Johnson Controls was originally established in 1885. The company sells control systems and mechanical equipment for air-conditioning, refrigeration and commercial heating; electronic security systems and fire detection and suppression systems; and lead-acid automotive batteries.
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Book value of equity per share||$25.59||13.9%||3.8%||4.5%|
|BV including aggregate dividends||18.6%||14.9%||10.9%|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
A company creates wealth for its long-term shareholders in 2 main ways - through dividend payments and through the accumulation of retained earnings. This graph shows the accumulation of per-share equity of long-term shareholders (green bars), which consists of the retained earnings plus all capital invested in the company, and the cumulative dividends the company has paid over time per share of its stock (blue bars).
In the words of Warren Buffett: "We're looking for... businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt."
Return on equity is a key metric of financial performance, indicating a company's ability to generate earnings using shareholder capital. Over time, ROE is one of the major determinants of the rate at which a company creates shareholder wealth. The average ROE for large U.S. companies is 12%, and many investors use it as a threshold for attractive investments.
Companies can boost ROE by increasing leverage, which reduces the safety of the investment. Therefore, it is useful to look at the return on assets (ROA), which measures a company's earning power regardless of its capital structure. A widening gap between ROE and ROA may be a warning sign that should be thoroughly investigated.
Earnings per share is a popular metric used to value a company (using P/E ratio); growth in EPS is often used to judge company growth potential. However, many investors believe that EPS is an inferior metric to ROE, because it ignores the amount of capital the company used to generate earnings.
Free cash flow shows how much cash a company generates from operations, above and beyond what is required to maintain or expand its productive assets. This cash can be returned to investors, or spent by management on growing the company or paying back its debts.
Balance sheets of many companies contain intangible assets such as goodwill, trademarks, patents, etc. Many investors consider intangibles more difficult to value than physical assets. If intangible assets had been valued incorrectly, they must be impaired, resulting in a loss charged against shareholder equity. This chart demonstrates the potential loss to shareholder equity from such impairments.
Companies often use debt financing to increase their return on equity. However, as the amount of debt financing increases relative to the amount of equity financing, the company becomes more sensitive to down turns and other negative events. As a result, many investors use the ratio of debt to equity as a measure of a company's financial risk, and avoid companies that have this ratio above 1.
This chart shows shareholder equity as a percentage of total assets, allowing investors to judge the overall leverage. Companies with a higher proportion of equity can be viewed as safer investments. This metric is particularly important for highly leveraged institutions, such as banks, where it must be at least 4% according to government regulations.
The ratio of current assets to current liabilities is known as the current ratio. This metric is a quick measure of the company's ability to pay its short-term obligations. A current ratio below 1 is a warning sign that should be investigated, especially for companies that cannot count on adequate cash flow from operations.
This chart shows the cumulative dilution of investor ownership in a company over time. Dilution reduces an investor's participation in the future earnings. Dilution increases when a company issues new shares, and decreases when a company buys its shares back. Many investors avoid companies with large chronic dilution.
analysis provides insight into factors affecting the Return On Equity of a company.
The DuPont equation decomposes ROE as follows:
ROE = (Net margin) * (Asset turnover) * (Asset to equity ratio)
Net margin indicates operating efficiency, Asset turnover measures the total asset use efficiency, and the Asset to equity ratio is a measure of financial leverage.
The dividend payout ratio tells investors what percentage of earnings a company returns to shareholders, and what percentage it retains and reinvests. This ratio represents a major capital allocation decision by the company, and can be used to judge management rationality. Rational management should pay out all earnings that cannot be productively reinvested. Therefore, a low dividend payout ratio for a profitable company with a low growth potential may be a warning sign.
Many investors use the P/B ratio as a quick way of judging company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - specifically seek out companies with low P/B ratios. However, investors should be careful not to make investment decisions on this metric alone, without considering a company's earning and growth potential, since a low P/B ratio can be a sign of a bleak future for the business.
P/E ratio is a popular way of making a quick judgment of a company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - often seek solid companies with low P/E ratios as investment opportunities. However, P/E ratio represents an oversimplified approach to business valuation, and can often lead to incorrect investment decisions.
On December 9, 2005, the Company completed its acquisition of York International Corporation. The Company paid $56.50 for each outstanding share of York common stock. The total cost of the acquisition, excluding cash acquired, was approximately $3.1 billion, including the assumption of $563 million of debt, change in control payments and direct costs of the transaction. The Company initially financed the acquisition by issuing unsecured commercial paper, which was refinanced with long-term debt on January 17, 2006. Yorks results of operations have been included in the consolidated financial statements since the date of acquisition. The acquisition of York enabled the Company to become a single source supplier of integrated products and services for building owners to optimize comfort and energy efficiency. The acquisition enhanced the Companys heating, ventilating, and air conditioning equipment (HVAC), controls, fire and security capabilities and positions the Company in a strategic leadership position in the global building environment industry which offers significant growth potential.
On September 30, 2009, the Company settled the results of its previously announced offer to exchange up to 8,550,000 of its outstanding nine million Equity Units in the form of Corporate Units (the "Corporate Units") comprised of a forward purchase contract obligating the holder to purchase from the Company shares of its common stock and a 1/20, or 5%, undivided beneficial ownership interest in $1,000 principal amount of the Company's 11.50% subordinated notes due 2042, for the following consideration per Corporate Unit: (i) 4.8579 shares of the Company's common stock, (ii) a cash payment of $6.50 and (iii) a distribution consisting of the pro rata share of accrued and unpaid interest on the subordinated notes to, but excluding, the settlement date, payable in cash. Upon settlement of the exchange offer, 8,082,085 Corporate Units (consisting of $404 million aggregate principal amount of outstanding 11.50% subordinated notes due 2042) were exchanged for approximately 39 million shares of common stock and approximately $65 million in cash ($52 million of debt conversion payments and $13 million of accrued interest payments on the subordinated notes). As a result of the exchange, the Company recognized approximately $54 million of debt conversion costs within its consolidated statement of income which is comprised of $53 million of debt conversion costs on the exchange and a $1 million charge related to the write-off of unamortized debt issuance costs.
On June 16, 2014, the Company completed its purchase of Air Distribution Technologies, Inc. (ADT) for approximately $1.6 billion, net of cash acquired, all of which was paid as of September 30, 2014. ADT is one of the largest independent providers of air distribution and ventilation products in North America. On June 13, 2014, the Company completed a public offering of $1.7 billion aggregate principal amount of fixed rate senior notes to finance the purchase of ADT. In connection with the ADT acquisition, the Company recorded goodwill of $837 million in the Building Efficiency Other segment. The Company also recorded approximately $477 million of intangible assets that are subject to amortization, of which approximately $475 million was assigned to customer relationships with useful lives between 18 and 20 years. In addition, the Company recorded approximately $230 million of trade names that are not subject to amortization. The purchase price allocations may be subsequently adjusted to reflect final valuation studies.
JCI Inc. and Tyco completed their Merger on September 2, 2016. The Merger was accounted for as a reverse acquisition using the acquisition method of accounting in accordance with ASC 805, "Business Combinations." Based on the structure of the Merger and other activities contemplated by the Merger Agreement, relative outstanding share ownership, the composition of the Company's board of directors and the designation of certain senior management positions of the Company, JCI Inc. was the accounting acquirer for financial reporting purposes, while Tyco was the legal acquirer. Immediately prior to the Merger and in connection therewith, Tyco shareholders received 0.955 ordinary shares of Tyco (which shares are now referred to as shares of the Company, or Company ordinary shares) for each Tyco ordinary share they held by virtue of a 0.955-for-one share consolidation. In the Merger, each outstanding share of common stock, par value $1.00 per share, of JCI Inc. ("JCI Inc. common stock") was converted into the right to receive either the cash consideration or the share consideration, at the election of the holder, subject to proration procedures described in the Merger Agreement and applicable withholding taxes. The election to receive the cash consideration was undersubscribed. As a result, holders of shares of JCI Inc. common stock that elected to receive the share consideration and holders of shares of JCI Inc. common stock that made no election became entitled to receive, for each such share of JCI Inc. common stock, $5.7293 in cash, without interest, and 0.8357 Company ordinary shares, subject to applicable withholding taxes. Holders of shares of JCI Inc. common stock that elected to receive the cash consideration became entitled to receive, for each such share of JCI Inc. common stock, $34.88 in cash, without interest, subject to applicable withholding taxes. In the merger, JCI Inc. shareholders received, in the aggregate, approximately $3.864 billion in cash. Immediately after the closing of, and giving effect to, the Merger, former JCI Inc. shareholders owned approximately 56% of the issued and outstanding Company ordinary shares and former Tyco stockholders owned approximately 44% of the issued and outstanding Company ordinary shares. Following the Merger, Tyco changed its name to Johnson Controls International plc ("JCI plc"). Tyco is a leading global provider of security products and services, fire detection and suppression products and services, and life safety products. The acquisition of Tyco brings together best-in-class product, technology and service capabilities across controls, fire, security, HVAC, power solutions and energy storage, to serve various end-markets including large institutions, commercial buildings, retail, industrial, small business and residential. The combination of the Tyco and JCI Inc. buildings platforms is expected to create immediate opportunities for near-term growth through cross-selling, complementary branch and channel networks, and expanded global reach for established businesses. The new Company is also expected to benefit by combining innovation capabilities and pipelines involving new products, advanced solutions for smart buildings and cities, value-added services driven by advanced data and analytics and connectivity between buildings and energy storage through infrastructure integration. The total fair value of consideration transferred was approximately $19.7 billion. Total consideration is comprised of the equity value of the Tyco shares that were outstanding as of September 2, 2016 and the portion of Tyco's share awards and share options earned as of September 2, 2016 ($224 million).
On October 31, 2016, the Company completed the spin-off of its Automotive Experience business by way of the transfer of the Automotive Experience Business from Johnson Controls to Adient plc and the issuance of ordinary shares of Adient directly to holders of Johnson Controls ordinary shares on a pro rata basis. Prior to the open of business on October 31, 2016, each of the Company's shareholders received one ordinary share of Adient plc for every 10 ordinary shares of Johnson Controls held as of the close of business on October 19, 2016, the record date for the distribution. Company shareholders received cash in lieu of fractional shares of Adient, if any. Following the separation and distribution, Adient plc is now an independent public company trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the symbol "ADNT." The Company did not retain any equity interest in Adient plc.