operational efficiency. We offer a broad range of services to deliver value throughout the lifecycle of our equipment, including customer service, spares, upgrades, and refurbishment of our deposition, etch, and clean products. Many of the technical advances that we introduce in our newest products are also available as upgrades, which provide customers with a cost-effective strategy for extending the performance and capabilities of their existing wafer fabrication lines. Additionally, CSBG provides new and refurbished previous-generation (legacy) equipment for those applications that do not require the most advanced wafer processing capability.
Products
Market
 
Process/Application
 
Technology
 
Products
Deposition
 
Metal Films
 
Electrochemical Deposition (“ECD”) (Copper & Other)
 
SABRE® family 

 
 
 
 
Chemical Vapor Deposition (“CVD”)
Atomic Layer Deposition (“ALD”)
(Tungsten)
 
ALTUS® family

 
 
 Dielectric Films
 
Plasma-enhanced CVD (“PECVD”)
ALD 
Gapfill High-Density Plasma CVD (“HDP-CVD”)
 
VECTOR® family
Striker® family
SPEED® family
 
 
Film Treatment
 
Ultraviolet Thermal Processing (“ULTP”)
 
SOLA® family
Etch
 
Conductor Etch
 
Reactive Ion Etch
 
Kiyo® family, 
Versys® Metal family
 
 
Dielectric Etch
 
Reactive Ion Etch
 
FlexTM family
 
 
 Through-silicon Via (“TSV”) Etch
 
 Deep Reactive Ion Etch
 
Syndion® family
Clean
 
Wafer Cleaning
 
Wet Clean
 
EOS®, DV-Prime®,
Da Vinci®, SP Series
 
 
Bevel Cleaning
 
Dry Plasma Clean
 
Coronus® family
Mass Metrology
 
Deposition, Etch, Clean

 
Sub-milligram Mass Measurement
 
Metryx® Family

Deposition Processes and Product Families
Deposition processes create layers of dielectric (insulating) and metal (conducting) materials used to build a semiconductor device. Depending on the type of material and structure being made, different techniques are employed. Electrochemical deposition creates the copper wiring (interconnect) that links devices in an integrated circuit (“IC” or “chip”). Plating of copper and other metals is also used for TSV and WLP applications. Small tungsten connectors and thin barriers are made with the precision of chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition, which adds only a few layers of atoms at a time. Plasma-enhanced CVD, high-density plasma CVD, and ALD are used to form the critical insulating layers that isolate and protect all of these electrical structures. Lastly, post-deposition treatments such as ultraviolet thermal processing are used to improve dielectric film properties.
ALTUS® Product Family
Tungsten deposition is used to form conductive features such as contacts, vias, and plugs on a chip. These features are small, often narrow, and use only a small amount of metal, so minimizing resistance and achieving complete fill can be difficult. At these nanoscale dimensions, even slight imperfections can impact device performance or cause a chip to fail. Our ALTUS® systems combine CVD and ALD technologies to deposit the highly conformal films needed for advanced tungsten metallization applications. The Multi-Station Sequential Deposition architecture enables nucleation layer formation and bulk CVD fill to be performed in the same chamber (“in situ”). PNL®, our ALD technology, is used in the deposition of tungsten nitride films to achieve high step coverage with reduced thickness relative to conventional barrier films.

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SABRE® Product Family
Copper deposition lays down the electrical wiring for most semiconductor devices. Even the smallest defect - say, a microscopic pinhole or dust particle - in these conductive structures can impact device performance, from loss of speed to complete failure. The SABRE® ECD product family, which helped pioneer the copper interconnect transition, offers the precision needed for copper damascene manufacturing in logic and memory. System capabilities include copper deposition directly on various liner materials, which is important for next-generation metallization schemes. For advanced WLP applications, such as forming conductive bumps and redistribution layers, and for filling TSVs, the SABRE® 3D family combines Lam’s SABRE Electrofill® technology with additional innovation to deliver the high-quality films needed at high productivity. The modular architecture can be configured with multiple plating and pre/post-treatment cells, providing flexibility to address a variety of packaging applications.
SOLA® Product Family
Dielectric materials designed to meet the insulation requirements of logic chips often have attributes that make them unusually difficult to use. These films are easily damaged and vulnerable to losing some of their insulating capability, which can lead to poor device performance. To enable these applications, some films can be stabilized - and others enhanced to improve device performance - using specialized post-deposition film treatments available with Lam’s SOLA® UVTP product family. SOLA® products offer process flexibility through independent control of temperature, wavelength, and intensity at each station of the wafer path, enabled by Multi-Station Sequential Processing architecture.
SPEED® Product Family
Dielectric gapfill processes deposit critical insulation layers between conductive and/or active areas by filling openings of various aspect ratios between conducting lines and between devices. With advanced devices, the structures being filled can be very tall and narrow. As a result, high-quality dielectric films are especially important due to the ever-increasing possibility of cross-talk and device failure. Our SPEED® HDP-CVD products provide a multiple dielectric film solution for high-quality gapfill with industry-leading throughput and reliability. SPEED® products have excellent particle performance, and their design allows large batch sizes between cleans and faster cleans.
Striker® Product Family
The latest memory, logic, and imaging devices require extremely thin, highly conformal dielectric films for continued device performance improvement and scaling. For example, such films are critical for spacer-based multiple patterning schemes where the spacers help define critical dimensions, as well as for insulating liners, which have little tolerance for even the smallest defect. The Striker® single-wafer ALD products provide solutions for these challenging requirements through application-specific process and hardware options that deliver film technology and defect performance. Reduced processing times with Striker® products are enabled by rapid ALD cycles and ALD-rated components, software, and controls.
VECTOR® Product Family
Dielectric film deposition processes are used to form some of the most difficult-to-produce insulating layers in a semiconductor device, including those used in the latest transistors and 3D structures. In some applications, these films need to conform tightly around intricate structures. Other applications require dielectric films to be exceptionally smooth and defect free since slight imperfections are multiplied greatly in subsequent layers. Our VECTOR® PECVD products are designed to provide the performance and flexibility needed to create these enabling structures within a wide range of challenging device applications. As a result of its design, VECTOR® produces superior thin film quality, along with exceptional within-wafer and wafer-to-wafer uniformity. Reduced processing time is enabled by proprietary wafer heat-up independent of film deposition.
Etch Processes and Product Families
Etch processes help create chip features by selectively removing both dielectric (insulating) and metal (conducting) materials that have been added during deposition. These processes involve fabricating increasingly small, complex, and narrow features using many types of materials. The primary technology, reactive ion etch, bombards the wafer surface with ions (charged particles) to remove material. For the smallest features, atomic-

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layer etching (“ALE”) removes a few atomic layers of material at a time. While conductor etch processes precisely shape critical electrical components like transistors, dielectric etch forms the insulating structures that protect conducting parts. Etch processes also create the tall, column-like features used, for example, in TSVs that link chips together and in MEMS.
Flex® Product Family
Dielectric etch carves patterns in insulating materials to create barriers between the electrically conductive parts of a semiconductor device. For advanced devices, these structures can be extremely tall and thin and involve complex, sensitive materials. Slight deviations from the target feature profile - even at the atomic level - can negatively affect electrical properties of the device. To precisely create these challenging structures, our Flex® product family offers differentiated technologies and application-focused capabilities for critical dielectric etch applications. Uniformity, repeatability, and tunability are enabled by a unique multi-frequency, small-volume, confined plasma design. Flex offers in situ multi-step etch and continuous plasma capability that delivers high productivity with low defectivity.
Kiyo® Product Family
Conductor etch helps shape the electrically active materials used in the parts of a semiconductor device. Even a slight variation in these miniature structures can create an electrical defect that impacts device performance. In fact, these structures are so tiny that etch processes are pushing the boundaries of the basic laws of physics and chemistry. Our Kiyo® product family delivers the high-performance capabilities needed to precisely and consistently form these conductive features with high productivity. Proprietary Hydra technology in Kiyo® products improves critical dimension (“CD”) uniformity by correcting for incoming pattern variability, and atomic-scale variability control with production-worthy throughput is achieved with plasma-enhanced ALE capability.
Syndion® Product Family
Plasma etch processes used to remove silicon and other materials deep into the wafer are collectively referred to as deep silicon etch. These deep trenches, TSVs, and other high aspect ratio features are created by etching through multiple materials sequentially, where each new material involves a change in the etch process. As they are often electrically isolating or connecting structures, even slight variation from target results can negatively impact device performance. The Syndion® etch product family is optimized for deep silicon etch, providing the fast process switching with depth and cross-wafer uniformity control required to achieve precision etch results. The systems support both conventional single-step etch and rapidly alternating process, which minimizes damage and delivers precise depth uniformity.
Versys® Metal Product Family
Metal etch processes play a key role in connecting the individual components that form an IC, such as forming wires and electrical connections. These processes are also used to drill through the metal hardmasks that are used to pattern features too small for conventional masks, thereby allowing continued shrinking of feature dimensions. To enable performing these critical etch steps, the Versys® Metal product family provides high-productivity capability on a flexible platform. Superior CD and profile uniformity are enabled by a symmetrical chamber design with independent process tuning features.
Clean Processes and Products
Clean techniques are used between manufacturing steps to clear away particles, contaminants, residues and other unwanted material that could later lead to defects and to prepare the wafer surface for subsequent processing. Wet processing technologies can be used for wafer cleaning and etch applications. Plasma bevel cleaning is used to enhance die yield by removing unwanted materials from the wafer’s edge that could impact the device area.
Coronus® Product Family
Bevel cleaning removes unwanted masks, residues, and films from the edge of a wafer between manufacturing steps. If not cleaned, these materials become defect sources. For instance, they can flake off and re-deposit on the device area during subsequent processes. Even a single particle that lands on a critical part of a device can ruin the entire chip. By inserting bevel clean processes at strategic points, these potential defect sources can be

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eliminated and more good chips produced. By combining the precise control and flexibility of plasma with technology that protects the active die area, the Coronus® bevel clean family cleans the wafer’s edge to enhance die yield. The systems provide active die area protection by using plasma processing with proprietary confinement technology. Applications include post-etch, pre- and post-deposition, pre-lithography, and metal film removal to prevent arcing during plasma etch or deposition steps.
Da Vinci®, DV-Prime®, EOS®, SP Series Product Families
Wafer cleaning is performed repeatedly during semiconductor device manufacturing and is a critical process that affects product yield and reliability. Unwanted microscopic materials - some no bigger than the tiny structures themselves - need to be cleaned effectively. At the same time, these processes must selectively remove residues that are chemically similar to the device films. For advanced WLP, the wet clean steps used between processes that form the package and external wiring have surprisingly complex requirements. These processes are called on to completely remove specific materials and leave other fragile structures undisturbed.
Based on our pioneering single-wafer spin technology, the DV-Prime® and Da Vinci® products provide the process flexibility needed with high productivity to address a wide range of wafer cleaning steps throughout the manufacturing process flow. As the latest of Lam’s wet clean products, EOS® delivers exceptionally low on-wafer defectivity and high throughput to address progressively demanding wafer cleaning applications, including emerging 3D structures. With a broad range of process capability, our SP Series products deliver cost-efficient, production-proven wet clean/wet etch solutions for challenging WLP applications.
Mass Metrology Processes and Product
Mass metrology measures the change in mass following deposition, etch, and clean processes to enable monitoring and control of these often-repeated core manufacturing steps. For design components like thin film stacks, high aspect-ratio structures, and complex 3D architectures, optical techniques are limited in their ability to measure accurately the thick, deep, or otherwise visually obscured features. Measuring the change in mass for these applications provides a straightforward high-precision solution for monitoring and control of the critical features in advanced device structures, where there is often little tolerance for variation. Our line of high-precision mass metrology systems provides in-line monitoring and control of deposition, etch, and clean steps in real time - recording minute changes in mass to enable advanced detection of potential process excursions.
Metryx® Product Families
In-line process monitoring is used to identify production wafer trends and excursions as they occur, allowing corrections to be implemented quickly to prevent further yield loss. For deposition, etch, and clean steps, measurement of the mass change of a wafer before and after a process is a simple and direct means of monitoring and controlling process results, particularly for ultra-thin films, ultra-thick films, and complex 3D geometries of newer chip designs, where traditional optical metrology techniques are ineffective. The Metryx® mass metrology systems, available as both platform-integrated modules and as stand-alone systems, deliver sub-milligram mass measurement capability for advanced process monitoring and control of three-dimensional device structures. Key applications include high aspect ratio etch (DRAM cell, 3D NAND channel hole), conformal and ALD/sidewall deposition, horizontal processing (recess etch, fill), film density monitoring, carbon mask open, and wafer cleaning/polymer removal.
Legacy Products
For applications that do not require the most advanced wafer processing capability, semiconductor manufacturers can benefit from the proven performance of previous-generation products to increase their production capacity at a reduced economic investment. Purchasing through an original equipment manufacturer like us minimizes the risks of unexpected costs and unpredictable time to production that are typically associated with the legacy equipment market. To meet semiconductor manufacturers’ needs for high-performance, maximum-predictability, and low-risk equipment, we provide new, refurbished, and legacy products to customers utilizing technology nodes at and above 28 nm. These products benefit from many of the technical advances from our newest systems, enabling extended lifetime and productivity. Our products also provide production-worthy, cost-effective solutions for MEMS, power semiconductor, radio frequency device, and light emitting diode markets.

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Fiscal Periods Presented
All references to fiscal years apply to our fiscal years, which ended June 24, 2018, June 25, 2017, and June 26, 2016.
Research and Development
The market for semiconductor capital equipment is characterized by rapid technological change and product innovation. Our ability to achieve and maintain our competitive advantage depends in part on our continued and timely development of new products and enhancements to existing products. Accordingly, we devote a significant portion of our personnel and financial resources to research and development (“R&D”) programs and seek to maintain close and responsive relationships with our customers and suppliers.
Our R&D expenses during fiscal years 2018, 2017, and 2016 were $1.2 billion, $1.0 billion, and $914 million, respectively. The majority of R&D spending over the past three years has been targeted at deposition, etch, clean, and other semiconductor manufacturing products. We believe current challenges for customers at various points in the semiconductor manufacturing process present opportunities for us.
We expect to continue to make substantial investments in R&D to meet our customers’ product needs, support our growth strategy and enhance our competitive position.
Marketing, Sales, and Service
Our marketing, sales, and service efforts are focused on building long-term relationships with our customers and targeting product and service solutions designed to meet their needs. These efforts are supported by a team of product marketing and sales professionals as well as equipment and process engineers who work closely with individual customers to develop solutions for their wafer processing needs. We maintain ongoing service relationships with our customers and have an extensive network of service engineers in place throughout the United States, China, Europe, Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan. We believe that comprehensive support programs and close working relationships with customers are essential to maintaining high customer satisfaction and our competitiveness in the marketplace.
We provide standard warranties for our systems. The warranty provides that systems will be free from defects in material and workmanship and will conform to agreed-upon specifications. The warranty is limited to repair of the defect or replacement with new or like-new equivalent goods and is valid when the buyer provides prompt notification within the warranty period of the claimed defect or non-conformity and also makes the items available for inspection and repair. We also offer extended warranty packages to our customers to purchase as desired.

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International Sales
A significant portion of our sales and operations occur outside the United States and, therefore, may be subject to certain risks, including but not limited to tariffs and other barriers; difficulties in staffing and managing non-U.S. operations; adverse tax consequences; foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations; changes in currency controls; compliance with U.S. and international laws and regulations, including U.S. export restrictions; and economic and political conditions. Any of these factors may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and results of operations and cash flows. For geographical reporting, revenue is attributed to the geographic location in which the customers’ facilities are located. Revenue by region was as follows:
 
Year Ended
  
June 24,
2018
 
June 25,
2017
 
June 26,
2016
 
(in thousands)
Korea
$
3,832,798

 
$
2,480,329

 
$
1,057,331

Japan
1,882,799

 
1,041,969

 
983,821

China
1,784,436

 
1,023,195

 
1,039,951

Taiwan
1,397,978

 
2,095,669

 
1,485,037

United States
820,438

 
629,937

 
495,123

Southeast Asia
781,360

 
401,877

 
605,236

Europe
577,189

 
340,644

 
219,394

Total revenue
$
11,076,998


$
8,013,620


$
5,885,893

Long-lived Assets
Refer to Note 18 of our Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Item 8 of this report, for information concerning the geographic locations of long-lived assets.
Customers
Our customers include all of the world’s leading semiconductor manufacturers. Customers continue to establish joint ventures, alliances, and licensing arrangements which have the potential to positively or negatively impact our competitive position and market opportunities. Customers accounting for greater than 10% of total revenues in fiscal year 2018 included Intel Corporation; Micron Technology, Inc.; Samsung Electronics Company, Ltd.; SK hynix Inc.; and Toshiba, Inc. Customers accounting for greater than 10% of total revenues in fiscal year 2017 included Micron Technology, Inc.; Samsung Electronics Company, Ltd.; SK hynix Inc.; Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd; and Toshiba, Inc. Customers accounting for greater than 10% of total revenues in fiscal year 2016 included Micron Technology, Inc.; Samsung Electronics Company, Ltd.; SK hynix Inc.; and Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd.
A material reduction in orders from our customers could adversely affect our results of operations and projected financial condition. Our business depends upon the expenditures of semiconductor manufacturers. Semiconductor manufacturers’ businesses, in turn, depend on many factors, including their economic capability, the current and anticipated market demand for ICs, and the availability of equipment capacity to support that demand.

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Backlog
In general, we schedule production of our systems based upon our customers’ delivery requirements and forecasts. In order for a system to be included in our backlog, the following conditions must be met: (1) we have received a written customer request that has been accepted, (2) we have an agreement on prices and product specifications, and (3) there is a scheduled shipment within the next 12 months. In order for spares and services to be included in our backlog, the following conditions must be met: (1) we have received a written customer request that has been accepted and (2) delivery of products or provision of services is anticipated within the next 12 months. Where specific spare parts and customer service purchase contracts do not contain discrete delivery dates, we use volume estimates at the contract price and over the contract period, not to exceed 12 months, in calculating backlog amounts. Our policy is to revise our backlog for order cancellations and to make adjustments to reflect, among other things, changes in spares volume estimates and customer delivery date changes. As of June 24, 2018, and June 25, 2017, our backlog was $2.0 billion and $2.1 billion, respectively. Generally, orders for our products and services are subject to cancellation by our customers with limited penalties. Because some orders are received and shipped in the same quarter and because customers may change delivery dates and cancel orders, our backlog at any particular date is not necessarily indicative of business volumes or actual revenue levels for succeeding periods.
Manufacturing
Our manufacturing operations mainly consist of assembling and testing components, sub-assemblies, and modules that are then integrated into finished systems prior to shipment to or at the location of our customers. The assembly and testing of our products is conducted predominately in cleanroom environments.
We have agreements with third parties to outsource certain aspects of our manufacturing, production warehousing, and logistics functions. We believe that these outsourcing contracts provide us more flexibility to scale our operations up or down in a timely and cost-effective manner, enabling us to respond quickly to any changes in our business. We believe that we have selected reputable providers and have secured their performance on terms documented in written contracts. However, it is possible that one or more of these providers could fail to perform as we expect, and such failure could have an adverse impact on our business and have a negative effect on our operating results and financial condition. Overall, we believe we have effective mechanisms to manage risks associated with our outsourcing relationships. Refer to Note 15 of our Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Item 8 of this report, for further information concerning our outsourcing commitments, reported as a component of purchase obligations.
Certain components and sub-assemblies that we include in our products may only be obtained from a single supplier. We believe that, in many cases, we could obtain and qualify alternative sources to supply these products. Nevertheless, any prolonged inability to obtain these components could have an adverse effect on our operating results and could unfavorably impact our customer relationships.
Environmental Matters
We are subject to a variety of governmental regulations related to the management of hazardous materials that we use in our business operations. We are currently not aware of any pending notices of violations, fines, lawsuits, or investigations arising from environmental matters that would have a material effect on our business. We believe that we are generally in compliance with these regulations and that we have obtained (or will obtain or are otherwise addressing) all necessary environmental permits to conduct our business. Nevertheless, the failure to comply with present or future regulations could result in fines being imposed on us, require us to suspend production or cease operations, or cause our customers to not accept our products. These regulations could require us to alter our current operations, to acquire significant additional equipment, or to incur substantial other expenses to comply with environmental regulations. Our failure to control the use, sale, transport, or disposal of hazardous substances could subject us to future liabilities.

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Employees
As of August 9, 2018, we had approximately 10,900 regular employees globally. Although we have employment-related agreements with a number of key employees, these agreements do not guarantee continued service. Each of our employees is required to comply with our policies relating to maintaining the confidentiality of our non-public information. As noted previously, we outsource certain aspects of our manufacturing, field service, production warehousing, and logistics functions to provide us more flexibility to scale our operations up or down in a timely and cost-effective manner, enabling us to respond quickly to any changes in our business.
In the semiconductor and semiconductor capital equipment industries, competition for highly skilled employees is intense. Our future success depends, to a significant extent, upon our continued ability to attract and retain qualified employees, particularly in the R&D and customer support functions.
Competition
The semiconductor capital equipment industry is characterized by rapid change and is highly competitive throughout the world. To compete effectively, we invest significant financial resources targeted to strengthen and enhance our product and services portfolio and to maintain customer service and support locations globally. Semiconductor manufacturers evaluate capital equipment suppliers in many areas, including but not limited to process performance, productivity, defect control, customer support, and overall cost of ownership, which can be affected by many factors such as equipment design, reliability, software advancements, and similar factors. Our ability to succeed in the marketplace depends upon our ability to maintain existing products and introduce product enhancements and new products that meet customer requirements on a timely basis. In addition, semiconductor manufacturers must make a substantial investment to qualify and integrate new capital equipment into semiconductor production lines. As a result, once a semiconductor manufacturer has selected a particular supplier’s equipment and qualified it for production, the manufacturer generally maintains that selection for that specific production application and technology node as long as the supplier’s products demonstrate performance to specification in the installed base. Accordingly, we may experience difficulty in selling to a given customer if that customer has qualified a competitor’s equipment. We must also continue to meet the expectations of our installed base of customers through the delivery of high-quality and cost-efficient spare parts in the presence of competition from third-party spare parts providers.
We face significant competition with all of our products and services. Our primary competitor in the dielectric and metals deposition market is Applied Materials, Inc. For ALD and PECVD, we also compete against ASM International and Wonik IPS. In the etch market, our primary competitors are Applied Materials, Inc.; Hitachi, Ltd.; and Tokyo Electron, Ltd., and our primary competitors in the wet clean market are Screen Holding Co., Ltd.; Semes Co., Ltd.; and Tokyo Electron, Ltd.
We face competition from a number of established and emerging companies in the industry. We expect our competitors to continue to improve the design and performance of their current products and processes, to introduce new products and processes with enhanced price/performance characteristics, and to provide more comprehensive offerings of products. If our competitors make acquisitions or enter into strategic relationships with leading semiconductor manufacturers, or other entities, covering products similar to those we sell, our ability to sell our products to those customers could be adversely affected. Strategic investments to encourage local semiconductor manufacturing and supply chain in China could increase competition from domestic equipment manufacturers in China. There can be no assurance that we will continue to compete successfully in the future.

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Patents and Licenses
Our policy is to seek patents on inventions relating to new or enhanced products and processes developed as part of our ongoing research, engineering, manufacturing, and support activities. We currently hold a number of U.S. and foreign patents covering various aspects of our products and processes. Our patents, which cover material aspects of our past and present core products, have current durations ranging from approximately one to twenty years. We believe that, although the patents we own and may obtain in the future will be of value, they alone will not determine our success. Our success depends principally upon our research and development, engineering, marketing, support, and delivery skills. However, in the absence of patent protection, we may be vulnerable to competitors who attempt to imitate our products, manufacturing techniques, and processes. In addition, other companies and inventors may receive patents that contain claims applicable or similar to our products and processes. The sale of products covered by patents of others could require licenses that may not be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all. For further discussion of legal matters, see Item 3, “Legal Proceedings,” of this report.
Executive Officers of the Company
As of August 9, 2018, the executive officers of Lam Research were as follows:
Name
 
Age
 
Title
Martin B. Anstice
 
51
 
Chief Executive Officer
Timothy M. Archer
 
51
 
President and Chief Operating Officer
Douglas R. Bettinger
 
51
 
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, and Chief Accounting Officer
Richard A. Gottscho
 
66
 
Executive Vice President, Corporate Chief Technology Officer
Kevin D. Jennings
 
53
 
Senior Vice President, Global Operations
Patrick J. Lord
 
52
 
Senior Vice President and General Manager, CSBG
Scott G. Meikle
 
56
 
Senior Vice President, Global Customer Operations
Sarah A. O’Dowd
 
68
 
Senior Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Secretary
Vahid Vahedi
 
52
 
Senior Vice President and General Manager, Etch Business Unit
Sesha Varadarajan
 
43
 
Senior Vice President and General Manager, Deposition Business Unit
Martin B. Anstice has been our chief executive officer since January 2012. Mr. Anstice joined us in April 2001 as senior director, operations controller, was promoted to the position of managing director and corporate controller in May 2002, and was promoted to group vice president and chief financial officer in June 2004. He was appointed executive vice president and chief operating officer in September 2008 and president in December 2010, a position he held until January 2018. Prior to joining us, he held various finance positions from 1988 to 1999 at Raychem Corporation, a global materials science company. Subsequent to the acquisition of Raychem by Tyco International, a global provider of engineered electronic components, network solutions, and wireless systems, he assumed responsibility for supporting mergers and acquisitions activities of Tyco Electronics. Mr. Anstice is an Associate member of the Institute of Chartered Management Accountants in the United Kingdom.
Timothy M. Archer has been our president and chief operating officer since January 2018. Mr. Archer joined us in June 2012 as our executive vice president, chief operating officer. Prior to joining us, he spent 18 years at Novellus Systems, Inc., (“Novellus”) in various technology development and business leadership roles, including most recently as chief operating officer from January 2011 to June 2012; executive vice president of Worldwide Sales, Marketing, and Customer Satisfaction from September 2009 to January 2011; and executive vice president of the PECVD and Electrofill Business Units from November 2008 to September 2009. His tenure at Novellus also included assignments as senior director of technology for Novellus Systems Japan from 1999 to 2001 and senior director of technology for the Electrofill Business Unit from April 2001 to April 2002. He started his career in 1989 at Tektronix, where he was responsible for process development for high-speed bipolar ICs. Mr. Archer completed the Program for Management Development at the Harvard Graduate School of Business and earned a B.S. degree in applied physics from the California Institute of Technology.

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Douglas R. Bettinger is our executive vice president, chief financial officer, and chief accounting officer with responsibility for Finance, Tax, Treasury, Information Technology, and Investor Relations. Prior to joining the Company in 2013, Mr. Bettinger served as senior vice president and chief financial officer of Avago Technologies from 2008 to 2013. From 2007 to 2008, he served as vice president of Finance and corporate controller at Xilinx, Inc., and from 2004 to 2007, he was chief financial officer at 24/7 Customer, a privately held company. Mr. Bettinger worked at Intel Corporation from 1993 to 2004, where he held several senior-level finance positions, including corporate planning and reporting controller and Malaysia site operations controller. Mr. Bettinger earned an M.B.A. degree in finance from the University of Michigan and a B.S. degree in economics from the University of Wisconsin in Madison.
Richard A. Gottscho is our executive vice president, corporate chief technology officer, a position he has held since May 2017. Prior to that time, he had been executive vice president, Global Products Group beginning in August 2010; and group vice president and general manager, Etch Businesses beginning in March 2007. He joined us in January 1996 and has served at various director and vice president levels in support of etch products, CVD products, and corporate research. Prior to joining us, he was a member of Bell Laboratories for 15 years, where he started his career working in plasma processing. During his tenure at Bell, he headed research departments in electronics materials, electronics packaging, and flat panel displays. He is the author of numerous papers, patents, and lectures in plasma processing and process control. He is a recipient of the American Vacuum Society’s Peter Mark Memorial Award and Plasma Science and Technology Division Prize, the Gaseous Electronics Conference Foundation Lecturer, the Dry Process Symposium Nishizawa Award, and the Tegal Thinker Award. He is a fellow of the American Physical and American Vacuum Societies, has served on numerous editorial boards of refereed technical publications and program committees for major conferences in plasma science and engineering, and was vice-chair of a National Research Council study on plasma science in the 1980s. In 2016, Dr. Gottscho was elected to the U.S. National Academy of Engineering. Dr. Gottscho earned Ph.D. and B.S. degrees in physical chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Pennsylvania State University, respectively.
Kevin D. Jennings is our senior vice president, global operations, a position he has held since February 2018 in which he is responsible for worldwide manufacturing, supply chain, logistics, and facilities. Prior to that time, he had been group vice president, global operations beginning in June 2013; and vice president, strategic development, beginning in June 2012. Prior to our acquisition of Novellus in June 2012, he held a variety of executive roles covering engineering, business development, marketing, product line general management, and operations at Novellus. Mr. Jennings has over 30 years of experience in the semiconductor capital equipment industry that includes KLA-Tencor and began in 1986 at Applied Materials. He earned an M.B.A. from Pepperdine University and an undergraduate degree in electrical engineering technology from DeVry University.
Patrick J. Lord is our senior vice president and general manager of the Customer Support Business Group, a position he has held since December 2016. Previously, Dr. Lord held the position of group vice president and deputy general manager of the Global Products Group from September 2013 to December 2016. He served as the head of the Direct Metals, GapFill, Surface Integrity Group, and Integrated Metals (“DGSI”) Business Units between June 2012 and September 2013. Prior to our acquisition of Novellus in June 2012, Dr. Lord was senior vice president and general manager of the DGSI Business Units at Novellus. Additionally, Dr. Lord held the position of senior vice president of Business Development and Strategic Planning. He joined Novellus in 2001 and held a number of other positions, including executive vice president and general manager of the CMP Business Unit, senior director of Business Development, senior director of Strategic Marketing, and acting vice president of Corporate Marketing. Before joining Novellus, Dr. Lord spent six years at KLA-Tencor Corporation (“KLA-Tencor”) in various product marketing and management roles. He earned his Ph.D., M.S., and B.S. degrees in mechanical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Scott G. Meikle is our senior vice president of Global Customer Operations, a position he has held since September 2017. Before joining us, he was an independent consultant for a year and director, special projects at Micron Technology, Inc. for seven months. Prior to that time, he spent over five and a half years at Inotera Memories, Inc., most recently as its president from August 2012 to December 2015. Dr. Meikle started his career in process R&D and advanced to various leadership roles in business operations across multiple geographies for Micron Technology, and has over 25 years of experience in the memory devices sector of the semiconductor industry. He earned his Ph.D. and M. Eng. degrees in engineering physics from Shizuoka University and McMaster University, respectively, and a B.S. degree in physics from the University of Calgary.

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Sarah A. O’Dowd is our senior vice president, chief legal officer and secretary. She joined us in September 2008 as group vice president and chief legal officer, responsible for general legal matters, intellectual property and ethics, and compliance. In addition to her Legal function, in April 2009 she was appointed vice president of Human Resources and served in this dual capacity through May 2012. Prior to joining us, she was vice president and general counsel for FibroGen, Inc., from February 2007 until September 2008. Until February 2007, Ms. O’Dowd was a shareholder in the law firm of Heller Ehrman LLP for more than 20 years, practicing in the areas of corporate securities, governance, and mergers and acquisitions for a variety of clients, principally publicly traded high-technology companies. She served in a variety of leadership and management roles at Heller Ehrman, including managing partner of the Silicon Valley and San Diego offices, member of the firm’s Policy Committee, and, as head of the firm’s business practice groups, a member of the firm’s Executive Committee. Ms. O’Dowd earned her J.D. and M.A. degrees in communications from Stanford Law School and Stanford University, respectively, and her B.A. degree in mathematics from Immaculata College.
Vahid Vahedi is our senior vice president and general manager of the Etch Business Unit, a position he has held since February 2018. Prior to that time, he was group vice president of the Etch product group since March 2012. Previously, he served as vice president of Etch Business Product Management and Marketing, vice president of Dielectric Etch, vice president of Conductor and 3DIC Etch, and director of Conductor Etch Technology Development. He joined us in 1995. He earned his Ph.D., M.S., and B.S. degrees in electrical engineering and computer science from the University of California at Berkeley.
Sesha Varadarajan is our senior vice president and general manager of the Deposition Business Unit, a position he has held since February 2018. Prior that time, he was group vice president of the Deposition product group since September 2013. Previously, he served as the head of the PECVD/Electrofill Business Unit between June 2012 and September 2013. Prior to our acquisition of Novellus in June 2012, Mr. Varadarajan was senior vice president and general manager of Novellus’ PECVD and Electrofill Business Units. He joined Novellus in 1999 as a process engineer with the Electrofill Business Unit and held various roles in that business unit before being appointed director of technology in 2004. Between 2006 and 2008, he worked in the PECVD Business Unit, initially as director of technology, until being promoted to product general manager. In 2009, he returned to the Electrofill Business Unit as vice president and general manager. In mid-2011, he was promoted to senior vice president and general manager, where he was also responsible for the PECVD Business Unit. Mr. Varadarajan earned an M.S. degree in manufacturing engineering and material science from Boston University and a B.S. degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Mysore.
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
In addition to the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (“2018 Form 10-K”), the following risk factors should be carefully considered in evaluating us and our business because such factors may significantly impact our business, operating results, and financial condition. As a result of these risk factors, as well as other risks discussed in our other SEC filings, our actual results could differ materially from those projected in any forward-looking statements. No priority or significance is intended, nor should be attached, to the order in which the risk factors appear.
The Semiconductor Capital Equipment Industry Is Subject to Variability and Periods of Rapid Growth or Decline; We Therefore Face Risks Related to Our Strategic Resource Allocation Decisions
The semiconductor capital equipment industry has historically been characterized by rapid changes in demand. The industry environment has moved toward being more characterized by variability across segments and customers accentuated by consolidation within the industry. Variability in our customers’ business plans may lead to changes in demand for our equipment and services, which could negatively impact our results. The variability in our customers’ investments during any particular period is dependent on several factors, including but not limited to electronics demand, economic conditions (both general and in the semiconductor and electronics industries), industry supply and demand, prices for semiconductors, and our customers’ ability to develop and manufacture increasingly complex and costly semiconductor devices. The changes in demand may require our management to adjust spending and other resources allocated to operating activities.
During periods of rapid growth or decline in demand for our products and services, we face significant challenges in maintaining adequate financial and business controls, management processes, information systems, and procedures for training, assimilating, and managing our workforce, and in appropriately sizing our supply chain

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infrastructure and facilities, work force, and other components of our business on a timely basis. If we do not adequately meet these challenges during periods of increasing or declining demand, our gross margins and earnings may be negatively impacted.
We continuously reassess our strategic resource allocation choices in response to the changing business environment. If we do not adequately adapt to the changing business environment, we may lack the infrastructure and resources to scale up our business to meet customer expectations and compete successfully during a period of growth, or we may expand our capacity too rapidly and/or beyond what is appropriate for the actual demand environment, resulting in excess fixed costs.
Especially during transitional periods, resource allocation decisions can have a significant impact on our future performance, particularly if we have not accurately anticipated industry changes. Our success will depend, to a significant extent, on the ability of our executive officers and other members of our senior management to identify and respond to these challenges effectively.
Future Declines in the Semiconductor Industry, and the Overall World Economic Conditions on Which It Is Significantly Dependent, Could Have a Material Adverse Impact on Our Results of Operations and Financial Condition
Our business depends on the capital equipment expenditures of semiconductor manufacturers, which in turn depend on the current and anticipated market demand for integrated circuits. With the consolidation of customers within the industry, the semiconductor capital equipment market may experience rapid changes in demand driven both by changes in the market generally and the plans and requirements of particular customers. The economic, political, and business conditions occurring nationally, globally, or in any of our key sales regions, which are often unpredictable, have historically impacted customer demand for our products and normal commercial relationships with our customers, suppliers, and creditors. Additionally, in times of economic uncertainty, our customers’ budgets for our products, or their ability to access credit to purchase them, could be adversely affected. This would limit their ability to purchase our products and services. As a result, changing business or economic conditions can cause material adverse changes to our results of operations and financial condition, including but not limited to: 

a decline in demand for our products or services;
an increase in reserves on accounts receivable due to our customers’ inability to pay us;
an increase in reserves on inventory balances due to excess or obsolete inventory as a result of our inability to sell such inventory;
valuation allowances on deferred tax assets;
restructuring charges;
asset impairments including the potential impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets;
a decline in the value of our investments;
exposure to claims from our suppliers for payment on inventory that is ordered in anticipation of customer purchases that do not come to fruition;
a decline in the value of certain facilities we lease to less than our residual value guarantee with the lessor; and
challenges maintaining reliable and uninterrupted sources of supply.
Fluctuating levels of investment by semiconductor manufacturers may materially affect our aggregate shipments, revenues, operating results, and earnings. Where appropriate, we will attempt to respond to these fluctuations with cost management programs aimed at aligning our expenditures with anticipated revenue streams, which sometimes result in restructuring charges. Even during periods of reduced revenues, we must continue to invest in R&D and maintain extensive ongoing worldwide customer service and support capabilities to remain competitive, which may temporarily harm our profitability and other financial results.

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Our Quarterly Revenues and Operating Results Are Variable
Our revenues and operating results may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter due to a number of factors, not all of which are in our control. We manage our expense levels based in part on our expectations of future revenues. Because our operating expenses are based in part on anticipated future revenues, and a certain amount of those expenses are relatively fixed, a change in the timing of recognition of revenue and/or the level of gross profit from a small number of transactions can unfavorably affect operating results in a particular quarter. Factors that may cause our financial results to fluctuate unpredictably include but are not limited to:
 
economic conditions in the electronics and semiconductor industries in general and specifically the semiconductor equipment industry;
the size and timing of orders from customers;
consolidation of the customer base, which may result in the investment decisions of one customer or market having a significant effect on demand for our products or services;
procurement shortages;
the failure of our suppliers or outsource providers to perform their obligations in a manner consistent with our expectations;
manufacturing difficulties;
customer cancellations or delays in shipments, installations, and/or customer acceptances;
the extent that customers continue to purchase and use our products and services in their business;
our customers’ reuse of existing and installed products, to the extent that such reuse decreases their need to purchase new products or services;
changes in average selling prices, customer mix, and product mix;
our ability to develop, introduce, and market new, enhanced, and competitive products in a timely manner;
our competitors’ introduction of new products;
legal or technical challenges to our products and technologies;
transportation, communication, demand, information technology, or supply disruptions based on factors outside our control, such as strikes, acts of God, wars, terrorist activities, and natural or man-made disasters;
legal, tax, accounting, or regulatory changes (including but not limited to change in import/export regulations and tariffs) or changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing requirements;
changes in our estimated effective tax rate;
foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations; and
the dilutive impact of our Convertible Notes (as defined below) and related warrants on our earnings per share.
We May Incur Impairments to Goodwill or Long-lived Assets
We review our long-lived assets, including goodwill and intangible assets identified in business combinations and other intangible assets, for impairment annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of these assets may not be recoverable. Negative industry or economic trends, including reduced market prices of our Common Stock, reduced estimates of future cash flows, disruptions to our business, slower growth rates, or lack of growth in our relevant business units, could lead to impairment charges against our long-lived assets, including goodwill and other intangible assets. If, in any period, our stock price decreases to the point where our fair value, as determined by our market capitalization, is less than the book value of our assets, this could also indicate a potential impairment, and we may be required to record an impairment charge in that period, which could adversely affect our result of operations.
Our valuation methodology for assessing impairment requires management to make judgments and assumptions based on historical experience and to rely heavily on projections of future operating performance. We operate in a highly competitive environment and projections of future operating results and cash flows may vary significantly from actual results. Additionally, if our analysis indicates potential impairment to goodwill in one or more of our business units, we may be required to record additional charges to earnings in our financial statements, which could negatively affect our results of operations.

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Our Leverage and Debt Service Obligations and Potential Note Conversion or Related Hedging Activities May Adversely Affect Our Financial Condition, Results of Operations, and Earnings per Share
We have $2.5 billion in aggregate principal amount of senior unsecured notes, convertible notes, and commercial paper instruments outstanding. Additionally, we have funding available to us under our $1.25 billion commercial paper program and our $1.25 billion revolving credit facility, which serves as a backstop to our commercial paper program. Our revolving credit facility also includes an option to increase the amount up to an additional $600 million, for a potential total commitment of $1.85 billion. We may, in the future, decide to enter into additional debt arrangements.
In addition, we have entered, and in the future may enter, into derivative instrument arrangements to hedge against the variability of cash flows due to changes in the benchmark interest rate of fixed rate debt. We could be exposed to losses in the event of nonperformance by the counterparties to our derivative instruments.
Our indebtedness could have adverse consequences, including:

risk associated with any inability to satisfy our obligations;
a portion of our cash flows that may have to be dedicated to interest and principal payments and may not be available for operations, working capital, capital expenditures, expansion, acquisitions, or general corporate or other purposes; and
impairing our ability to obtain additional financing in the future.
Our ability to meet our expenses and debt obligations will depend on our future performance, which will be affected by financial, business, economic, regulatory, and other factors. Furthermore, our operations may not generate sufficient cash flows, to enable us to meet our expenses and service our debt. As a result, we may need to enter into new financing arrangements to obtain the necessary funds. If we determine it is necessary to seek additional funding for any reason, we may not be able to obtain such funding or, if funding is available, obtain it on acceptable terms. If we fail to make a payment on our debt, we could be in default on such debt, and this default could cause us to be in default on our other outstanding indebtedness.
Conversion of our Convertible Notes and the exercise of the related warrants may cause dilution to our stockholders and to our earnings per share. The number of shares of our Common Stock into which the Convertible Notes are convertible and for which related warrants are exercisable for may be adjusted from time to time, including increases in such rates as a result of dividends that we pay to our stockholders. Upon conversion of any Convertible Notes, we will deliver cash in the amount of the principal amount of the Convertible Notes and, with respect to any excess conversion value greater than the principal amount of the Convertible Notes, shares of our Common Stock, which would result in dilution to our stockholders. This dilution may not be completely mitigated by the hedging transactions we entered into in connection with the sale of certain Convertible Notes or through share repurchases. Prior to the maturity of the Convertible Notes, if the price of our Common Stock exceeds the conversion price, U.S. generally accepted accounting principles require that we report an increase in diluted share count, which would result in lower reported earnings per share. The price of our Common Stock could also be affected by sales of our Common Stock by investors who view the Convertible Notes as a more attractive means of equity participation in our company and also by hedging activity that may develop involving our Common Stock by holders of the Convertible Notes.
Our Credit Agreements Contain Covenant Restrictions That May Limit Our Ability to Operate Our Business
We may be unable to respond to changes in business and economic conditions, engage in transactions that might otherwise be beneficial to us, or obtain additional financing because our debt agreements contain, and any of our other future similar agreements may contain, covenant restrictions that limit our ability to, among other things:

incur additional debt, assume obligations in connection with letters of credit, or issue guarantees;
create liens;
enter into transactions with our affiliates;
sell certain assets; and
merge or consolidate with any person.

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Our ability to comply with these covenants is dependent on our future performance, which will be subject to many factors, some of which are beyond our control, including prevailing economic conditions. In addition, our failure to comply with these covenants could result in a default under the Senior Notes, the Convertible Notes, or our other debt, which could permit the holders to accelerate such debt. If any of our debt is accelerated, we may not have sufficient funds available to repay such debt, which could materially and negatively affect our financial condition and results of operation.
We Have a Limited Number of Key Customers
Sales to a limited number of large customers constitute a significant portion of our overall revenue, shipments, cash flows, collections, and profitability. As a result, the actions of even one customer may subject us to variability in those areas that is difficult to predict. In addition, large customers may be able to negotiate requirements that result in decreased pricing, increased costs, and/or lower margins for us; compliance with specific environmental, social, and corporate governance standards; and limitations on our ability to share jointly developed technology with others. Similarly, significant portions of our credit risk may, at any given time, be concentrated among a limited number of customers so that the failure of even one of these key customers to pay its obligations to us could significantly impact our financial results.
We Depend on Creating New Products and Processes and Enhancing Existing Products and Processes for Our Success. Consequently, We Are Subject to Risks Associated with Rapid Technological Change
Rapid technological changes in semiconductor manufacturing processes subject us to increased pressure to develop technological advances that enable those processes. We believe that our future success depends in part upon our ability to develop and offer new products with improved capabilities and to continue to enhance our existing products. If new products or existing products have reliability, quality, design, or safety problems, our performance may be impacted by reduced orders, higher manufacturing costs, delays in acceptance of and payment for new products, and additional service and warranty expenses. We may be unable to develop and manufacture products successfully, or products that we introduce may fail in the marketplace. For more than 25 years, the primary driver of technology advancement in the semiconductor industry has been to shrink the lithography that prints the circuit design on semiconductor chips. That driver could be approaching its technological limit, leading semiconductor manufacturers to investigate more complex changes in multiple technologies in an effort to continue technology development. In the face of uncertainty on which technology solutions will become successful, we will need to focus our efforts on developing the technology changes that are ultimately successful in supporting our customer requirements. Our failure to develop and offer the correct technology solutions in a timely manner with productive and cost-effective products could adversely affect our business in a material way. Our failure to commercialize new products in a timely manner could result in loss of market share, unanticipated costs, and inventory obsolescence, which would adversely affect our financial results.

In order to develop new products and processes and enhance existing products and processes, we expect to continue to make significant investments in R&D, to investigate the acquisition of new products and technologies, to invest in or acquire such business or technologies, and to pursue joint development relationships with customers, suppliers, or other members of the industry. Our investments and acquisitions may not be as successful as we may expect, particularly as we seek to invest or acquire product lines and technologies that are new to us. We may find that acquisitions are not available to us, for regulatory or other reasons, and that we must therefore limit ourselves to collaboration and joint venture development activities, which do not have the same benefits as acquisitions. Pursuing development through collaboration and/or joint development activities rather than through an acquisition poses substantial challenges for management, including those related to aligning business objectives, sharing confidential information and intellectual property, sharing value with third parties, and realizing synergies that might have been available in an acquisition but are not available through a joint development project. We must manage product transitions and joint development relationships successfully, as the introduction of new products could adversely affect our sales of existing products and certain jointly developed technologies may be subject to restrictions on our ability to share that technology with other customers, which could limit our market for products incorporating those technologies. Future technologies, processes, or product developments may render our current product offerings obsolete, leaving us with non-competitive products, obsolete inventory, or both. Moreover, customers may adopt new technologies or processes to address the complex challenges associated with next-generation devices. This shift may result in a

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reduction in the size of our addressable markets or could increase the relative size of markets in which we either do not compete or have relatively low market share.
We Are Subject to Risks Relating to Product Concentration and Lack of Product Revenue Diversification
We derive a substantial percentage of our revenues from a limited number of products. Our products are priced up to approximately $11 million per system. As a result, the inability to recognize revenue on even a few systems can cause a significantly adverse impact on our revenues for a given quarter, and, in the longer term, the continued market acceptance of these products is critical to our future success. Our business, operating results, financial condition, and cash flows could therefore be adversely affected by:

a decline in demand for even a limited number of our products,
a failure to achieve continued market acceptance of our key products,
export restrictions or other regulatory or legislative actions that could limit our ability to sell those products to key customers or customers within certain markets,
an improved version of products being offered by a competitor in the markets in which we participate,
increased pressure from competitors that offer broader product lines,
technological changes that we are unable to address with our products, or
a failure to release new or enhanced versions of our products on a timely basis.
In addition, the fact that we offer limited product lines creates the risk that our customers may view us as less important to their business than our competitors that offer additional products and/or product capabilities. This may impact our ability to maintain or expand our business with certain customers. Such product concentration may also subject us to additional risks associated with technology changes. Our business is affected by our customers’ use of our products in certain steps in their wafer fabrication processes. Should technologies change so that the manufacture of semiconductors requires fewer steps using our products, this could have a larger impact on our business than it would on the business of our less concentrated competitors.
Strategic Alliances and Customer Consolidation May Have Negative Effects on Our Business
Increasingly, semiconductor manufacturing companies are entering into strategic alliances or consolidating with one another to expedite the development of processes and other manufacturing technologies and/or achieve economies of scale. The outcomes of such an alliance can be the definition of a particular tool set for a certain function and/or the standardization of a series of process steps that use a specific set of manufacturing equipment, while the outcomes of consolidation can lead to an overall reduction in the market for semiconductor manufacturing equipment as customers’ operations achieve economies of scale and/or increased purchasing power based on their higher volumes. In certain instances, this could work to our disadvantage if a competitor’s tools or equipment become the standard equipment for such functions or processes. Additional outcomes of such consolidation may include our customers re-evaluating their future supplier relationships to consider our competitors’ products and/or gaining additional influence over the pricing of products and the control of intellectual property.

Similarly, our customers may partner with, or follow the lead of, educational or research institutions that establish processes for accomplishing various tasks or manufacturing steps. If those institutions utilize a competitor’s equipment when they establish those processes, it is likely that customers will tend to use the same equipment in setting up their own manufacturing lines. Even if they select our equipment, the institutions and the customers that follow their lead could impose conditions on acceptance of that equipment, such as adherence to standards and requirements or limitations on how we license our proprietary rights, that increase our costs or require us to take on greater risk. These actions could adversely impact our market share and financial results.
We Depend on a Limited Number of Key Suppliers and Outsource Providers, and We Run the Risk That They Might Not Perform as We Expect
Outsource providers and component suppliers have played and will continue to play a key role in our manufacturing operations, field installation and support, and many of our transactional and administrative functions, such as information technology, facilities management, and certain elements of our finance organization. These providers and suppliers might suffer financial setbacks, be acquired by third parties, become

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subject to exclusivity arrangements that preclude further business with us, or be unable to meet our requirements or expectation due to their independent business decisions or force majeure events that could interrupt or impair their continued ability to perform as we expect.
Although we attempt to select reputable providers and suppliers and we attempt to secure their performance on terms documented in written contracts, it is possible that one or more of these providers or suppliers could fail to perform as we expect, or fail to secure or protect intellectual property rights, and such failure could have an adverse impact on our business. In some cases, the requirements of our business mandate that we obtain certain components and sub-assemblies included in our products from a single supplier or a limited group of suppliers. Where practical, we endeavor to establish alternative sources to mitigate the risk that the failure of any single provider or supplier will adversely affect our business, but this is not feasible in all circumstances. There is therefore a risk that a prolonged inability to obtain certain components or secure key services could impair our ability to manage operations, ship products, and generate revenues, which could adversely affect our operating results and damage our customer relationships.
We Face Risks Related to the Disruption of Our Primary Manufacturing Facilities
Our manufacturing facilities are concentrated in a limited number of locations. These locations are subject to disruption for a variety of reasons, such as natural or man-made disasters, terrorist activities, disruptions of our information technology resources, utility interruptions, or other events beyond our control. Such disruptions may cause delays in shipping our products, which could result in the loss of business or customer trust, adversely affecting our business and operating results.
Once a Semiconductor Manufacturer Commits to Purchase a Competitor’s Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment, the Manufacturer Typically Continues to Purchase That Competitor’s Equipment, Making It More Difficult for Us to Sell Our Equipment to That Customer
Semiconductor manufacturers must make a substantial investment to qualify and integrate wafer processing equipment into a semiconductor production line. We believe that once a semiconductor manufacturer selects a particular supplier’s processing equipment, the manufacturer generally relies upon that equipment for that specific production line application for an extended period of time, especially for customers that are more focused on tool reuse. Accordingly, we expect it to be more difficult to sell our products to a given customer if that customer initially selects a competitor’s equipment for the same product line application.
We Face a Challenging and Complex Competitive Environment
We face significant competition from multiple competitors, and with increased consolidation efforts in our industry, we may face increasing competitive pressures. Other companies continue to develop systems and/or acquire businesses and products that are competitive to ours and may introduce new products and product capabilities that may affect our ability to sell and support our existing products. We face a greater risk if our competitors enter into strategic relationships with leading semiconductor manufacturers covering products similar to those we sell or may develop, as this could adversely affect our ability to sell products to those manufacturers.
We believe that to remain competitive we must devote significant financial resources to offer products that meet our customers’ needs, to maintain customer service and support centers worldwide, and to invest in product and process R&D. Certain of our competitors, including those that are created and financially backed by foreign governments, have substantially greater financial resources and more extensive engineering, manufacturing, marketing, and customer service and support resources than we do and therefore have the potential to offer customers a more comprehensive array of products and/or product capabilities and to therefore achieve additional relative success in the semiconductor equipment industry. These competitors may deeply discount or give away products similar to those that we sell, challenging or even exceeding our ability to make similar accommodations and threatening our ability to sell those products. We also face competition from our own customers, who in some instances have established affiliated entities that manufacture equipment similar to ours. In addition, we face competition from companies that exist in a more favorable legal or regulatory environment than we do, allowing the freedom of action in ways that we may be unable to match. In many cases speed to solution is necessary for customer satisfaction and our competitors may be better positioned to achieve these objectives. For these reasons, we may fail to continue to compete successfully worldwide.

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In addition, our competitors may be able to develop products comparable or superior to those we offer or may adapt more quickly to new technologies or evolving customer requirements. In particular, while we continue to develop product enhancements that we believe will address future customer requirements, we may fail in a timely manner to complete the development or introduction of these additional product enhancements successfully, or these product enhancements may not achieve market acceptance or be competitive. Accordingly, competition may intensify, and we may be unable to continue to compete successfully in our markets, which could have a material adverse effect on our revenues, operating results, financial condition, and/or cash flows.
Our Future Success Depends Heavily on International Sales and the Management of Global Operations
Non-U.S. sales, as reflected in Part 1 Item 1. Business of this 2018 Form 10-K, accounted for approximately 93%, 92%, and 92% of total revenue in fiscal years 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively. We expect that international sales will continue to account for a substantial majority of our total revenue in future years.
We are subject to various challenges related to international sales and the management of global operations including, but not limited to:

trade balance issues;
tariffs and other barriers;
developing customers and/or suppliers, whom may have limited access to capital resources.
global or national economic and political conditions;
changes in currency controls;
differences in the enforcement of intellectual property and contract rights in varying jurisdictions;
our ability to respond to customer and foreign government demands for locally sourced systems, spare parts, and services and develop the necessary relationships with local suppliers;
compliance with U.S. and international laws and regulations affecting foreign operations, including U.S. and international trade restrictions and sanctions, anti-bribery, anti-corruption, environmental, tax, and labor laws;
fluctuations in interest and foreign currency exchange rates;
the need for technical support resources in different locations; and
our ability to secure and retain qualified people, and effectively manage people, in all necessary
locations for the successful operation of our business.
There is inherent risk, based on the complex relationships among China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and the United States, that political and diplomatic influences might lead to trade disruptions. This would adversely affect our business with China, Japan, Korea, and/or Taiwan and perhaps the entire Asia Pacific region. A significant trade disruption in any area where we do business could have a materially adverse impact on our future revenue and profits. Tariffs, additional taxes or trade barriers may increase our manufacturing costs, decrease margins, reduce the competitiveness of our products, or inhibit our ability to sell products or purchase necessary equipment and supplies, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, or financial conditions. In addition, there are risks that foreign governments may, among other things, insist on the use of local suppliers; compel companies to partner with local companies to design and supply equipment on a local basis, requiring the transfer of intellectual property rights and/or local manufacturing; and provide special incentives to government-backed local customers to buy from local competitors, even if their products are inferior to ours; all of which could adversely impact our revenues and margins. Certain international sales depend on our ability to obtain export licenses from the U.S. government. Our failure or inability to obtain such licenses could potentially limit our markets and impact our revenues. Many of the challenges noted above are applicable in China, which is a fast-developing market for the semiconductor equipment industry and therefore an area of anticipated growth for our business.
We are exposed to potentially adverse movements in foreign currency exchange rates. The majority of our sales and expenses are denominated in U.S. dollars. However, we are exposed to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations primarily related to revenues denominated in Japanese yen and expenses denominated in euro and Korean won. Currently, we hedge certain anticipated foreign currency cash flows, primarily anticipated revenues denominated in Japanese yen and expenses dominated in euro and Korean won. In addition, we enter into foreign currency hedge contracts to minimize the short-term impact of the foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations on certain foreign currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities, primarily third-party accounts receivables, accounts payables, and intercompany receivables and payables. We believe these are our

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primary exposures to currency rate fluctuation. We expect to continue to enter into hedging transactions, for the purposes outlined, for the foreseeable future. However, these hedging transactions may not achieve their desired effect because differences between the actual timing of the underlying exposures and our forecasts of those exposures may leave us either over or under hedged on any given transaction. Moreover, by hedging these foreign currency denominated revenues, expenses, monetary assets, and liabilities, we may miss favorable currency trends that would have been advantageous to us but for the hedges. Additionally, we are exposed to short-term foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations on non-U.S. dollar-denominated monetary assets and liabilities (other than those currency exposures previously discussed), and currently we do not enter into foreign currency hedge contracts against these exposures. Therefore, we are subject to potential unfavorable foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations to the extent that we transact business (including intercompany transactions) in these currencies.
The magnitude of our overseas business also affects where our cash is generated. Certain uses of cash, such as share repurchases, payment of dividends, or the repayment of our notes, can usually only be made with onshore cash balances. Since the majority of our cash is generated outside of the United States, this may impact certain business decisions and outcomes.
Our Ability to Attract, Retain, and Motivate Key Employees Is Critical to Our Success
Our ability to compete successfully depends in large part on our ability to attract, retain, and motivate key employees with the appropriate skills, experiences and competencies. This is an ongoing challenge due to intense competition for top talent, fluctuations in industry or business economic conditions, as well as increasing geographic expansion that may require cycles of hiring activity and workforce reductions. Our success in hiring depends on a variety of factors, including the attractiveness of our compensation and benefit programs, global economic or political and industry conditions, our organizational structure, global competition for talent and the availability of qualified employees, the availability of career development opportunities, the ability to obtain necessary authorizations for workers to provide services outside their home countries, and our ability to offer a challenging and rewarding work environment. We periodically evaluate our overall compensation and benefit programs and make adjustments, as appropriate, to maintain or enhance their competitiveness. If we are not able to successfully attract, retain, and motivate key employees, we may be unable to capitalize on market opportunities and our operating results may be materially and adversely affected.
Certain Critical Information Systems, That We Rely on for the Operation of Our Business, and Products That We Sell Are Susceptible to Cybersecurity and Other Threats or Incidents
We maintain and rely upon certain critical information systems for the effective operation of our business. These information systems include but are not limited to, telecommunications, the Internet, our corporate intranet, various computer hardware and software applications, (some of which may be integrated into the products that we sell or be required in order to provide the services that we offer), network communications, and email. These information systems may be owned and maintained by us, our outsourced providers, or third parties such as vendors, contractors, and Cloud providers. In addition, we make use of Software-As-A-Service (SAAS) products for certain important business functions that are provided by third parties and hosted on their own networks and servers, or third party networks and servers, all of which rely on networks, email and/or the Internet for their function. All of these information systems are subject to disruption, breach or failure from various sources, including those using techniques that change frequently or may be disguised or difficult to detect, or designed to remain dormant until a triggering event, or that may continue undetected for an extended period of time. Those sources may include mistakes or unauthorized actions by our employees or contractors; phishing schemes and other third-party attacks, and degradation or loss of service or access to our data due to viruses, malware, denial of service attacks, destructive or inadequate code, power failures, and physical damage to computers, hard drives, communication lines, and networking equipment.
We have experienced cyber threats and incidents in the past. Although past threats and incidents have not resulted in a material adverse effect, we may incur material losses related to cyber threats or incidents in the future. If we were subject to a cyber incident, it could have a material adverse effect on our business. Such adverse effects might include:
Loss of (or inability to access, e.g. through ransomware) confidential and/or sensitive information including intellectual property stored on these critical information systems or transmitted to or from those systems;

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The disruption of the proper function of our products, services and/or operations;
The failure of our or our customers’ manufacturing processes;
Errors in the output of our work or our customers’ work;
The loss or public exposure of the personal information of our employees or customers;
The public release of customer orders, financial and business plans, and operational results;
Exposure to claims from third parties who are adversely impacted by such incidents;
Misappropriation or theft of Company, customer, supplier, or other’s assets or resources, and costs associated therewith;
Diminution in the value of Lam's investment in research, development and engineering; or
Our failure to meet, or violation of, regulatory or other legal obligations, such as the timely publication or filing of financial statements, tax information and other required communications.
While we have implemented ISO 27001 compliant security procedures and virus protection software, intrusion prevention systems, identity and access control, and emergency recovery processes, and we carefully select our third party providers of information systems, to mitigate risks to the information systems that we rely on, those mitigation and protection systems cannot be guaranteed to be fail-safe and we may still suffer cyber-related incidents.
Our Financial Results May Be Adversely Impacted by Higher than Expected Tax Rates or Exposure to Additional Tax Liabilities
As a global company, our effective tax rate is highly dependent upon the geographic composition of worldwide earnings and tax regulations governing each region. We are subject to income taxes in the United States and various foreign jurisdictions, and significant judgment is required to determine worldwide tax liabilities. Our effective tax rate could be adversely affected by changes in the split of earnings between countries with differing statutory tax rates, in the valuation allowance of deferred tax assets, in tax laws, by material audit assessments, or changes in or expirations of agreements with tax authorities. These factors could affect our profitability. In particular, the carrying value of deferred tax assets, which are predominantly in the United States, is dependent on our ability to generate future taxable income in the United States. In addition, the amount of income taxes we pay is subject to ongoing audits in various jurisdictions, and a material assessment by a governing tax authority could affect our profitability.
A Failure to Comply with Environmental Regulations May Adversely Affect Our Operating Results
We are subject to a variety of domestic and international governmental regulations related to the handling, discharge, and disposal of toxic, volatile, or otherwise hazardous chemicals. Failure to comply with present or future environmental regulations could result in fines being imposed on us, require us to suspend production, and/or cease operations, or cause our customers to not accept our products. These regulations could require us to alter our current operations, acquire significant additional equipment, incur substantial other expenses to comply with environmental regulations, or take other actions. Any failure to comply with regulations governing the use, handling, sale, transport, or disposal of hazardous substances could subject us to future liabilities that may adversely affect our operating results, financial condition, and ability to operate our business.
If We Choose to Acquire or Dispose of Businesses, Product Lines, and Technologies, We May Encounter Unforeseen Costs and Difficulties That Could Impair Our Financial Performance
An important element of our management strategy is to review acquisition prospects that would complement our existing products, augment our market coverage and distribution ability, or enhance our technological capabilities. As a result, we may seek to make acquisitions of complementary companies, products, or technologies, or we may reduce or dispose of certain product lines or technologies that no longer fit our long-term strategies. For regulatory or other reasons, we may not be successful in our attempts to acquire or dispose of businesses, products, or technologies, resulting in significant financial costs, reduced or lost opportunities, and diversion of management’s attention. Managing an acquired business, disposing of product technologies, or reducing personnel entails numerous operational and financial risks, including difficulties in assimilating acquired operations and new personnel or separating existing business or product groups, diversion of management’s attention away from other business concerns, amortization of acquired intangible assets, adverse customer reaction to our decision to cease support for a product, and potential loss of key employees or customers of acquired or disposed operations. There can be no assurance that we will be able to achieve and manage

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successfully any such integration of potential acquisitions, disposition of product lines or technologies, or reduction in personnel or that our management, personnel, or systems will be adequate to support continued operations. Any such inabilities or inadequacies could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial condition, and/or cash flows.
In addition, any acquisition could result in changes such as potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the incurrence of debt and contingent liabilities, the amortization of related intangible assets, and goodwill impairment charges, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and/or the price of our Common Stock.
The Market for Our Common Stock Is Volatile, Which May Affect Our Ability to Raise Capital or Make Acquisitions or May Subject Our Business to Additional Costs
The market price for our Common Stock is volatile and has fluctuated significantly over the past years. The trading price of our Common Stock could continue to be highly volatile and fluctuate widely in response to a variety of factors, many of which are not within our control or influence. These factors include but are not limited to the following:

general market, semiconductor, or semiconductor equipment industry conditions;
economic or political events, trends, and unexpected developments occurring nationally, globally, or in any of our key sales regions;
variations in our quarterly operating results and financial condition, including our liquidity;
variations in our revenues, earnings, or other business and financial metrics from forecasts by us or securities analysts or from those experienced by other companies in our industry;
announcements of restructurings, reductions in force, departure of key employees, and/or consolidations of operations;
government regulations;
developments in, or claims relating to, patent or other proprietary rights;
technological innovations and the introduction of new products by us or our competitors;
commercial success or failure of our new and existing products;
disruptions of relationships with key customers or suppliers; or
dilutive impacts of our Convertible Notes and related warrants.
In addition, the stock market experiences significant price and volume fluctuations. Historically, we have witnessed significant volatility in the price of our Common Stock due in part to the price of and markets for semiconductors. These and other factors have and may again adversely affect the price of our Common Stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. In the past, following volatile periods in the price of their stock, many companies became the object of securities class action litigation. If we are sued in a securities class action, we could incur substantial costs, and it could divert management’s attention and resources and have an unfavorable impact on our financial performance and the price for our Common Stock.

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Intellectual Property, Indemnity, and Other Claims Against Us Can Be Costly and We Could Lose Significant Rights That Are Necessary to Our Continued Business and Profitability
Third parties may assert infringement, unfair competition, product liability, breach of contract, or other claims against us. From time to time, other persons send us notices alleging that our products infringe their patent or other intellectual property rights. In addition, law enforcement authorities may seek criminal charges relating to intellectual property or other issues. We also face risks of claims arising from commercial and other relationships. In addition, our bylaws and other indemnity obligations provide that we will indemnify officers and members of our Board of Directors against losses that they may incur in legal proceedings resulting from their service to us. From time to time, in the normal course of business, we indemnify third parties with whom we enter into contractual relationships, including customers and suppliers, with respect to certain matters. We have agreed, under certain conditions, to hold these third parties harmless against specified losses, such as those arising from a breach of representations or covenants, other third-party claims that our products when used for their intended purposes infringe the intellectual property rights of such other third parties, or other claims made against certain parties. In such cases, it is our policy either to defend the claims or to negotiate licenses or other settlements on commercially reasonable terms. However, we may be unable in the future to negotiate necessary licenses or reach agreement on other settlements on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, and any litigation resulting from these claims by other parties may materially adversely affect our business and financial results, and we may be subject to substantial damage awards and penalties. Moreover, although we have insurance to protect us from certain claims and cover certain losses to our property, such insurance may not cover us for the full amount of any losses, or at all, and may be subject to substantial exclusions and deductibles.
We May Fail to Protect Our Critical Proprietary Technology Rights, Which Could Affect Our Business
Our success depends in part on our proprietary technology and our ability to protect key components of that technology through patents, copyrights, and trade secret protection. Protecting our key proprietary technology helps us to achieve our goals of developing technological expertise and new products and systems that give us a competitive advantage; increasing market penetration and growth of our installed base; and providing comprehensive support and service to our customers. As part of our strategy to protect our technology, we currently hold a number of U.S. and foreign patents and pending patent applications, and we keep certain information, processes, and techniques as trade secrets. However, other parties may challenge or attempt to invalidate or circumvent any patents the U.S. or foreign governments issue to us; these governments may fail to issue patents for pending applications; or we may lose trade secret protection over valuable information due to the intentional or unintentional actions or omissions of third parties, of ours, or even of our own employees. Additionally, intellectual property litigation can be expensive and time-consuming and even when patents are issued or trade secret processes are followed, the legal systems in certain of the countries in which we do business do not enforce patents and other intellectual property rights as rigorously as the United States. The rights granted or anticipated under any of our patents, pending patent applications, or trade secrets may be narrower than we expect or, in fact, provide no competitive advantages. Moreover, because we determine the jurisdictions in which to file patents at the time of filing, we may not have adequate protection in the future based on such previous decisions. Any of these circumstances could have a material adverse impact on our business.
We Are Exposed to Various Risks from Our Regulatory Environment
We are subject to various risks related to (1) new, different, inconsistent, or even conflicting laws, rules, and regulations that may be enacted by legislative bodies and/or regulatory agencies in the countries that we operate; (2) disagreements or disputes between national or regional regulatory agencies related to international trade; and (3) the interpretation and application of laws, rules, and regulations. As a public company with global operations, we are subject to the laws of multiple jurisdictions and the rules and regulations of various governing bodies, including those related to financial and other disclosures, corporate governance, privacy, anti-corruption, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other local laws prohibiting corrupt payments to governmental officials, conflict minerals or other social responsibility legislation, immigration or travel regulations, and antitrust regulations, among others. Each of these laws, rules, and regulations imposes costs on our business, including financial costs and potential diversion of our management’s attention associated with compliance, and may present risks to our business, including potential fines, restrictions on our actions, and reputational damage if we are unable to fully comply.
To maintain high standards of corporate governance and public disclosure, we intend to invest all reasonably necessary resources to comply with all evolving standards. Changes in or ambiguous interpretations of laws,

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regulations, and standards may create uncertainty regarding compliance matters. Efforts to comply with new and changing regulations have resulted in, and are likely to continue to result in, increased selling, general, and administrative expenses and a diversion of management’s time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities. If we are found by a court or regulatory agency not to be in compliance with the laws and regulations, our business, financial condition, and/or results of operations could be adversely affected.
There Can Be No Assurance That We Will Continue to Declare Cash Dividends or Repurchase Our Shares at All or in Any Particular Amounts
Our Board of Directors has declared quarterly dividends since April 2014. Our intent to continue to pay quarterly dividends and to repurchase our shares is subject to capital availability and periodic determinations by our Board of Directors that cash dividends and share repurchases are in the best interest of our stockholders and are in compliance with all laws and agreements applicable to the declaration and payment of cash dividends by us. Future dividends and share repurchases may also be affected by, among other factors, our views on potential future capital requirements for investments in acquisitions and the funding of our research and development; legal risks; changes in federal, state, and international income tax laws or corporate laws; contractual restrictions, such as financial or operating covenants in our debt arrangements; availability of onshore cash flow; and changes to our business model. Our dividend payments and share repurchases may change from time to time, and we cannot provide assurance that we will continue to declare dividends or repurchase shares at all or in any particular amounts. A reduction or suspension in our dividend payments or share repurchases could have a negative effect on the price of our Common Stock.
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2.
Properties
Our executive offices and principal operating and R&D facilities are located in Fremont and Livermore, California; Tualatin, Oregon; and Villach, Austria. The majority of the Fremont and Livermore facilities are held under operating leases expiring in 2020 and 2021. The Villach facilities are held under capital leases expiring in calendar year 2021. Our Fremont, Livermore, and Villach leases include options to renew or purchase the facilities. In addition, we lease or own properties for our service, technical support, and sales personnel throughout the United States, China, Europe, Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan and lease or own manufacturing facilities located in Ohio and Korea. The Company owns two properties in Fremont, as well as the majority of the Tualatin facilities. Our facilities lease obligations are subject to periodic increases. We believe that our existing facilities are well-maintained and in good operating condition.
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
While we are not currently party to any legal proceedings that we believe are material, we are either a defendant or plaintiff in various actions that have arisen from time to time in the normal course of business, including intellectual property claims. We accrue for a liability when it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. Significant judgment is required in both the determination of probability and the determination as to whether a loss is reasonably estimable. These accruals are reviewed at least quarterly and adjusted to reflect the effects of negotiations, settlements, rulings, advice of legal counsel, and other information and events pertaining to a particular matter. To the extent there is a reasonable possibility that the losses could exceed the amounts already accrued, we believe that the amount of any such additional loss would be immaterial to our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

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PART II
Item 5.
Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Stock Information
Our Common Stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select MarketSM under the symbol “LRCX.” As of August 9, 2018, we had 418 stockholders of record. We increased our quarterly dividend throughout the 2018 fiscal year from $0.45 per share to $1.10 per share. The table below sets forth the quarterly dividend declared as well as the high and low prices of our Common Stock as reported by the Nasdaq Stock Market, for the period indicated:
 
2018
Dividend
 
Stock Price
Declared
 
High
 
Low
First quarter
$
0.45

 
$
178.18

 
$
139.24

Second quarter
$
0.50

 
$
219.70

 
$
167.52

Third quarter
$
0.50

 
$
234.88

 
$
156.83

Fourth quarter
$
1.10

 
$
219.46

 
$
170.51

 
2017
 
Dividend
 
Stock Price
 
Declared
 
High
 
Low
First quarter
$
0.30

 
$
95.77

 
$
79.15

Second quarter
$
0.45

 
$
108.60

 
$
90.56

Third quarter
$
0.45

 
$
129.35

 
$
105.30

Fourth quarter
$
0.45

 
$
167.05

 
$
124.91

Repurchase of Company Shares
In March 2018, the board of directors authorized us to repurchase up to an additional $2.0 billion of Common Stock. The new authorization increases the share repurchase authorization granted in November 2017 to an aggregate of up to $4.0 billion of Common Stock, and supplements the remaining balances for any prior authorizations. These repurchases can be conducted on the open market or as private purchases and may include the use of derivative contracts with large financial institutions, in all cases subject to compliance with applicable law. Repurchases will be funded using our cash and available credit facilities. This repurchase program has no termination date and may be suspended or discontinued at any time. As part of our share repurchase program, we may from time to time enter into structured share repurchase arrangements with financial institutions using general corporate funds.
Accelerated Share Repurchase Agreements Settled in the 2018 Fiscal Year
On May 9, 2018, we entered into two separate accelerated share repurchase agreements (collectively, the "May 2018 ASR") with two financial institutions to repurchase a total of $1.0 billion of Common Stock. We took an initial delivery of approximately 3,505,000 shares, which represented 70% of the prepayment amount divided by our closing stock price on May 9, 2018. The total number of shares received under the May 2018 ASR was based upon the average daily volume weighted average price of our Common Stock during the repurchase period, less an agreed upon discount. Final settlement of these two transactions occurred on June 8, 2018 and June 11, 2018, respectively. Approximately 1,640,000 additional shares were received at final settlement, which resulted in a weighted-average price of approximately $194.35 for the transaction period.
On November 20, 2017, we entered into four separate accelerated share repurchase agreements (collectively, the " November 2017 ASR") with two financial institutions to repurchase a total of $1.0 billion of Common Stock. We took an initial delivery of 3,254,300 shares, which represented 70% of the prepayment amount divided by our closing stock price on November 20, 2017. The total number of shares received under the November 2017 ASR was based upon the average daily volume weighted average price of our Common Stock during the repurchase period, less an agreed upon discount. Final settlement of two of the transactions occurred on February 1, 2018

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and February 2, 2018, respectively. Approximately 1,019,000 additional shares were received at the February 2018 final settlement, which resulted in a weighted-average share price of approximately $189.03 for the transaction period. Final settlement for the remaining transactions occurred on April 24, 2018 and May 23, 2018, respectively. Approximately 984,000 additional shares were received at final settlement, which resulted in a weighted-average share price of approximately $191.55 for the transaction period.
On April 19, 2017, we entered into two separate accelerated share repurchase agreements (collectively, the “April 2017 ASR”) with two financial institutions to repurchase a total of $500 million of Common Stock. We took an initial delivery of approximately 2,570,000 shares, which represented 70% of the prepayment amount divided by our closing stock price on April 19, 2017. The total number of shares received under the April 2017 ASR was based upon the average daily volume weighted average price of our Common Stock during the repurchase period, less an agreed upon discount. The April 2017 ASR settled on June 30, 2017. Approximately 780,000 shares were received at final settlement, which resulted in a weighted-average share price of approximately $149.16 for the transaction period.
Share repurchases, including those under the repurchase program, were as follows: 
Period
Total Number
of Shares
Repurchased (1)
 
Average
Price Paid
per Share(2)
 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs
 
Amount
Available
Under
Repurchase
Program
 
(in thousands, except per share data)
Available balance as of June 25, 2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
282,141

Quarter ended September 24, 2017
1,790

 
$
158.40

 
1,779

 
124,203

Board authorization, $2.0 billion increase, November 2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
2,124,203

Quarter ended December 24, 2017
3,806

 
$
194.99

 
3,709

 
1,034,459

Board authorization, $2.0 billion increase, March 2018
 
 
 
 
 
 
3,034,459

Quarter ended March 25, 2018
1,470

 
$
180.03

 
1,019

 
3,034,459

March 26, 2018 - April 22, 2018
1,151

 
$
193.37

 
1,144

 
3,003,614

April 23, 2018 - May 20, 2018
4,923

 
$
190.88

 
4,917

 
1,733,638

May 21, 2018 - June 24, 2018
1,646

 
$
184.37

 
1,641

 
1,733,638

Total
14,786

 
$
181.16

 
14,209

 
$
1,733,638

 __________________________________ 
(1)
In addition to shares repurchased under the Board-authorized repurchase program, we acquired 577 thousand shares at a total cost of $104.9 million which we withheld through net share settlements to cover minimum tax withholding obligations upon the vesting of restricted stock unit awards granted under our equity compensation plans. The shares retained through these net share settlements are not a part of the Board-authorized repurchase program, but instead are authorized under our equity compensation plans.
(2)
Average price paid per share excludes effect of accelerated share repurchases, see additional disclosure above regarding our accelerated share repurchase activity during the fiscal year.

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Cumulative Five-Year Return
The graph below compares Lam Research Corporation’s cumulative five-year total shareholder return on Common Stock with the cumulative total returns of the Nasdaq Composite index, the Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) 500 index, and the Philadelphia Semiconductor Sector Index. The graph tracks the performance of a $100 investment in our Common Stock and in each of the indices (with the reinvestment of all dividends) from June 30, 2013, to June 30, 2018.
COMPARISON OF FIVE-YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
 
Among Lam Research Corporation, the Nasdaq Composite Index, the S&P 500 Index, and the Philadelphia Semiconductor Index
 
chart-b9fc056fb1555c49951.jpg
*$100 invested on 6/30/2013 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends. Fiscal years ending June 30.
Copyright © 2018 Standard & Poor’s, a division of S&P Global. All rights reserved.

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6/13
 
6/14
 
6/15
 
6/16
 
6/17
 
6/18
Lam Research Corporation
100.00

 
152.83

 
185.93

 
195.17

 
333.05

 
412.46

Nasdaq Composite Index
100.00

 
132.45

 
151.00

 
148.88

 
189.66

 
233.12

S&P 500 Index
100.00

 
124.61

 
133.86

 
139.20

 
164.11

 
187.70

Philadelphia Semiconductor Sector Index
100.00

 
134.53

 
138.83

 
150.22

 
208.31

 
271.06

Item 6.
Selected Financial Data
 
 
Year Ended
 
June 24,
2018
 
June 25,
2017
 
June 26,
2016
 
June 28,
2015
 
June 29,
2014
 
 
(in thousands, except per share data)
 
OPERATIONS:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
11,076,998

 
$
8,013,620

 
$
5,885,893

 
$
5,259,312

 
$
4,607,309

 
Gross margin
5,165,032

 
3,603,359

 
2,618,922

 
2,284,336

 
2,007,481

 
Goodwill impairment (1)

 

 

 
79,444

 

 
Operating income
3,213,299

 
1,902,132

 
1,074,256

 
788,039

 
677,669

 
Net income
2,380,681

 
1,697,763

 
914,049

 
655,577

 
632,289

 
Net income per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
14.73

 
$
10.47

 
$
5.75

 
$
4.11

 
$
3.84

 
Diluted
$
13.17

 
$
9.24

 
$
5.22

 
$
3.70

 
$
3.62

 
Cash dividends declared per common share
$
2.55

 
$
1.65

 
$
1.20

 
$
0.84

 
$
0.18

 
BALANCE SHEET:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Working capital
$
5,999,603

 
$
6,192,383

 
$
6,795,109

 
$
3,639,488

 
$
3,201,661

 
Total assets
12,479,478

 
12,122,765

 
12,264,315

(2) 
9,358,904

(2) 
7,986,998

(2) 
Long-term obligations, less current portion
2,749,127

 
2,185,338

 
3,744,205

(2) 
1,386,536

(2) 
1,191,913

(2) 
Current portion of long-term debt and capital leases
610,030

 
908,439

 
947,733

(2) 
1,355,705

(2) 
518,267

 
 __________________________________
(1)
Goodwill impairment analysis during fiscal year 2015 resulted in a non-cash impairment charge to our Clean reporting unit, extinguishing the goodwill ascribed to the reporting unit.
(2)
Adjusted for effects of retrospective implementation of ASU 2015-3 in the first quarter of fiscal 2017.

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Three Months Ended (1)
June 24,
2018
 
March 25,
2018
 
December 24,
2017
 
September 24,
2017
 
unaudited
(in thousands, except per share data)
QUARTERLY FISCAL YEAR 2018:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
3,125,928

 
$
2,892,115

 
$
2,580,815

 
$
2,478,140

Gross margin
1,479,408

 
1,330,714

 
1,205,567

 
1,149,343

Operating income
955,195

 
827,511

 
737,371

 
693,222

Net income (loss)
1,021,146

(2) 
778,800

 
(9,955
)
(2) 
590,690

Net income (loss) per share
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
6.35

 
$
4.80

 
$
(0.06
)
(2) 
$
3.64

Diluted
$
5.82

 
$
4.33

 
$
(0.06
)
(2) 
$
3.21

Number of shares used in per share calculations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
160,916

 
162,378

 
161,135

 
162,141

Diluted
175,432

 
179,779

 
161,135

 
183,880

 
 
Three Months Ended (1)
June 25,
2017
 
March 26,
2017
 
December 25,
2016
 
September 25,
2016
 
unaudited
(in thousands, except per share data)
QUARTERLY FISCAL YEAR 2017:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
2,344,907

 
$
2,153,995

 
$
1,882,299

 
$
1,632,419

Gross margin
1,068,961

 
971,404

 
846,797

 
716,197

Operating income
607,939

 
538,418

 
439,828

 
315,947

Net income
526,424

 
574,713

 
332,791

 
263,835

Net income per share
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
3.25

 
$
3.52

 
$
2.05

 
$
1.64

Diluted
$
2.82

 
$
3.10

 
$
1.81

 
$
1.47

Number of shares used in per share calculations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
162,213

 
163,408

 
162,659

 
160,607

Diluted
186,427

 
185,094

 
183,543

 
180,017

  __________________________________
(1)
Our reporting period is a 52/53-week fiscal year. The fiscal years ended June 24, 2018, and June 25, 2017, included 52 weeks. All quarters presented above included 13 weeks.
(2)
The comparability of our quarter ended December 24, 2017 was affected by a $757 million provisional charge associated with the December 2017 U.S. tax reform. During the quarter ended June 24, 2018, $116 million of this provisional charge was reversed.
Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations contains forward-looking statements, which are subject to risks, uncertainties, and changes in condition, significance, value, and effect. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including but not limited to those discussed in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this 2018 Form 10-K and other documents we file from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission. (See “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” in Part I of this 2018 Form 10-K.)
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) provides a description of our results of operations and should be read in conjunction with our Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this 2018 Form 10-K. MD&A consists of the following sections:
Executive Summary provides a summary of the key highlights of our results of operations and our management’s assessment of material trends and uncertainties relevant to our business.

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Results of Operations provides an analysis of operating results.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates discusses accounting policies that reflect the more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Liquidity and Capital Resources provides an analysis of cash flows, contractual obligations, and financial position.
Executive Summary
Lam Research is a global supplier of innovative wafer fabrication equipment and services to the semiconductor industry. We have built a strong global presence with core competencies in areas like nanoscale applications enablement, chemistry, plasma and fluidics, advanced systems engineering and a broad range of operational disciplines. Our products and services are designed to help our customers build smaller, faster, and better performing devices that are used in a variety of electronic products, including mobile phones, personal computers, servers, wearables, automotive devices, storage devices, and networking equipment. Our vision is to realize full value from natural technology extensions of our company.
Our customer base includes leading semiconductor memory, foundry, and integrated device manufacturers that make products such as NVM, DRAM memory, and logic devices. We aim to increase our strategic relevance with our customers by contributing more to their continued success. Our core technical competency is integrating hardware, process, materials, software, and process control enabling results on the wafer.
Semiconductor manufacturing, our customers’ business, involves the complete fabrication of multiple dies or integrated circuits on a wafer. This involves the repetition of a set of core processes and can require hundreds of individual steps. Fabricating these devices requires highly sophisticated process technologies to integrate an increasing array of new materials with precise control at the atomic scale. Along with meeting technical requirements, wafer processing equipment must deliver high productivity and be cost-effective.
Demand from the Cloud, IoT, and other markets is driving the need for increasingly powerful and cost-efficient semiconductors. At the same time, there are growing technical challenges with traditional scaling. These trends are driving significant inflections in semiconductor manufacturing, such as the increasing importance of vertical 3D scaling strategies as well as multiple patterning to enable shrinks.
We believe we are in a strong position with our leadership and competency in deposition, etch, and clean to facilitate some of the most significant innovations in semiconductor device manufacturing. Several factors create opportunity for sustainable differentiation for us: (i) our focus on research and development, with several on-going programs relating to sustaining engineering, product and process development, and concept and feasibility; (ii) our ability to effectively leverage cycles of learning from our broad installed base; (iii) our collaborative focus with ecosystem partners; and (iv) focus on delivering our multi-product solutions with a goal to enhance the value of Lam’s solutions to our customers.
During the most recent fiscal year, demand for our products improved as semiconductor device manufacturers made technology and capacity investments. Over the longer term, we believe that our technology inflections in our industry, including 3D device scaling, multiple patterning process flow, and advanced packaging/chip integration will lead to an increase in our served addressable market for our products and services in deposition, etch, and clean. While there could be variability in the near-term, we believe that demand for our products and services will increase faster than overall spending on wafer fabrication equipment, as the proportion of customers’ capital expenditures rises in these technology inflection areas, and we target to gain market share.
We acquired the outstanding shares of Coventor, Inc. (“Coventor”), a privately-held company, on August 28, 2017, as further discussed in Note 19 of our Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Part II, Item 8 of this 2018 Form 10-K. The results of the acquired business are included in our Consolidated Financial Statements.

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The following summarizes certain key financial information for the periods indicated below:
 
Year Ended
 
 Change
June 24,
2018
 
June 25,
2017
 
June 26,
2016
 
FY18 vs. FY17
 
FY17 vs. FY16
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands, except per share data and percentages)
Revenue
$
11,076,998

 
$
8,013,620

 
$
5,885,893

 
$
3,063,378

 
38.2
%
 
$
2,127,727

 
36.1
%
Gross margin
$
5,165,032

 
$
3,603,359

 
$
2,618,922

 
$
1,561,673

 
43.3
%
 
$
984,437

 
37.6
%
Gross margin as a percent of total revenue
46.6
%
 
45.0
%
 
44.5
%
 
1.6%
 
0.5%
Total operating expenses
$
1,951,733

 
$
1,701,227

 
$
1,544,666

 
$
250,506

 
14.7
%
 
$
156,561

 
10.1
%
Net income
$
2,380,681

 
$
1,697,763

 
$
914,049

 
$
682,918

 
40.2
%
 
$
783,714

 
85.7
%
Net income per diluted share
$
13.17

 
$
9.24

 
$
5.22

 
$
3.93

 
42.5
%
 
$
4.02

 
77.0
%
Revenues in fiscal year 2018 increased 38% compared to fiscal year 2017, and revenues in fiscal year 2017 increased 36% compared to fiscal year 2016, reflecting an increase in technology and capacity investments by our customers.
The increase in gross margin as a percentage of revenue for fiscal year 2018 compared to fiscal year 2017 was primarily due to favorable margin mix and higher revenue.
Fiscal year 2017 gross margin as a percentage of revenue compared to fiscal year 2016 improved primarily due to higher revenue and improved factory utilization resulting from higher production volume.
Operating expenses in fiscal year 2018 increased as compared to fiscal years 2017 and 2016 primarily as a result of higher employee headcount and increased investment in research and development.
Our cash and cash equivalents, investments, and restricted cash and investments balances totaled approximately $5.2 billion as of June 24, 2018, compared to $6.3 billion as of June 25, 2017. Cash flow provided from operating activities was $2.7 billion for fiscal year 2018 compared to $2.0 billion for fiscal year 2017. Cash flow provided from operating activities in fiscal 2018 was primarily used for $2.7 billion in treasury stock purchases, $396 million in net principal payments on debt, $308 million in dividends paid to our stockholders, and $273 million of capital expenditures and are partially offset by $85 million of treasury stock reissuance and Common Stock issuance resulting from our employee equity-based compensation programs.
Results of Operations
Shipments and Backlog
Shipments for fiscal year 2018 were approximately $11.2 billion, an increase of 30% compared to fiscal year 2017. Shipments for fiscal year 2017 were approximately $8.6 billion, an increase of 46% compared to fiscal year 2016. The increase in shipments during the fiscal year 2018 as compared to the last two fiscal years is related to stronger customer demand.

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Year Ended
June 24,
2018
 
June 25,
2017
 
June 26,
2016
Shipments (in millions)
$
11,176

 
$
8,586

 
$
5,901

Korea
33
%
 
32
%
 
17
%
Japan
19
%
 
15
%
 
16
%
China
16
%
 
13
%
 
20
%
Taiwan
13
%
 
24
%
 
25
%
United States
7
%
 
8
%
 
8
%
Southeast Asia
7
%
 
4
%
 
11
%
Europe
5
%
 
4
%
 
3
%
The percentage of total Lam semiconductor processing system shipments to each of the markets we serve were as follows for fiscal years 2018, 2017, and 2016. 
 
Year Ended
June 24,
2018
 
June 25,
2017
 
June 26,
2016
Memory
78
%
 
67
%
 
68
%
Foundry
14
%
 
27
%
 
23
%
Logic/integrated device manufacturing
8
%
 
6
%
 
9
%
Our shipments to memory customers during the fiscal year 2018 increased primarily due to higher levels of investments from our DRAM and NAND customers. Our shipments to foundry customers decreased during the fiscal year 2018 primarily due to decreased investments in leading and trailing edge technology applications from our foundry customers.
Unshipped orders in backlog as of June 24, 2018, were approximately $2.0 billion, a slight decrease from approximately $2.1 billion as of June 25, 2017. Our unshipped orders backlog includes orders for systems, spares, and services. Please refer to “Backlog” in Part I, Item 1, “Business” of this 2018 Form 10-K for a description of our policies for adding to and adjusting backlog.
Revenue
 
Year Ended
June 24,
2018
 
June 25,
2017
 
June 26,
2016
Revenue (in millions)
$
11,077

 
$
8,014

 
$
5,886

Korea
35
%
 
31
%
 
18
%
Japan
17
%
 
13
%
 
17
%
China
16
%
 
13
%
 
18
%
Taiwan
13
%
 
26
%
 
25
%
United States
7
%
 
8
%
 
8
%
Southeast Asia
7
%
 
5
%
 
10
%
Europe
5
%
 
4
%
 
4
%
The revenue increases in fiscal year 2018 compared to the last two fiscal years and in fiscal year 2017 compared to fiscal year 2016, reflect an increase in technology and capacity investments by our customers. Our revenue levels are generally correlated to the amount of shipments and our installation and acceptance timelines. The overall Asia region continued to account for a majority of our revenues as a substantial amount of the worldwide capacity additions for semiconductor manufacturing continued to occur in this region.

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Our deferred revenue balance was $994 million as of June 24, 2018, compared to $966 million as of June 25, 2017. As noted in Note 3 to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this 2018 Form 10-K, the adoption of accounting standard update 2014-09 is expected to result in a net decrease, estimated between $100 million and $200 million, to our total current liabilities balance, affecting our deferred revenue, deferred costs and resulting deferred profit recognition. Our deferred revenue balance does not include shipments to Japanese customers, to whom title does not transfer until customer acceptance. Shipments to Japanese customers are classified as inventory at cost until the time of customer acceptance. The anticipated future revenue value from shipments to Japanese customers was approximately $607 million as of June 24, 2018, compared to $397 million as of June 25, 2017.
Gross Margin
 
Year Ended
 
Change
June 24,
2018
 
June 25,
2017
 
June 26,
2016
FY18 vs. FY17
 
FY17 vs. FY16
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
Gross margin
$
5,165,032

 
$
3,603,359

 
$
2,618,922

 
$
1,561,673

 
43.3
%
 
$
984,437

 
37.6
%
Percent of revenue
46.6
%
 
45.0
%
 
44.5
%
 
1.6%
 
0.5%
The increase in gross margin as a percentage of revenue for fiscal year 2018 compared to fiscal year 2017 was primarily due to favorable margin mix and higher revenue.
The increase in gross margin as a percentage of revenue for fiscal year 2017 compared to fiscal year 2016 was primarily due to higher revenue and improved factory utilization resulting from higher production volume.
Research and Development
 
Year Ended
 
Change
June 24,
2018
 
June 25,
2017
 
June 26,
2016
FY18 vs. FY17
 
FY17 vs. FY16
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
Research & development
$
1,189,514

 
$
1,033,742

 
$
913,712

 
$
155,772

 
15.1
%
 
$
120,030

 
13.1
%
Percent of revenue
10.7
%
 
12.9
%
 
15.5
%
 
(2.2)%
 
(2.6)%
We continued to make significant R&D investments focused on leading-edge deposition, etch, clean, and other semiconductor manufacturing requirements. The increase in R&D expense during fiscal year 2018 compared to fiscal year 2017 was primarily due to an $88 million increase in employee compensation and benefits related to increased headcount, a $24 million increase in supplies, and a $23 million increase in outside services and miscellaneous expenses.
The increase in R&D expense during fiscal year 2017 compared to fiscal year 2016 was primarily due to an $80 million increase in employee compensation and benefits related to increased headcount, a $20 million increase in depreciation and lab maintenance, a $9 million increase in outside services, and a $7 million increase in supplies.

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Selling, General, and Administrative
 
Year Ended
 
Change
June 24,
2018
 
June 25,
2017
 
June 26,
2016
FY18 vs. FY17
 
FY17 vs. FY16
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
Selling, general, and administrative
$
762,219

 
$
667,485

 
$
630,954

 
$
94,734

 
14.2
%
 
$
36,531

 
5.8
%
Percent of revenue
6.9
%
 
8.3
%
 
10.7
%
 
(1.4)%
 
(2.4)%
The increase in selling, general, and administrative (“SG&A”) expense during fiscal year 2018 compared to fiscal year 2017 was primarily due to a $44 million increase in employee compensation and benefits from increased headcount, a $28 million increase in outside services, and a $15 million increase in rent, utilities and repairs.
The increase in SG&A expense during fiscal year 2017 compared to fiscal year 2016 was primarily due to a $36 million increase in employee compensation and benefits from increased headcount, a $15 million gain from sale of assets in fiscal year 2016, and a $14 million increase in outside services, offset by a $41 million decrease in acquisition-related costs associated with the terminated agreement with KLA-Tencor.
Other Expense, Net
Other expense, net, consisted of the following:
 
Year Ended
 
Change
June 24,
2018
 
June 25,
2017
 
June 26,
2016
FY18 vs. FY17
 
FY17 vs. FY16
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest income
$
85,813

 
$
57,858

 
$
29,512

 
$
27,955

 
48.3
 %
 
$
28,346

 
96.0
 %
Interest expense
(97,387
)
 
(117,734
)
 
(134,773
)
 
$
20,347

 
(17.3
)%
 
$
17,039

 
(12.7
)%
Gains (losses) on deferred compensation plan related assets, net
14,692

 
17,880

 
(3,995
)
 
$
(3,188
)
 
(17.8
)%
 
$
21,875

 
(547.6
)%
Loss on impairment of investments
(42,456
)
 

 

 
$
(42,456
)
 
100.0
 %
 
$

 
 %
Gains (losses) on extinguishment of debt, net
542

 
(36,252
)
 

 
$
36,794

 
(101.5
)%
 
$
(36,252
)
 
(100.0
)%
Foreign exchange (losses) gains, net
(3,382
)
 
(569
)
 
308

 
$
(2,813
)
 
494.4
 %
 
$
(877
)
 
(284.7
)%
Other, net
(19,332
)
 
(11,642
)
 
(5,191
)
 
$
(7,690
)
 
66.1
 %
 
$
(6,451
)
 
125.7
 %
 
$
(61,510
)
 
$
(90,459
)
 
$
(114,139
)
 
$
28,949

 
(32.0
)%
 
$
23,680

 
(20.7
)%
Interest income increased in fiscal year 2018 compared to fiscal years 2017 and 2016 primarily as a result of higher yield.
The decrease in interest expense during fiscal year 2018 compared to fiscal year 2017 was primarily due to the conversions of 2018 and 2041 Convertible Notes as well as the retirement of the 2018 Convertible Notes in May 2018. The decrease in interest expense during fiscal year 2017 compared to fiscal year 2016 was primarily due to the retirement of the 2016 Convertible Notes.
The gain on deferred compensation plan related assets, in fiscal years 2018 and 2017, compared to a loss in fiscal year 2016 was driven by an improvement in the fair market value of the underlying funds.

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The loss on impairment of investments during fiscal year 2018 is the result of a decision to sell selected investments held in foreign jurisdictions in connection with our cash repatriation strategy following the December 2017 U.S. tax reform.
Loss on extinguishment of debt during fiscal year 2017 related to the special mandatory redemption of certain senior notes issued, as well as the termination of the Amended and Restated Term Loan Agreement following the termination of the Agreement and Plan of Merger and Reorganization with KLA-Tencor.
Income Tax Expense
As discussed in Note 6, “Income Taxes,” to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this 2018 Form 10-K, the “Tax Cuts & Jobs Act” (hereafter referred to as “U.S. tax reform”) was signed into law on December 22, 2017 and was effective starting in our quarter ended December 24, 2017. U.S. tax reform reduces the U.S. federal statutory tax rate from 35% to 21%, mandates payment of a one-time transition tax on earnings of certain foreign subsidiaries that were previously tax deferred, and creates new taxes on certain foreign sourced earnings. The impact on income taxes due to a change in legislation is required under the authoritative guidance of Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 740, Income Taxes, to be recognized in the period in which the law is enacted. In conjunction, the SEC issued Staff Accounting Bulletin (“SAB”) 118, which allows for the recording of provisional amounts related to U.S. tax reform and subsequent adjustments related to U.S. tax reform during an up to one-year measurement period that is similar to the measurement period used when accounting for business combinations. As such, there is significant activity in the fiscal year ended June 24, 2018, which reflects the change in legislation. Most of that activity has provisionally been recorded in our Consolidated Financial Statements in the period ended June 24, 2018, as we have not yet completed all of the accounting for the tax effects of enactment. We recorded what we believe to be a reasonable estimate and the provisional activity is subject to further adjustments under SAB 118, with the exception of revaluation of our deferred tax balances to reflect the new U.S. federal statutory tax rate, which is considered final and complete under SAB 118. In addition, for significant items for which we could not make a reasonable estimate, no provisional activity was recorded. We will continue to refine the provisional balances and adjustments may be made under SAB 118 during the measurement period as a result of future changes in interpretation, information available, assumptions made by the Company and/or issuance of additional guidance; these adjustments could be material.
The below discussion around the provision for income taxes and effective tax rate are significantly impacted by U.S. tax reform.
Our provision for income taxes and effective tax rate for the periods indicated were as follows:
 
Year Ended
 
Change
June 24,
2018
 
June 25,
2017
 
June 26,
2016
FY18 vs. FY17
 
FY17 vs. FY16
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income tax expense
$
771,108

 
$
113,910

 
$
46,068

 
$
657,198

 
576.9
%
 
$
67,842

 
147.3
%
Effective tax rate
24.5
%
 
6.3
%
 
4.8
%
 
18.2%
 
1.5%

The increase in the effective tax rate in fiscal year 2018 as compared to fiscal year 2017 was primarily due to the impact of U.S. tax reform and its mandated one-time transition tax on accumulated unrepatriated foreign earnings.

The increase in the effective tax rate in fiscal year 2017 as compared to fiscal year 2016 was primarily due to the change in the mix of income offset by the recognition of previously unrecognized tax benefits.

In July 2015, the U.S. Tax Court issued an opinion favorable to Altera Corporation (“Altera”) with respect to Altera’s litigation with the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”). The litigation related to the treatment of stock-based compensation expense in an intercompany cost-sharing arrangement with Altera’s foreign subsidiary. In its opinion, the U.S. Tax Court accepted Altera’s position of excluding stock-based compensation from its intercompany cost-sharing arrangement. In July 2018, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit reversed the 2015 decision of the U.S. Tax Court. In August 2018, the opinion made by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit was withdrawn to allow time for a reconstituted panel to confer on the appeal. We are currently

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evaluating the impact, if any, of these subsequent events on our fiscal year 2019 Consolidated Financial Statements. We are unable to estimate the impact at this time.

International revenues account for a significant portion of our total revenues, such that a material portion of our pre-tax income is earned and taxed outside the United States at rates that are generally lower than in the United States. Additionally, the impact of U.S. tax reform is being evaluated for how it will affect future years’ tax expense due to tax reform provisions that we will be subject to beginning in fiscal year 2019. Tax reform provisions being evaluated impacting future years include “Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income” (“GILTI”) and other provisions. Please refer to Note 6 of our Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this 2018 Form 10-K.
Deferred Income Taxes
Deferred income taxes reflect the net tax effect of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax purposes, as well as the tax effect of carryforwards. Our gross deferred tax assets were $437 million and $546 million at the end of fiscal years 2018 and 2017, respectively. These gross deferred tax assets were offset by gross deferred tax liabilities of $169 million and $585 million at the end of fiscal years 2018 and 2017, respectively, and a valuation allowance of $200 million and $114 million at the end of fiscal years 2018 and 2017, respectively. The change in the gross deferred tax assets, gross deferred tax liabilities, and valuation allowance between fiscal year 2018 and 2017 is primarily due to deferred revaluation to reflect the new U.S. statutory tax rate and decreases related to allowances and reserves, prepaid cost sharing, and unremitted earnings of foreign subsidiaries.
As of our fiscal year ended June 24, 2018, we continue to record a valuation allowance to offset the entire California deferred tax asset balance due to the single sales factor apportionment election resulting in lower taxable income in California. The valuation allowances were $200 million and $114 million at the end of fiscal years 2018 and 2017, respectively.

We evaluate if the deferred tax assets are realizable on a quarterly basis and will continue to assess the need for changes in valuation allowances, if any.
Uncertain Tax Positions
We re-evaluate uncertain tax positions on a quarterly basis. This evaluation is based on factors including, but not limited to, changes in facts or circumstances, changes in tax law, effectively settled issues under audit, and new audit activity. Any change in recognition or measurement would result in the recognition of a tax benefit or an additional charge to the tax provision.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
A critical accounting policy is defined as one that has both a material impact on our financial condition and results of operations and requires us to make difficult, complex and/or subjective judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates about matters that are inherently uncertain. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) requires management to make certain judgments, estimates and assumptions that could affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. We base our estimates and assumptions on historical experience and on various other assumptions we believe to be applicable and evaluate them on an ongoing basis to ensure they remain reasonable under current conditions. Actual results could differ significantly from those estimates, which could have a material impact on our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Our critical accounting estimates include:

the recognition and valuation of revenue from multiple-element arrangements, which impacts revenue;
the valuation of inventory, which impacts gross margin;
the valuation of warranty reserves, which impacts gross margin;
the valuation of equity-based compensation expense, including forfeiture estimates, which impacts both gross margin and operating expenses;
the recognition and measurement of current and deferred income taxes, including the measurement of uncertain tax positions, which impact our provision for income tax expenses; and

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the valuation and recoverability of long-lived assets, which impacts gross margin and operating expenses when we record asset impairments or accelerate their depreciation or amortization.
We believe that the following critical accounting policies reflect the more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements regarding the critical accounting estimates indicated above. See Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” of our Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this 2018 Form 10-K for additional information regarding our accounting policies.
Revenue Recognition: We recognize revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred and title has passed or services have been rendered, the selling price is fixed or determinable, collection of the receivable is reasonably assured, and we have received customer acceptance or are otherwise released from our customer acceptance obligations. If terms of the sale provide for a lapsing customer acceptance period, we recognize revenue upon the expiration of the lapsing acceptance period or customer acceptance, whichever occurs first. If the practices of a customer do not provide for a written acceptance or the terms of sale do not include a lapsing acceptance provision, we recognize revenue when it can be reliably demonstrated that the delivered system meets all of the agreed-to customer specifications. In situations with multiple deliverables, we recognize revenue upon the delivery of the separate elements to the customer and when we receive customer acceptance or are otherwise released from our customer acceptance obligations. We allocate revenue from multiple-element arrangements among the separate elements using their relative selling prices, based on our best estimate of selling price. Our sales arrangements do not include a general right of return. The maximum revenue recognized on a delivered element is limited to the amount that is not contingent upon the delivery of additional items. We generally recognize revenue related to sales of spare parts and system upgrade kits upon shipment. We generally recognize revenue related to services upon completion of the services requested by a customer order. We recognize revenue for extended maintenance service contracts with a fixed payment amount on a straight-line basis over the term of the contract. When goods or services have been delivered to the customer, but all conditions for revenue recognition have not been met, deferred revenue and deferred costs are recorded in deferred profit on our Consolidated Balance Sheet.
Inventory Valuation: Our policy is to assess the valuation of all inventories including manufacturing raw materials, work-in-process, finished goods, and spare parts in each reporting period. Obsolete inventory or inventory in excess of management’s estimated usage requirement is written down to its estimated net realizable value if less than cost. Estimates of market value include but are not limited to management’s forecasts related to our future manufacturing schedules, customer demand, technological and/or market obsolescence, general semiconductor market conditions, and possible alternative uses. If future customer demand or market conditions are less favorable than our projections, additional inventory write-downs may be required and would be reflected in cost of goods sold in the period in which we make the revision.
Warranty: We record a provision for estimated warranty expenses to cost of sales for each system when we recognize revenue. We periodically monitor the performance and cost of warranty activities, if actual costs incurred are different than our estimates, we may recognize adjustments to provisions in the period in which those differences arise or are identified. We do not maintain general or unspecified reserves; all warranty reserves are related to specific systems.
Equity-based Compensation: Employee Stock Plans: We determine the fair value of our restricted stock units (“RSUs”), excluding market-based performance RSUs, based upon the fair market value of our Common Stock at the date of grant, discounted for dividends. We estimate the fair value of our market-based performance RSUs using a Monte Carlo simulation model at the date of the grant. We amortize the fair value of equity-based awards over the vesting periods of the award and we have elected to use the straight-line method of amortization. We estimate expected equity award forfeitures based on historical forfeiture rate activity and expected future employee turnover. We recognize the effect of adjustments made to the forfeiture rate, if any in the period that we change the forfeiture estimate.
Income Taxes: Deferred income taxes reflect the net tax effect of temporary differences between the carrying amount of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax purposes, as well as the tax effect of carryforwards. We record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. Realization of our net deferred tax assets is dependent on future taxable income. We believe it is more likely than not that such assets will be realized; however, ultimate

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realization could be negatively impacted by market conditions and other variables not known or anticipated at this time. In the event that we determined that we will not be able to realize all or part of our net deferred tax assets, an adjustment will be charged to earnings in the period such determination was made. Likewise, if we later determined that it is more likely than not that the deferred tax assets will be realized, then the previously provided valuation allowance would be reversed.
We recognize the benefit from a tax position only if it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon audit based solely on the technical merits of the tax position. Our policy is to include interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits as a component of income tax expense.
Long-lived Assets: We review goodwill at least annually for impairment. If certain events or indicators of impairment occur between annual impairment tests, we will perform an impairment test at that date. In testing for a potential impairment of goodwill, we: (1) allocate goodwill to the reporting units to which the acquired goodwill relates; (2) estimate the fair value of our reporting units; and (3) determine the carrying value (book value) of those reporting units. Prior to this allocation of the assets to the reporting units, we assess long-lived assets for impairment. Furthermore, if the estimated fair value of a reporting unit is less than the carrying value, we must estimate the fair value of all identifiable assets and liabilities of that reporting unit, in a manner similar to a purchase price allocation for an acquired business. This can require independent valuations of certain internally generated and unrecognized intangible assets such as in-process R&D and developed technology. Only after this process is completed can the amount of goodwill impairment, if any, be determined. In our goodwill impairment process we first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is necessary to perform a quantitative analysis. We do not calculate the fair value of a reporting unit unless we determine, based on a qualitative assessment, that it is more likely than not that the reporting unit’s fair value is less than its carrying amount.
The process of evaluating the potential impairment of goodwill is subjective and requires significant judgment at many points during the analysis. We determine the fair value of our reporting units by using an income approach. Under the income approach, we determine fair value based on estimated future cash flows of each reporting unit, discounted by an estimated weighted-average cost of capital, which reflects the overall level of inherent risk of a reporting unit and the rate of return an outside investor would expect to earn.
In estimating the fair value of a reporting unit, we make estimates and judgments about the future cash flows of our reporting units, including estimated growth rates and assumptions about the economic environment. Although our cash flow forecasts are based on assumptions that are consistent with the plans and estimates we are using to manage the underlying businesses, there is significant judgment involved in determining the cash flows attributable to a reporting unit. In addition, we make certain judgments about allocating shared assets to the estimated balance sheets of our reporting units. Changes in judgment on these assumptions and estimates could result in a goodwill impairment charge.
As a result, several factors could result in an impairment of a material amount of our goodwill balance in future periods, including but not limited to: (1) weakening of the global economy, weakness in the semiconductor equipment industry, or our failure to reach internal forecasts, which could impact our ability to achieve our forecasted levels of cash flows and reduce the estimated discounted cash flow value of our reporting units; and (2) a decline in our Common Stock price and resulting market capitalization, to the extent we determine that the decline is sustained and indicates a reduction in the fair value of our reporting units below their carrying value. Further, the value assigned to intangible assets, other than goodwill, is based on estimates and judgments regarding expectations such as the success and lifecycle of products and technology acquired. If actual product acceptance differs significantly from the estimates, we may be required to record an impairment charge to write down the asset to its realizable value.

For other long-lived assets, we routinely consider whether indicators of impairment are present. If such indicators are present, we determine whether the sum of the estimated undiscounted cash flows attributable to the assets is less than their carrying value. If the sum is less, we recognize an impairment loss based on the excess of the carrying amount of the assets over their respective fair values. Fair value is determined by discounted future cash flows, appraisals or other methods. We recognize an impairment charge to the extent the present value of anticipated net cash flows attributable to the asset are less than the asset’s carrying value. The fair value of the asset then becomes the asset’s new carrying value, which we depreciate over the remaining estimated useful life of the asset. Assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value.

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Recent Accounting Pronouncements
For a description of recent accounting pronouncements, including the expected dates of adoption and estimated effects, if any, on our consolidated financial statements, see Note 3, “Recent Accounting Pronouncements,” of our Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part II, Item 8 of this 2018 Form 10-K.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Total gross cash, cash equivalents, investments, and restricted cash and investments balances were $5.2 billion at the end of fiscal year 2018 compared to $6.3 billion at the end of fiscal year 2017. This decrease was primarily due to Common Stock repurchases in connection with our stock repurchase program. Approximately $4.1 billion and $4.8 billion of our total cash and investments as of June 24, 2018, and June 25, 2017, respectively, was held outside the United States in our foreign subsidiaries, the majority of which was held in U.S. dollars. U.S. taxes have already been provided for due to U.S. tax reform as discussed in Note 6 of our Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part II, Item 8 of this 2018 Form 10-K.
Cash Flow from Operating Activities
Net cash provided by operating activities of $2.7 billion during fiscal year 2018 consisted of (in millions):
Net income
$
2,381

Non-cash charges:
 
Depreciation and amortization
326

Equity-based compensation expense
172

Deferred income taxes
3

Impairment of investments
42

Amortization of note discounts and issuance costs
14

Changes in operating asset and liability accounts
(317
)
Other
35

 
$
2,656

Significant changes in operating asset and liability accounts, net of foreign exchange impact, included the following uses of cash: increases in inventories of $701 million, accounts receivable of $502 million, and prepaid expenses and other assets of $14 million, partially offset by the following sources of cash: increases in accrued expenses and other liabilities of $752 million, deferred profit of $112 million, and accounts payable of $36 million.
Cash Flow from Investing Activities
Net cash provided by investing activities during fiscal year 2018 was $2.7 billion, primarily consisting of net sale and maturities of available-for-sale securities of $3.2 billion, partially offset by capital expenditures of $273 million and business acquisitions of $116 million.
Cash Flow from Financing Activities
Net cash used by financing activities during fiscal year 2018 was $3.3 billion, primarily consisting of $2.7 billion in Common Stock repurchases, $756 million of cash paid for debt extinguishment, and $308 million of dividends paid, partially offset by $360 million of net proceeds from issuance of commercial paper, and $85 million of stock issuance and treasury stock reissuances associated with our employee stock-based compensation plans.
Liquidity
Given that the semiconductor industry is highly competitive and has historically experienced rapid changes in demand, we believe that maintaining sufficient liquidity reserves is important to support sustaining levels of investment in R&D and capital infrastructure. Anticipated cash flows from operations based on our current business outlook, combined with our current levels of cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments as of June 24, 2018, are expected to be sufficient to support our anticipated levels of operations, investments, debt service requirements, capital expenditures, capital redistributions, and dividends through at least the next twelve months. However, uncertainty in the global economy and the semiconductor industry, as well as disruptions in

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credit markets, have in the past, and could in the future, impact customer demand for our products, as well as our ability to manage normal commercial relationships with our customers, suppliers, and creditors.
In the longer term, liquidity will depend to a great extent on our future revenues and our ability to appropriately manage our costs based on demand for our products and services. While we have substantial cash balances, we may require additional funding and need or choose to raise the required funds through borrowings or public or private sales of debt or equity securities. We believe that, if necessary, we will be able to access the capital markets on terms and in amounts adequate to meet our objectives. However, given the possibility of changes in market conditions or other occurrences, there can be no assurance that such funding will be available in needed quantities or on terms favorable to us.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements and Contractual Obligations
We have certain obligations to make future payments under various contracts, some of which are recorded on our balance sheet and some of which are not. Obligations that are recorded on our balance sheet in accordance with GAAP include our long-term debt which is outlined in the following table. Our off-balance sheet arrangements are presented as operating leases and purchase obligations in the table. Our contractual obligations and commitments as of June 24, 2018, relating to these agreements and our guarantees are included in the following table based on their contractual maturity date.
The amounts in the table below exclude $280 million of liabilities related to uncertain tax benefits as we are unable to reasonably estimate the ultimate amount or time of settlement. See Note 6 of our Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this 2018 Form 10-K for further discussion. The amounts in the table below also exclude $14 million associated with funding commitments related to non-marketable equity investments as we are unable to make a reasonable estimate regarding the timing of capital calls.
 
Total
 
Less than
1 Year
 
1-3 Years
 
3-5 Years
 
More than
5 Years
 
(in thousands)
Operating leases
$
74,343

 
$
22,117

 
$
32,635

 
$
8,556

 
$
11,035

Capital leases
64,116

 
3,948

 
9,345

 
13,116

 
37,707

Purchase obligations
372,226

 
353,295

 
12,317

 
6,452

 
162

Long-term debt and interest expense (1)
2,513,556

 
61,736

 
1,404,664

 
51,173

 
995,983

One-time transition tax on accumulated unrepatriated foreign earnings (2)
882,995

 
70,640

 
141,279

 
141,279

 
529,797

Other long-term liabilities (3)
90,629

 
5,280

 
12,898

 
6,104

 
66,347

Total
$
3,997,865

 
$
517,016

 
$
1,613,138

 
$
226,680

 
$
1,641,031

  __________________________________
(1)
The conversion period for the 2.625% Convertible Senior Notes due May 2041 (the “2041 Notes”) was open as of June 24, 2018, and as such the net carrying value of the 2041 Notes is included within current liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheet. The principal balances of the 2041 Notes are reflected in the payment period in the table above based on the contractual maturity assuming no conversion. See Note 13 of our Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this 2018 Form 10-K for additional information concerning the 2041 Notes and associated conversion features.
(2)
Value represented is provisional in nature and subject to future measurement period adjustments under SAB 118. We may choose to apply existing tax credits, thereby reducing the actual cash payment.
(3)
Certain tax-related liabilities and post-retirement benefits classified as other non-current liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheet are included in the “More than 5 Years” category due to the uncertainty in the timing and amount of future payments. Additionally, the balance excludes contractual obligations recorded in our Consolidated Balance Sheet as current liabilities.
Operating Leases
We lease most of our administrative, R&D, and manufacturing facilities; regional sales/service offices; and certain equipment under non-cancelable operating leases. Certain of our facility leases for buildings located in

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Fremont and Livermore, California; Tualatin, Oregon; and certain other facility leases provide us with an option to extend the leases for additional periods or to purchase the facilities. Certain of our facility leases provide for periodic rent increases based on the general rate of inflation. In addition to amounts included in the table above, we have guaranteed residual values for certain of our Fremont and Livermore facility leases of up to $250 million. See Note 15 to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this 2018 Form 10-K for further discussion.
Capital Leases
Capital leases reflect building and office equipment lease obligations. The amounts in the table above include the interest portion of payment obligations.
Purchase Obligations
Purchase obligations consist of significant contractual obligations either on an annual basis or over multi-year periods related to our outsourcing activities or other material commitments, including vendor-consigned inventories. The contractual cash obligations and commitments table presented above contains our minimum obligations at June 24, 2018, under these arrangements and others. For obligations with cancellation provisions, the amounts included in the preceding table were limited to the non-cancelable portion of the agreement terms or the minimum cancellation fee. Actual expenditures will vary based on the volume of transactions and length of contractual service provided.
Income Taxes
During the December 2017 quarter, a one-time transition tax on accumulated unrepatriated foreign earnings, estimated at $991 million, was recognized associated with the December 2017 U.S. tax reform. This value is identified as provisional in our Consolidated Financial Statements for the period ended June 24, 2018, and is subject to future measurement period adjustments under SAB 118. Such an adjustment was made during the June 2018 quarter, incorporating new information into the estimate; we may make further adjustments as new information is made available. The revised estimate is now $883 million. The one-time transition tax may be elected to be paid over a period of eight years. The Company intends to make this election, and anticipates 8% of the transition tax to be paid each September 15 for years 2018 through 2022, and 15%, 20%, and 25%, respectively, to be paid each September 15 for years 2023 through 2025.
Long-Term Debt
In May 2011, we issued and sold $450 million in aggregate principal amount of 1.25% Convertible Senior Notes due May 2018 (the “2018 Notes”) at par. The 2018 Notes matured in May 2018. Concurrent with the issuance of the 2018 Notes, we purchased convertible note hedges and sold warrants, which were structured to reduce the potential future economic dilution associated with the conversion of the 2018 Notes.
During the twelve months ended June 24, 2018 we paid approximately $448 million in settlement of the 2018 Notes. We did not issue any shares of our Common Stock in respect of the 2018 Notes on a net basis as a result of our exercise of the convertible note hedge we purchased concurrently with the issuance of the 2018 Notes. The maturity of the 2018 Notes did not affect the warrants sold concurrent with the issuance of the 2018 Notes and those warrants remain outstanding, with contractual expirations ranging from August 15 to October 24, 2018.
In June 2012, with the acquisition of Novellus, we assumed $700 million in aggregate principal amount of 2.625% Convertible Senior Notes due May 2041. We pay cash interest on the 2041 Notes at an annual rate of 2.625%, on a semi-annual basis. The 2041 Notes may be converted, under certain circumstances, into our Common Stock.
During the quarter-ended June 24, 2018, the market value of our Common Stock was greater than or equal to 130% of the 2041 Notes conversion prices for 20 or more trading days of the 30 consecutive trading days preceding the quarter end. As a result, the 2041 Notes are convertible at the option of the holder and are classified as current liabilities in our Consolidated Balance Sheets for fiscal year 2018.
On March 12, 2015, we completed a public offering of $500 million aggregate principal amount of Senior Notes due March 15, 2020 (the “2020 Notes”) and $500 million aggregate principal amount of Senior Notes due

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March 15, 2025 (the “2025 Notes”). We pay interest at an annual rate of 2.75% and 3.80%, respectively, on the 2020 Notes and 2025 Notes, on a semi-annual basis on March 15 and September 15 of each year.
We may redeem the 2020 Notes and 2025 Notes at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of such series (“par”), plus a “make whole” premium as described in the indenture in respect to the 2020 Notes and 2025 Notes and accrued and unpaid interest before February 15, 2020, for the 2020 Notes and before December 15, 2024, for the 2025 Notes. We may redeem the 2020 Notes and 2025 Notes at par, plus accrued and unpaid interest, at any time on or after February 15, 2020, for the 2020 Notes and on or after December 24, 2024, for the 2025 Notes. In addition, upon the occurrence of certain events, as described in the indenture, we will be required to make an offer to repurchase the 2020 Notes and 2025 Notes at a price equal to 101% of the principal amount of the respective note, plus accrued and unpaid interest.
On June 7, 2016, we completed a public offering of $800.0 million aggregate principal amount of Senior Notes due June 15, 2021, (the “2021 Notes”), together with the 2020 Notes, and 2021 Notes, the “Senior Notes”, and collectively with the Convertible Notes, the “Notes”). We pay interest at an annual rate of 2.80% on the 2021 Notes on a semi-annual basis on June 15 and December 15 of each year.
We may redeem the 2021 Notes at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of such series (“par”), plus a “make whole” premium as described in the respective indenture, and accrued and unpaid interest before May 15, 2021. We may redeem the 2021 Notes at par, plus accrued and unpaid interest at any time on or after May 15, 2021. In addition, upon the occurrence of certain events, as described in the indenture, we will be required to make an offer to repurchase the 2021 Notes, at a price equal to 101% of the principal amount of the respective note, plus accrued and unpaid interest.
During fiscal year 2018, 2017, and 2016, we made $753 million, $1.7 billion, and $451 million, respectively, in principal payments on long-term debt and capital leases.
Revolving Credit Arrangements
On October 13, 2017, we entered into Amendment No. 2 to Amended and Restated Credit Agreement (the “2nd Amendment”), among the Company, the lenders party thereto and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as administrative agent, which amends the Company’s Amended and Restated Credit Agreement dated as of November 10, 2015, by and among the Company, the lenders party thereto and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as administrative agent, Amendment No. 1 to Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated as of April 26, 2016, among the Company, the lenders party thereto and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as administrative agent (as further amended by the 2nd Amendment, the “Amended Credit Agreement”).
Among other things, the Amended Credit Agreement provides for a $500 million increase to the Company’s revolving credit facility, from $750 million under the Credit Agreement to $1.25 billion under the Amended Credit Agreement. The Amended Credit Agreement also modifies the date of maturity of the revolving credit facility from November 10, 2020 to October 13, 2022. The Amended Credit Agreement provides an expansion option, that will allow the Company, subject to certain requirements, to request an increase in the facility of up to an additional $600 million, for a potential total commitment of $1.85 billion. Other than as disclosed in this paragraph, the material terms of the Amended Credit Agreement are substantially the same as the Credit Agreement.
Interest on amounts borrowed under the credit facility is, at our option, based on (1) a base rate, defined as the greatest of (a) prime rate, (b) Federal Funds rate plus 0.5%, or (c) one-month London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) plus 1.0%, plus a spread of 0.0% to 0.5%, or (2) LIBOR multiplied by the statutory reserve rate, plus a spread of 0.9% to 1.5%, in each case as the applicable spread is determined based on the rating of our non-credit enhanced, senior unsecured long-term debt. Principal and any accrued and unpaid interest is due and payable upon maturity. Additionally, we will pay the lenders a quarterly commitment fee that varies based on our credit rating. The Amended Credit Agreement contains affirmative covenants, negative covenants, financial covenants, and events of default. As of June 24, 2018, we had no borrowings outstanding under the Amended Credit Agreement and were in compliance with all financial covenants.

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Commercial Paper Program
On November 13, 2017, we established a commercial paper program (“the CP Program”) under which we may issue unsecured commercial paper notes on a private placement basis up to a maximum aggregate amount outstanding at any time of $1.25 billion. Individual maturities may vary, but cannot not exceed 397 days from the date of issue. The net proceeds from the CP Program will be used for general corporate purposes, including repurchases of our Common Stock from time to time and under our stock repurchase program. If at any time, funds are not available under favorable terms under the CP Program, we may utilize the Amended Credit Agreement for funding. Amounts available under the CP Program may be re-borrowed. The CP Program is backstopped by our Revolving Credit Arrangement.
Other Guarantees
We have issued certain indemnifications to our lessors for taxes and general liability under some of our agreements. We have entered into certain insurance contracts that may limit our exposure to such indemnifications. As of June 24, 2018, we had not recorded any liability on our Consolidated Financial Statements in connection with these indemnifications, as we do not believe, based on information available, that it is probable that we will pay any amounts under these guarantees.
Generally, we indemnify, under pre-determined conditions and limitations, our customers for infringement of third-party intellectual property rights by our products or services. We seek to limit our liability for such indemnity to an amount not to exceed the sales price of the products or services subject to our indemnification obligations. We do not believe, based on information available, that it is probable that we will pay any material amounts under these guarantees.
We provide guarantees and standby letters of credit to certain parties as required for certain transactions initiated during the ordinary course of business. As of June 24, 2018, the maximum potential amount of future payments that we could be required to make under these arrangements and letters of credit was $22 million. We do not believe, based on historical experience and information currently available, that it is probable that any amounts will be required to be paid.

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Item 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Investments
We maintain an investment portfolio of various holdings, types, and maturities. As of June 24, 2018, our mutual funds are classified as trading securities. Investments classified as trading securities are recorded at fair value based upon quoted market prices. Any material differences between the cost and fair value of trading securities is recognized as “Other income (expense)” in our Consolidated Statement of Operations. All of our other investments are classified as available-for-sale and consequently are recorded in the Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value with unrealized gains or losses reported as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income, net of tax.
Interest Rate Risk
Fixed-Income Securities
Our investments in various interest-earning securities carry a degree of market risk for changes in interest rates. At any time, a sharp rise in interest rates could have a material adverse impact on the fair value of our fixed-income investment portfolio. Conversely, declines in interest rates could have a material adverse impact on interest income for our investment portfolio. We target to maintain a conservative investment policy, which focuses on the safety and preservation of our capital by limiting default risk, market risk, reinvestment risk, and concentration risk. The following table presents the hypothetical fair values of fixed-income securities that would result from selected potential decreases and increases in interest rates. Market changes reflect immediate hypothetical parallel shifts in the yield curve of plus or minus 50 basis points (“BPS”), 100 BPS, and 150 BPS. The hypothetical fair values as of June 24, 2018,were as follows:
 
Valuation of Securities
Given an Interest Rate
Decrease of X Basis Points
 
Fair Value
as of
 
Valuation of Securities
Given an Interest Rate
Increase of X Basis Points
 
June 24, 2018
 
(150 BPS)
 
(100 BPS)
 
(50 BPS)
 
—%
 
50 BPS
 
100 BPS
 
150 BPS
 
(in thousands)
Municipal notes and bonds
153,974

 
153,365

 
152,750

 
152,136

 
151,521

 
150,906

 
150,292

U.S. Treasury and agencies
357,056

 
356,874

 
356,692

 
356,509

 
356,327

 
356,145

 
355,963

Government-sponsored enterprises
111,104

 
110,990

 
110,876

 
110,762

 
110,648

 
110,534

 
110,420

Foreign government bonds
19,999

 
19,995

 
19,990

 
19,985

 
19,981

 
19,976

 
19,971

Bank and corporate notes
518,765

 
517,798

 
516,832

 
515,866

 
514,899

 
513,933

 
512,967

Mortgage backed securities - residential
849

 
833

 
817

 
801

 
785

 
770

 
754

Total
$
1,161,747

 
$
1,159,855

 
$
1,157,957

 
$
1,156,059