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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10‑K

 

 

(mark one)

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018

or

 

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from                          to                     

Commission File Number: 001‑12400

INCYTE CORPORATION

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Delaware
(State of other jurisdiction
of incorporation or organization)

94‑3136539
(IRS Employer
Identification No.)

1801 Augustine Cut-Off
 Wilmington, DE
(Address of principal executives offices)

19803
(zip code)
(302) 498‑6700
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

 

 

Title of each class

    

Name of exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $.001 par value per share

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well‑known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒  No ☐

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15 (d) of the Act. Yes ☐   No ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒  No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S‑T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒  No ☐

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S‑K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10‑K or any amendment to this Form 10‑K. ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non‑accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b‑2 of the Exchange Act. (check one)

 

 


 

 

Large accelerated filer ☒

Accelerated filer ☐

Non‑accelerated filer ☐

 

Smaller reporting company ☐

 

Emerging growth company ☐

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b‑2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐  No ☒

The aggregate market value of Common Stock held by non‑affiliates (based on the closing sale price on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 30, 2018) was approximately $11.9 billion.

As of February 7, 2019 there were 214,048,325 shares of Common Stock, $.001 par value per share, outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Items 10 (as to directors and Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance), 11, 12, 13 and 14 of Part III incorporate by reference information from the registrant’s proxy statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission in connection with the solicitation of proxies for the registrant’s 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on April 26, 2019.

 

 

 


 

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

z

 

 

PART I

 

 

Item 1. 

Business

2

Item 1A. 

Risk Factors

28

Item 1B. 

Unresolved Staff Comments

50

Item 2. 

Properties

50

Item 3. 

Legal Proceedings

50

Item 4. 

Mine Safety Disclosures

50

PART II 

 

 

Item 5. 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

52

Item 6. 

Selected Financial Data

53

Item 7. 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

54

Item 7A. 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

72

Item 8. 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

73

Item 9. 

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

121

Item 9A. 

Controls and Procedures

121

Item 9B. 

Other Information

124

PART III 

 

 

Item 10. 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

124

Item 11. 

Executive Compensation

124

Item 12. 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

124

Item 13. 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

125

Item 14. 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

125

PART IV 

 

 

Item 15. 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

125

Item 16. 

Form 10-K Summary

128

SIGNATURES 

129

 

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Item 1.  Business

This report contains forward‑looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. These statements relate to future periods, future events or our future operating or financial plans or performance. Often, these statements include the words “believe,” “expect,” “target,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “plan,” “seek,” “estimate,” “potential,” or words of similar meaning, or future or conditional verbs such as “will,” “would,” “should,” “could,” “might,” or “may,” or the negative of these terms, and other similar expressions. These forward‑looking statements include statements as to:

·

the discovery, development, formulation, manufacturing and commercialization of our compounds, our drug candidates and JAKAFI®/JAKAVI® (ruxolitinib) and ICLUSIG® (ponatinib);

·

the expected benefits from our acquisition of ARIAD Pharmaceuticals (Luxembourg) S.à.r.l. and our plans to further develop our European operations;

·

conducting clinical trials internally, with collaborators, or with clinical research organizations;

·

our collaboration and strategic relationship strategy; anticipated benefits and disadvantages of entering into collaboration agreements;

·

our licensing, investment and commercialization strategies, including our plans to commercialize JAKAFI and ICLUSIG;

·

the regulatory approval process, including obtaining U.S. Food and Drug Administration and other international health authorities approval for our products in the United States and abroad;

·

the safety, effectiveness and potential benefits and indications of our drug candidates and other compounds under development;

·

the timing and size of our clinical trials; the compounds expected to enter clinical trials; timing of clinical trial results;

·

our ability to manage expansion of our drug discovery and development operations;

·

future required expertise relating to clinical trials, manufacturing, sales and marketing;

·

obtaining and terminating licenses to products, drug candidates or technology, or other intellectual property rights;

·

the receipt from or payments pursuant to collaboration or license agreements resulting from milestones or royalties;

·

plans to develop and commercialize products on our own;

·

plans to use third-party manufacturers;

·

expected expenses and expenditure levels; expected uses of cash; expected revenues and sources of revenues, including milestone payments; expectations with respect to inventory;

·

expectations with respect to reimbursement for our products;

·

the expected impact of recent accounting pronouncements and changes in U.S. tax laws;

·

expected losses; fluctuation of losses; currency translation impact associated with collaboration royalties;

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·

our profitability; the adequacy of our capital resources to continue operations;

·

the need to raise additional capital;

·

the costs associated with resolving matters in litigation;

·

our expectations regarding competition;

·

expectations relating to our new European headquarters and the anticipated completion date for our large molecule production facility;

·

our investments, including anticipated expenditures, losses and expenses; and

·

our patent prosecution and maintenance efforts.

These forward‑looking statements reflect our current views with respect to future events, are based on assumptions and are subject to risks and uncertainties. These risks and uncertainties could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected and include, but are not limited to:

·

our ability to successfully commercialize JAKAFI and ICLUSIG;

·

our ability to maintain at anticipated levels reimbursement for our products from government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations;

·

our ability to establish and maintain effective sales, marketing and distribution capabilities;

·

the risk of reliance on other parties to manufacture our products, which could result in a short supply of our products, increased costs, and withdrawal of regulatory approval;

·

our ability to maintain regulatory approvals to market our products;

·

our ability to achieve a significant market share in order to achieve or maintain profitability;

·

the risk of civil or criminal penalties if we market our products in a manner that violates health care fraud and abuse and other applicable laws, rules and regulations;

·

our ability to discover, develop, formulate, manufacture and commercialize our drug candidates;

·

the risk of unanticipated delays in, or discontinuations of, research and development efforts;

·

the risk that previous preclinical testing or clinical trial results are not necessarily indicative of future clinical trial results;

·

risks relating to the conduct of our clinical trials;

·

changing regulatory requirements;

·

the risk of adverse safety findings;

·

the risk that results of our clinical trials do not support submission of a marketing approval application for our drug candidates;

·

the risk of significant delays or costs in obtaining regulatory approvals;

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·

risks relating to our reliance on third-party manufacturers, collaborators, and clinical research organizations;

·

risks relating to the development of new products and their use by us and our current and potential collaborators;

·

risks relating to our inability to control the development of out‑licensed compounds or drug candidates;

·

risks relating to our collaborators’ ability to develop and commercialize drug candidates;

·

costs associated with prosecuting, maintaining, defending and enforcing patent claims and other intellectual property rights;

·

our ability to maintain or obtain adequate product liability and other insurance coverage;

·

the risk that our drug candidates may not obtain or maintain regulatory approval;

·

the impact of technological advances and competition, including potential generic competition;

·

our ability to compete against third parties with greater resources than ours;

·

risks relating to changes in pricing and reimbursement in the markets in which we may compete;

·

competition to develop and commercialize similar drug products;

·

our ability to obtain and maintain patent protection and freedom to operate for our discoveries and to continue to be effective in expanding our patent coverage;

·

the impact of changing laws on our patent portfolio;

·

developments in and expenses relating to litigation;

·

our ability to in‑license drug candidates or other technology;

·

unanticipated construction, other delays or changes in plans relating to our new European headquarters and large molecule production facility;

·

our ability to integrate successfully acquired businesses, development programs or technology;

·

our ability to obtain additional capital when needed;

·

fluctuations in net cash provided and used by operating, financing and investing activities;

·

our ability to analyze the effects of new accounting pronouncements and apply new accounting rules;

·

our history of operating losses; and

·

the risks set forth under “Risk Factors.”

Given these risks and uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward‑looking statements. Except as required by federal securities laws, we undertake no obligation to update any forward‑looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available or other events occur in the future.

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In this report all references to “Incyte,” “we,” “us,” “our” or the “Company” mean Incyte Corporation and our subsidiaries, except where it is made clear that the term means only the parent company.

Incyte and JAKAFI are our registered trademarks. We also refer to trademarks of other corporations and organizations in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

Overview

Incyte is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of proprietary therapeutics. Our global headquarters is located in Wilmington, Delaware. We conduct our European clinical development operations from our offices in Geneva, Switzerland, and Lausanne, Switzerland; our Japanese office is in Tokyo.

Marketed Indications - JAKAFI (ruxolitinib)

JAKAFI (ruxolitinib) is our first product to be approved for sale in the United States. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in November 2011 for the treatment of patients with intermediate or high‑risk myelofibrosis and in December 2014 for the treatment of patients with polycythemia vera who have had an inadequate response to or are intolerant of hydroxyurea. Myelofibrosis and polycythemia vera are both rare blood cancers. Under our collaboration agreement with Novartis International Pharmaceutical Ltd., Novartis received exclusive development and commercialization rights to ruxolitinib outside of the United States for all hematologic and oncologic indications and sells ruxolitinib outside of the United States under the name JAKAVI.

In 2003, we initiated a research and development program to explore the inhibition of enzymes called janus associated kinases (JAK). The JAK family is composed of four tyrosine kinases—JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and Tyk2—that are involved in the signaling of a number of cytokines and growth factors. JAKs are central to a number of biologic processes, including the formation and development of blood cells and the regulation of immune functions. Dysregulation of the JAK‑STAT signaling pathway has been associated with a number of diseases, including myeloproliferative neoplasms, other hematological malignancies, rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Myeloproliferative neoplasms are a closely related group of blood diseases in which blood cells, specifically platelets, white blood cells, and red blood cells, grow or act abnormally. These diseases include myelofibrosis (MF), polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET).

We have discovered multiple potent, selective and orally bioavailable JAK inhibitors that are selective for JAK1 or JAK1 and JAK2. JAKAFI is the most advanced compound in our JAK program. It is an oral JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor.

JAKAFI is marketed in the United States through our own specialty sales force and commercial team. JAKAFI was the first FDA‑approved JAK inhibitor for any indication and was the first and remains the only product approved by the FDA for use in MF and PV. The FDA has granted JAKAFI orphan drug status for MF, PV, ET, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD).

To help ensure that all eligible MF and PV patients have access to JAKAFI, we have established a patient assistance program called IncyteCARES (CARES stands for Connecting to Access, Reimbursement, Education and Support). IncyteCARES helps ensure that any patient with intermediate or high‑risk MF or uncontrolled PV who meets certain eligibility criteria and is prescribed JAKAFI has access to the product regardless of ability to pay and has access to ongoing support and educational resources during treatment.

JAKAFI is distributed primarily through a network of specialty pharmacy providers and wholesalers that allow for efficient delivery of the medication by mail directly to patients or direct delivery to the patient’s pharmacy. Our distribution process uses a model that is well‑established and familiar to physicians who practice within the oncology field.

To further support appropriate use and future development of JAKAFI, our U.S. Medical Affairs department is responsible for providing appropriate scientific and medical education and information to physicians, preparing scientific presentations and publications, and overseeing the process for supporting investigator sponsored trials.

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Myelofibrosis.  Myelofibrosis is a rare, life‑threatening condition. MF, considered the most serious of the myeloproliferative neoplasms, can occur either as primary MF, or as secondary MF that develops in some patients who previously had polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia. We estimate there are between 16,000 and 18,500 patients with MF in the United States. Based on the modern prognostic scoring systems referred to as International Prognostic Scoring System and Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System, we believe intermediate and high‑risk patients represent 80%  to 90%  of all patients with MF in the United States and encompass patients over the age of 65, or patients who have or have ever had any of the following: anemia, constitutional symptoms, elevated white blood cell or blast counts, or platelet counts less than 100,000 per microliter of blood.

Most MF patients have enlarged spleens and many suffer from debilitating symptoms, including abdominal discomfort, pruritus (itching), night sweats and cachexia (involuntary weight loss). There were no FDA approved therapies for MF until the approval of JAKAFI.

The FDA approval was based on results from two randomized Phase III trials (COMFORT‑I and COMFORT‑II), which demonstrated that patients treated with JAKAFI experienced significant reductions in splenomegaly (enlarged spleen). COMFORT‑I also demonstrated improvements in symptoms. The most common hematologic adverse reactions in both trials were thrombocytopenia and anemia. These events rarely led to discontinuation of JAKAFI treatment. The most common non‑hematologic adverse reactions were bruising, dizziness and headache.

In August 2014, the FDA approved supplemental labeling for JAKAFI to include Kaplan‑Meier overall survival curves as well as additional safety and dosing information. The overall survival information is based on three‑year data from COMFORT‑I and II, and shows that at three years the probability of survival for patients treated with JAKAFI in COMFORT‑I was 70% and for those patients originally randomized to placebo it was 61%. In COMFORT‑II, at three years the probability of survival for patients treated with JAKAFI was 79% and for patients originally randomized to best available therapy it was 59%.  In December 2016, we announced an exploratory pooled analysis of data from the five-year follow-up of the COMFORT-I and COMFORT-II trials of patients treated with JAKAFI, which further supported previously published overall survival findings.

In October 2017, the FDA approved updated labeling for JAKAFI to include the addition of new patient-reported outcome (PRO) data from the COMFORT-I study, as well as updating the warning related to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. An exploratory analysis of PRO data of patients with myelofibrosis receiving JAKAFI showed improvement in fatigue-related symptoms at Week 24. Fatigue response (defined as a reduction of 4.5 points or more from baseline in the PROMIS® Fatigue total score) was reported in 35% of patients treated with JAKAFI versus 14% of the patients treated with placebo.

In September 2016, we announced that JAKAFI had been included as a recommended treatment in the latest National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for myelofibrosis, underscoring the important and long-term clinical benefits seen in patients treated with JAKAFI.

Polycythemia Vera.  PV is a myeloproliferative neoplasm typically characterized by elevated hematocrit, the volume percentage of red blood cells in whole blood, which can lead to a thickening of the blood and an increased risk of blood clots, as well as an elevated white blood cell and platelet count. When phlebotomy can no longer control PV, chemotherapy such as hydroxyurea, or interferon, is utilized. Approximately 25,000 patients with PV in the United States are considered uncontrolled because they have an inadequate response to or are intolerant of hydroxyurea, the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of PV.

In December 2014, the FDA approved JAKAFI for the treatment of patients with PV who have had an inadequate response to or are intolerant of hydroxyurea. The approval of JAKAFI for PV was based on data from the pivotal Phase III RESPONSE trial. In this trial, patients treated with JAKAFI demonstrated superior hematocrit control and reductions in spleen volume compared to best available therapy. In addition, a greater proportion of patients treated with JAKAFI achieved complete hematologic remission—which was defined as achieving hematocrit control, and lowering platelet and white blood cell counts. In the RESPONSE trial, the most common hematologic adverse reactions (incidence > 20%) were thrombocytopenia and anemia. The most common non‑hematologic adverse events (incidence >10%) were headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dizziness, fatigue, pruritus, dyspnea and muscle spasms.

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In March 2016, the FDA approved supplemental labeling for JAKAFI to include additional safety data as well as efficacy analyses from the RESPONSE trial to assess the durability of response in JAKAFI treated patients after 80 weeks. At this time, 83% patients were still on treatment, and 76% of the responders at 32 weeks maintained their response through 80 weeks.

In June 2016, we announced data from the Phase III RESPONSE-2 study of JAKAFI in patients with inadequately controlled PV that was resistant to or intolerant of hydroxyurea who did not have an enlarged spleen. These data showed that JAKAFI was superior to best available therapy in maintaining hematocrit control (62.2% vs. 18.7%, respectively; P<0.0001) without the need for phlebotomy.

In August 2017, we announced that JAKAFI had been included as a recommended treatment in the latest NCCN Guidelines for patients with polycythemia vera who have had an inadequate response to first-line therapies, such as hydroxyurea.

We have retained all development and commercialization rights to JAKAFI in the United States and are eligible to receive development and commercial milestones as well as royalties from product sales outside the United States. We hold patents that cover the composition of matter and use of ruxolitinib which patents, including applicable extensions, expire in late 2027.

Marketed Indications - ICLUSIG (ponatinib)

In June 2016, we acquired the European operations of ARIAD Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (ARIAD) and obtained an exclusive license to develop and commercialize ICLUSIG (ponatinib) in Europe and other select countries. ICLUSIG is a kinase inhibitor. The primary target for ICLUSIG is BCR-ABL, an abnormal tyrosine kinase that is expressed in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia-chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL).

In the European Union, ICLUSIG is approved for the treatment of adult patients with chronic phase, accelerated phase or blast phase CML who are resistant to dasatinib or nilotinib; who are intolerant to dasatinib or nilotinib and for whom subsequent treatment with imatinib is not clinically appropriate; or who have the T315I mutation, or the treatment of adult patients with Ph+ ALL who are resistant to dasatinib; who are intolerant to dasatinib and for whom subsequent treatment with imatinib is not clinically appropriate; or who have the T315I mutation.

Clinical Programs in Oncology

We believe that the future of cancer treatment lies in the use of targeted therapies, which aim to block, directly or indirectly, the effects of cancer-causing mutations, and immune therapies, which seek to recruit the patient’s own immune system to tackle cancer. Our most advanced programs are detailed below.

JAK Inhibition

As part of our development program to improve and expand therapeutic options for patients with MF, we are currently recruiting Phase II trials combining ruxolitinib with our clinical candidates such as itacitinib (JAK1), parsaclisib (formerly INCB50465; PI3Kδ), and INCB53914 (PIM) in patients with refractory MF.

GVHD is a condition that can occur after an allogeneic bone marrow transplant (the transfer of genetically dissimilar stem cells or tissue). In GVHD, the donated bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells view the recipient’s body as foreign and attack the body. 12-month survival rates in patients with Grade III or IV steroid-refractory acute GVHD are 50% or less and the diagnosed incidence of acute and chronic GVHD is approximately 20,000 per year across the United States, Europe and Japan.

Building upon positive, independently published third-party data of ruxolitinib in GVHD, we initiated the REACH clinical program to evaluate ruxolitinib in patients with steroid-refractory GVHD. The result of REACH1, a pivotal Phase II trial in steroid-refractory acute GVHD, formed the basis for a supplemental new drug application (sNDA), which was accepted by the FDA for Priority Review in October 2018. In February 2019, the FDA extended the sNDA review period by three months. REACH2, the Novartis-sponsored Phase III trial in steroid-refractory acute GVHD, and

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REACH3, the Phase III trial in steroid-refractory chronic GVHD that is co-sponsored by Incyte and Novartis, are both underway. In June 2016, we announced that the FDA granted Breakthrough Therapy designation for ruxolitinib in patients with acute GVHD. In April 2016, we announced an agreement with Eli Lilly and Company enabling us to develop and commercialize ruxolitinib in the United States for the treatment of GVHD. We also announced an agreement with Novartis granting Novartis exclusive research, development and commercialization rights for ruxolitinib in GVHD outside the United States.

Based on data from a proof-of-concept trial of itacitinib, a selective JAK1 inhibitor, in patients with acute GVHD, a pivotal trial (GRAVITAS-301) investigating itacitinib for the treatment of patients with treatment-naïve acute GVHD was initiated in July 2017. The FDA has granted itacitinib orphan drug status for GVHD.

Following positive proof-of-concept data, we initiated a pivotal program investigating ruxolitinib for the treatment of patients with essential thrombocythemia. ET is a Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasm, characterized by the overproduction of platelets in the bone marrow. The pivotal RESET trial is enrolling ET patients that are refractory to or intolerant of hydroxyurea, the current standard of care for first-line treatment of these patients. The clinical program to evaluate itacitinib in solid tumors includes a clinical trial in combination with AstraZeneca/MedImmune’s EGFR inhibitor osimertinib.

FGFR1/2/3 Inhibition

Pemigatinib is an inhibitor of the FGFR isoforms 1, 2 and 3 that has demonstrated potency and selectivity in preclinical studies. The FGFR family of receptor tyrosine kinases can act as oncogenic drivers in a number of liquid and solid tumor types. We initiated the FIGHT clinical program to evaluate pemigatinib across a spectrum of cancers that are driven by FGF/FGFR mutations. The program currently has three Phase II trials– FIGHT-201 in patients with bladder cancer, FIGHT-202 in patients with cholangiocarcinoma, and FIGHT-203 in patients with 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome (8p11 MPN). Based on data generated from ongoing trials in patients with FGFR-driven cholangiocarcinoma, bladder cancer, and 8p11 MPN, we are planning to initiate a pivotal tumor-agnostic trial evaluating pemigatinib in patients with driver-activations of FGF/FGFR later in 2019.

In October 2018, we announced positive data from the FIGHT-202 trial evaluating pemigatinib in patients with advanced/metastatic or surgically unresectable cholangiocarcinoma who failed at least one previous treatment. In February 2019, we announced that the FDA granted Breakthrough Therapy designation for pemigatinib in patients with previously treated, advanced/metastatic or unresectable FGFR2 translocated cholangiocarcinoma.

Cholangiocarcinoma is a cancer that arises from the cells within the bile ducts. It is often diagnosed late (stages III and IV) and the prognosis is poor. The incidence of cholangiocarcinoma with FGFR2 translocation is increasing, and is currently estimated at 2,000-3,000 patients in the U.S., Europe and Japan.

PD-1 Antagonism

In October 2017, we and MacroGenics, Inc. announced an exclusive global collaboration and license agreement for MacroGenics’ INCMGA0012, an investigational monoclonal antibody that inhibits PD-1. Under this collaboration, we obtained exclusive worldwide rights for the development and commercialization of INCMGA0012 in all indications. Enrollment in the dose escalation portion of the Phase I study of INCMGA0012 has been completed and the molecule is currently being evaluated as monotherapy across four solid tumor types in the dose expansion portion of the study. Registration-directed trials in MSI-high endometrial cancer, merkel cell carcinoma, and anal cancer were initiated in 2018.

PI3K-delta Inhibition

The PI3K-delta pathway mediates oncogenic signaling in B cell malignancies. Parsaclisib (formerly INCB50465) is a PI3K-delta inhibitor that has demonstrated potency and selectivity in preclinical studies and has potential therapeutic utility in the treatment of patients with lymphoma. We initiated the CITADEL clinical program to evaluate parsaclisib in

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non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and we are currently running Phase II trials in follicular lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma.

 

 

 

 

Indication

Status Update

Ruxolitinib (JAK1/JAK2)

Steroid-refractory acute GVHD

sNDA accepted for Priority Review (based on REACH1), review period extended by three months; Phase III (REACH2)

Ruxolitinib (JAK1/JAK2)

Steroid-refractory chronic GVHD

Phase III (REACH3)

Ruxolitinib (JAK1/JAK2)

Essential thrombocythemia

Phase II (RESET)

Ruxolitinib (JAK1/JAK2)

Refractory myelofibrosis

Phase II in combination with parsaclisib (PI3Kδ), INCB53914 (PIM), or itacitinib (JAK1)

Itacitinib (JAK1)

Treatment-naïve acute GVHD

Phase III (GRAVITAS-301)

Itacitinib (JAK1)

Treatment-naïve chronic GVHD

Phase III (GRAVITAS-309)

Itacitinib (JAK1)

NSCLC

Phase I/II in combination with osimertinib (EGFR)

Pemigatinib (FGFR1/2/3)

Bladder cancer

Phase II (FIGHT-201)

Pemigatinib (FGFR1/2/3)

Cholangiocarcinoma

Phase II (FIGHT-202); Phase III (FIGHT-302) now recruiting

Pemigatinib (FGFR1/2/3)

8p11 MPN

Phase II (FIGHT-203)

Pemigatinib (FGFR1/2/3)

Solid tumors with driver activations of FGF/FGFR

Pivotal program in preparation

INCMGA0012 (PD-1)1

Solid tumors

Phase II trials (MSI-high endometrial cancer, merkel cell carcinoma, anal cancer)

Parsaclisib (PI3Kδ)

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Phase II (CITADEL-203, follicular lymphoma); (CITADEL-204, marginal zone lymphoma); (CITADEL-205, mantel cell lymphoma)

 

1. INCMGA0012 licensed from MacroGenics.

Earlier-Stage Programs

We also have a number of other earlier-stage clinical programs, as detailed in the table below. We intend to describe these programs more fully if we obtain clinical proof‑of‑concept and establish that a program warrants further development in a specific indication or group of indications.

 

 

 

Small molecules

Monoclonal antibodies

Bispecific antibodies

INCB53914 (PIM)

INCAGN1876 (GITR)2

MCLA-145 (PD-L1xCD137)3

INCB59872 (LSD1)

INCAGN1949 (OX40)2

 

INCB62079 (FGFR4)

INCAGN2390 (TIM-3)2

 

INCB81776 (AXL/MER)

INCAGN2385 (LAG-3)2

 

INCB01158 (ARG)1

 

 

Epacadostat (IDO1)

 

 

INCB86550 (PD-L1)

 

 

1. INCB01158 development in collaboration with Calithera Biosciences, Inc.

2. Discovery collaboration with Agenus Inc.

3. MCLA-145 development in collaboration with Merus N.V.

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Clinical Programs outside Oncology

In June 2018, we announced that a Phase II trial of ruxolitinib cream for the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis showed a significant benefit over vehicle control and a global, pivotal Phase III program was initiated in December 2018. Atopic dermatitis is a skin disorder that causes the skin to become red, scaly, and itchy. Onset can occur at any age, but is much more common in infants and children. United States and European prevalence are estimated at 10.3 million patients and 6.5 million patients, respectively. A Phase II trial of ruxolitinib cream in patients with vitiligo, a long term skin condition characterized by patches of the skin losing their pigment, was initiated in June 2017.

A Phase II trial of INCB54707, a JAK1 selective inhibitor, is ongoing in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa, an inflammatory skin disease.

A Phase II trial of itacitinib, a JAK1 selective inhibitor, has been initiated in patients with ulcerative colitis.

Phase II trials of parsaclisib, a PI3Kδ inhibitor, in pemphigus vulgaris, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and Sjögren's syndrome are all underway.

 

 

 

 

Indication

Status Update

Ruxolitinib cream1 (JAK1/JAK2)

Atopic dermatitis

Phase III

Ruxolitinib cream1 (JAK1/JAK2)

Vitiligo

Phase II; Phase III in preparation

INCB54707 (JAK1)

Hidradenitis suppurativa

Phase II

Itacitinib (JAK1)

Ulcerative colitis

Phase II

Parsaclisib (PI3Kδ)

Pemphigus vulgaris, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, Sjögren's syndrome

Phase II

1. Novartis’ rights for ruxolitinib outside of the United States under our Collaboration and License Agreement with Novartis do not include topical administration.

 

Partnered Programs

Baricitinib

We have a second JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor, baricitinib, which is subject to our collaboration agreement with Eli Lilly and Company, in which Lilly received exclusive worldwide development and commercialization rights to the compound for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The Phase III program of baricitinib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis incorporated all three rheumatoid arthritis populations (methotrexate naïve, biologic naïve, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor inadequate responders); used event rates to fully power the baricitinib program for structural comparison and non-inferiority vs. adalimumab; and evaluated patient-reported outcomes. All four Phase III trials met their respective primary endpoints.

In January 2016, Lilly submitted a New Drug Application (NDA) to the FDA and a Marketing Authorization Application (MAA) to the European Medicines Agency for baricitinib as treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. In February 2017, we and Lilly announced that the European Commission approved baricitinib as OLUMIANT for the treatment of moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis in adult patients who have responded inadequately to, or who are intolerant to, one or more disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). In July 2017, Japan's Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) granted marketing approval for OLUMIANT for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (including the prevention of structural injury of joints) in patients with inadequate response to standard-of-care therapies. In June 2018, the FDA approved the 2mg dose of OLUMIANT for the treatment of adults with moderately-to-severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who have had an inadequate response to one or more tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapies.

Rheumatoid Arthritis.  Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease characterized by aberrant or abnormal immune mechanisms that lead to joint inflammation and swelling and, in some patients, the progressive destruction of joints. Rheumatoid arthritis can also affect connective tissue in the skin and organs of the body.

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Current rheumatoid arthritis treatments include the use of non‑steroidal anti‑inflammatory drugs, disease‑modifying anti‑rheumatic drugs, such as methotrexate, and the newer biological response modifiers that target pro‑inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor, implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. None of these approaches to treatment is curative; therefore, there remains an unmet need for new safe and effective treatment options for these patients. Rheumatoid arthritis is estimated to affect about 1% of the world’s population.

Atopic Dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis (AtD) is a condition that makes the skin red and itchy and which is common in children but can occur at any age. Atopic dermatitis is long lasting and tends to flare periodically and then subside. Lilly has conducted a Phase IIa trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of baricitinib in patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. The JAK-STAT pathway has been shown to play an essential role in the dysregulation of immune responses in atopic dermatitis. Therefore, we believe that inhibiting cytokine pathways dependent on JAK1 and JAK2 may lead to positive clinical outcomes in atopic dermatitis.

A Phase III program to evaluate the safety and efficacy of baricitinib in patients with moderate to severe AtD is ongoing. In February 2019, we and Lilly announced that baricitinib met the primary endpoint in BREEZE-AD1 and BREEZE-AD2, two Phase III studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of baricitinib monotherapy for the treatment of adult patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis. These are two of five studies that will be part of the placebo-controlled data program intended to support global registrations.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic disease that causes inflammation. In addition to affecting the skin and joints, it can affect other organs in the body such as the kidneys, the tissue lining the lungs and heart, and the brain. Lilly has conducted a Phase II trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of baricitinib in patients with SLE. Baricitinib’s activity profile suggests that it inhibits cytokines implicated in SLE such as type I interferon (IFN), type II IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-23 as well as other cytokines that may have a role in SLE, including granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-12. The potential impact of baricitinib on the IFN pathway is highly relevant to SLE, as clinical and preclinical studies have established that this pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. Lilly is currently running a Phase III trial of baricitinib in patients with SLE.

Alopecia Areata. Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks the hair follicles, causing hair loss in patches. Lilly is currently running a Phase II/III trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of baricitinib in patients with severe alopecia areata.

Psoriatic Arthritis.  Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory arthritis that is seen in association with skin psoriasis. It causes joint pain and swelling that can lead to damage of the joint if the inflammation is not controlled.  Baricitinib has been shown to inhibit the JAK-STAT pathway in related conditions such as psoriasis in Phase II trials, and based on its activity profile, baricitinib also has the potential to demonstrate positive clinical outcomes in PsA. Lilly is planning a Phase III program to evaluate the safety and efficacy of baricitinib in patients with PsA.

We exercised our co-development options in rheumatoid arthritis, atopic dermatitis, psoriatic arthritis, alopecia areata, systematic lupus erythematosus and axial spondyloarthritis to fund 30% of future global development costs through regulatory approval, including post-launch studies required by a regulatory authority, in exchange for increased tiered royalties ranging up to the high twenties on potential future sales.

Capmatinib

Capmatinib is a potent and highly selective MET inhibitor. The investigational compound has demonstrated inhibitory activity in cell-based biochemical and functional assays that measure MET signaling and MET dependent cell proliferation, survival and migration. Under our agreement, Novartis received worldwide exclusive development and commercialization rights to capmatinib and certain back‑up compounds in all indications. Capmatinib is being evaluated in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, non‑small cell lung cancer and other solid tumors, and may have potential utility as a combination agent.

MET is a clinically validated receptor kinase cancer target. Abnormal MET activation in cancer correlates with poor prognosis. Dysregulation of the MET pathway triggers tumor growth, formation of new blood vessels that supply the

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tumor with nutrients, and causes cancer to spread to other organs. Dysregulation of the MET pathway is seen in many types of cancers, including lung, kidney, liver, stomach, breast and brain.

In October 2018, we and Novartis announced positive preliminary results of the GEOMETRY mono-1 trial of capmatinib in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring MET exon-14 skipping mutations. NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer, impacting more than 2 million people per year. Approximately 3-4 percent of all patients with NSCLC have an identified MET mutation. Though rare, this mutation is an indicator of especially poor prognosis and there is currently no approved therapy designed to target this mutation.

 

 

 

 

Indication

Status Update

Baricitinib (JAK1/JAK2)1

Atopic dermatitis

Phase III

Baricitinib (JAK1/JAK2)1

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Phase III

Baricitinib (JAK1/JAK2)1

Psoriatic arthritis

Lilly is planning a Phase III program

Baricitinib (JAK1/JAK2)1

Severe alopecia areata

Phase II/III

Capmatinib (MET)2

NSCLC, liver cancer

NDA (NSCLC patients with MET exon 14 skipping mutations) expected this year (by Novartis)

1. Baricitinib licensed to Lilly

2. Capmatinib licensed to Novartis

License Agreements and Business Relationships

We establish business relationships, including collaborative arrangements with other companies and medical research institutions to assist in the clinical development and/or commercialization of certain of our drugs and drug candidates and to provide support for our research programs. We also evaluate opportunities for acquiring products or rights to products and technologies that are complementary to our business from other companies and medical research institutions.

Below is a brief description of our significant business relationships and collaborations and related license agreements that expand our pipeline and provide us with certain rights to existing and potential new products and technologies.

Novartis

In November 2009, we entered into a Collaboration and License Agreement with Novartis. Under the terms of the agreement, Novartis received exclusive development and commercialization rights outside of the United States to ruxolitinib and certain back‑up compounds for hematologic and oncology indications, including all hematological malignancies, solid tumors and myeloproliferative diseases. We retained exclusive development and commercialization rights to JAKAFI (ruxolitinib) in the United States and in certain other indications. Novartis also received worldwide exclusive development and commercialization rights to our MET inhibitor compound capmatinib and certain back‑up compounds in all indications. We retained options to co‑develop and to co‑promote capmatinib in the United States.

Under this agreement, we received an upfront payment and immediate milestone payment totaling $210.0 million and were initially eligible to receive additional payments of up to approximately $1.2 billion if defined development and commercialization milestones are achieved. We are also eligible to receive tiered, double‑digit royalties ranging from the upper‑teens to the mid‑twenties percent on future ruxolitinib net sales outside of the United States, and tiered, worldwide royalties on future capmatinib net sales that range from 12% to 14%. In addition, Novartis has received reimbursement and pricing approval for ruxolitinib in a specified number of countries, and we are now obligated to pay to Novartis tiered royalties in the low single-digits on future ruxolitinib net sales within the United States. Each company is responsible for costs relating to the development and commercialization of ruxolitinib in its respective territories, with costs of collaborative studies shared equally. Novartis is also responsible for all costs relating to the development and commercialization of capmatinib.

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In April 2016, we amended this agreement to provide that Novartis has exclusive research, development and commercialization rights outside of the United States to ruxolitinib (excluding topical formulations) in the GVHD field. Under this amendment, we received a $5.0 million payment in exchange for the development and commercialization rights to ruxolitinib in GVHD outside of the United States and became eligible to receive up to $75.0 million of additional potential development and regulatory milestones relating to GVHD.  In March 2017, we recognized a $25.0 million milestone for the first patient first visit in a GVHD study and in December 2017, we recognized a $40.0 million milestone for Novartis achieving annual net sales of a JAK licensed product of $600.0 million. In December 2018, we recognized a $60.0 million milestone for Novartis achieving annual net sales of a JAK licensed product of $900.0 million.

The Novartis agreement will continue on a program‑by‑program basis until Novartis has no royalty payment obligations with respect to such program or, if earlier, the termination of the agreement or any program in accordance with the terms of the agreement. Royalties are payable by Novartis on a product‑by‑product and country‑by‑country basis until the latest to occur of (i) the expiration of the last valid claim of the licensed patent rights covering the licensed product in the relevant country, (ii) the expiration of regulatory exclusivity for the licensed product in such country and (iii) a specified period from first commercial sale in such country of the licensed product by Novartis or its affiliates or sublicensees. The agreement may be terminated in its entirety or on a program‑by‑program basis by Novartis for convenience. The agreement may also be terminated by either party under certain other circumstances, including material breach.

Lilly

In December 2009, we entered into a License, Development and Commercialization Agreement with Lilly. Under the terms of the agreement, Lilly received exclusive worldwide development and commercialization rights to baricitinib and certain back‑up compounds for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We received an initial payment of $90.0 million, and were initially eligible to receive additional payments of up to $665.0 million based on the achievement of defined development, regulatory and commercialization milestones.

We retained options to co-develop our JAK1/JAK2 inhibitors with Lilly on a compound-by-compound and indication-by-indication basis. Lilly is responsible for all costs relating to the development and commercialization of the compounds unless we elect to co-develop any compounds or indications. If we elect to co-develop any compounds and/or indications, we would be responsible for funding 30% of the associated future global development costs from the initiation of a Phase IIb trial through regulatory approval, including post-launch studies required by a regulatory authority. We would receive an incremental royalty rate increase across all tiers resulting in effective royalty rates ranging up to the high twenties on potential future global net sales for compounds and/or indications that we elect to co-develop.  For indications that we elect not to co-develop, we would receive tiered, double-digit royalty payments on future global net sales with rates ranging up to 20% if the product is successfully commercialized. We previously had retained an option to co-promote products in the United States but, in March 2016, we waived our co-promotion option as part of an amendment to the agreement. 

In July 2010, we elected to co-develop baricitinib with Lilly in rheumatoid arthritis and we are responsible for funding 30% of the associated future global development costs for this indication from the initiation of the Phase IIb trial through regulatory approval, including post-launch studies required by a regulatory authority. We subsequently elected to co-develop baricitinib with Lilly in psoriatic arthritis, atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata, systemic lupus erythematosus and axial spondyloarthritis.

In March 2016, we entered into an amendment to the agreement with Lilly that allows us to engage in the development and commercialization of ruxolitinib in the GVHD field. We paid Lilly an upfront payment of $35.0 million and Lilly is eligible to receive up to $40.0 million in additional regulatory milestone payments relating to ruxolitinib in the GVHD field.

In February 2017, the European Commission announced the approval of baricitinib as OLUMIANT, triggering a $65.0 million milestone payment from Lilly.  In July 2017, Japan's MHLW granted marketing approval for OLUMIANT, triggering a $15.0 million milestone payment from Lilly.  In December 2017, we recognized a $30.0 million milestone payment for the first patient treated in the atopic dermatitis Phase III program for baricitinib. In June 2018, the FDA approved the 2mg dose of OLUMIANT, triggering a $100.0 million milestone payment from Lilly. In September 2018,

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we recognized a $20.0 million milestone payment for the first patient treated in the systemic lupus erythematosus Phase III program for baricitinib.

The Lilly agreement will continue until Lilly no longer has any royalty payment obligations or, if earlier, the termination of the agreement in accordance with its terms. Royalties are payable by Lilly on a product‑by‑product and country‑by‑country basis until the latest to occur of (i) the expiration of the last valid claim of the licensed patent rights covering the licensed product in the relevant country, (ii) the expiration of regulatory exclusivity for the licensed product in such country and (iii) a specified period from first commercial sale in such country of the licensed product by Lilly or its affiliates or sublicensees. The agreement may be terminated by Lilly for convenience, and may also be terminated under certain other circumstances, including material breach.

Agenus

In January 2015, we entered into a License, Development and Commercialization Agreement with Agenus Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiary, 4-Antibody AG (now known as Agenus Switzerland Inc.), which we collectively refer to as Agenus. Under this agreement, the parties have agreed to collaborate on the discovery of novel immuno-therapeutics using Agenus’ antibody discovery platforms. In February 2017, we and Agenus amended this agreement.

Under the terms of this agreement, as amended, we received exclusive worldwide development and commercialization rights to four checkpoint modulators directed against GITR, OX40, LAG-3 and TIM-3. In addition to the initial four program targets, we and Agenus have the option to jointly nominate and pursue additional targets within the framework of the collaboration, and in November 2015, three more targets were added. Targets may be designated profit-share programs, where all costs and profits are shared equally by us and Agenus, or royalty-bearing programs, where we are responsible for all costs associated with discovery, preclinical, clinical development and commercialization activities. The programs relating to GITR and OX40 and two of the undisclosed targets were profit-share programs until February 2017, while the other targets currently under collaboration are royalty-bearing programs.  The February 2017 amendment converted the programs relating to GITR and OX40 to royalty-bearing programs and removed from the collaboration the profit-share programs relating to the two undisclosed targets, with one reverting to us and one reverting to Agenus.  Should any of those removed programs be successfully developed by a party, the other party will be eligible to receive the same milestone payments as the royalty-bearing programs and royalties at a 15% rate on global net sales.  There are currently no profit-share programs.  For each royalty-bearing product other than GITR and OX40, Agenus will be eligible to receive tiered royalties on global net sales ranging from 6% to 12%.  For GITR and OX40, Agenus will be eligible to receive 15% royalties on global net sales. Under the February 2017 amendment, we paid Agenus $20.0 million in accelerated milestones relating to the clinical development of the GITR and OX40 programs.  Agenus is eligible to receive up to an additional $510.0 million in future contingent development, regulatory and commercialization milestones across all programs in the collaboration.  The agreement may be terminated by us for convenience upon 12 months’ notice and may also be terminated under certain other circumstances, including material breach.

Takeda (ARIAD)

In June 2016, we acquired from ARIAD Pharmaceuticals, Inc. all of the outstanding shares of ARIAD Pharmaceuticals (Luxembourg) S.à.r.l., the parent company of ARIAD’s European subsidiaries responsible for the development and commercialization of ICLUSIG in the European Union and other countries.  We obtained an exclusive license to develop and commercialize ICLUSIG in Europe and other select countries. ARIAD was subsequently acquired by Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited in 2017.  As such, Takeda will be eligible to receive from us tiered royalties on net sales of ICLUSIG in our territory and up to $135.0 million in potential future oncology development and regulatory approval milestone payments, together with additional milestone payments for non-oncology indications, if approved, in our territory.

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Merus

In December 2016, we entered into a Collaboration and License Agreement with Merus N.V. Under this agreement, which became effective in January 2017, the parties have agreed to collaborate with respect to the research, discovery and development of bispecific antibodies utilizing Merus’ technology platform.  The collaboration encompasses up to eleven independent programs. 

The most advanced collaboration program is MCLA-145, a bispecific antibody targeting PD-L1 and CD137, for which we received exclusive development and commercialization rights outside of the United States. Merus retained exclusive development and commercialization rights in the United States to MCLA-145.  Each party will share equally the costs of mutually agreed global development activities for MCLA-145, and fund itself any independent development activities in its territory.  Merus will be responsible for commercializing MCLA-145 in the United States and we will be responsible for commercializing it outside of the United States.   

In addition to receiving rights to MCLA-145 outside of the United States, we received worldwide exclusive development and commercialization rights to up to ten additional programs.  Of these ten additional programs, Merus retained the option, subject to certain conditions, to co-fund development of up to two such programs.  If Merus exercises its co-funding option for a program, Merus would be responsible for funding 35% of the associated future global development costs and, for certain of such programs, would be responsible for reimbursing us for certain development costs incurred prior to the option exercise.  Merus will also have the right to participate in a specified proportion of detailing activities in the United States for one of those co-developed programs. All costs related to the co-funded collaboration programs are subject to joint research and development plans and overseen by a joint development committee, but we will have final determination as to such plans in cases of dispute.  We will be responsible for all research, development and commercialization costs relating to all other programs. 

In February 2017, we paid Merus an upfront non-refundable payment of $120.0 million. For each program as to which Merus does not have commercialization or development co-funding rights, Merus will be eligible to receive up to $100.0 million in future contingent development and regulatory milestones, and up to $250.0 million in commercialization milestones as well as tiered royalties ranging from 6% to 10% of global net sales.  For each program as to which Merus exercises its option to co-fund development, Merus will be eligible to receive a 50% share of profits (or sustain 50% of any losses) in the United States and be eligible to receive tiered royalties ranging from 6% to 10% of net sales of products outside of the United States.  If Merus opts to cease co-funding a program as to which it exercised its co-development option, then Merus will no longer receive a share of profits in the United States but will be eligible to receive the same milestones from the co-funding termination date and the same tiered royalties described above with respect to programs where Merus does not have a right to co-fund development and, depending on the stage at which Merus chose to cease co-funding development costs, Merus will be eligible to receive additional royalties ranging up to 4% of net sales in the United States.  For MCLA-145, we and Merus will each be eligible to receive tiered royalties on net sales in the other party’s territory at rates ranging from 6% to 10%.  

The Merus agreement will continue on a program-by-program basis until we have no royalty payment obligations with respect to such program or, if earlier, the termination of the agreement or any program in accordance with the terms of the agreement.  The agreement may be terminated in its entirety or on a program-by-program basis by us for convenience.  The agreement may also be terminated by either party under certain other circumstances, including material breach, as set forth in the agreement.  If the agreement is terminated with respect to one or more programs, all rights in the terminated programs revert to Merus, subject to payment to us of a reverse royalty of up to 4% on sales of future products, if Merus elects to pursue development and commercialization of products arising from the terminated programs. 

Calithera

In January 2017, we entered into a Collaboration and License Agreement with Calithera Biosciences, Inc. Under this agreement, we received an exclusive, worldwide license to develop and commercialize small molecule arginase inhibitors, including INCB01158 (CB-1158), which is currently in Phase I clinical trials, for hematology and oncology indications. We have agreed to co-fund 70% of the global development costs for the development of the licensed products for hematology and oncology indications. Calithera will have the right to conduct certain clinical development under the

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collaboration, including combination studies of a licensed product with a proprietary compound of Calithera. We will be entitled to 60% of the profits and losses from net sales of licensed product in the United States, and Calithera will have the right to co-detail licensed products in the United States, and we have agreed to pay Calithera tiered royalties ranging from the low to mid-double digits on net sales of licensed products outside the United States. Calithera may opt out of its co-funding obligation, in which case the U.S. profit sharing will no longer be in effect, and we have agreed to pay Calithera tiered royalties ranging from the low to mid-double digits on net sales of licensed products both in the United States and outside the United States, and additional royalties to reimburse Calithera for previously incurred development costs. Calithera retains rights to certain arginase inhibitors that are not part of the collaboration for specific orphan indications outside of hematology and oncology, subject to our rights to negotiate a license for any such programs under specified circumstances if Calithera elects to out-license them.

In January 2017, we paid Calithera an upfront license fee of $45.0 million and have agreed to pay potential development, regulatory and sales milestone payments of over $430.0 million if the profit share is in effect, or $750.0 million if the profit share terminates.

The Calithera agreement will continue on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis for so long as we are developing or commercializing products in the United States (if the parties are sharing profits in the United States) and until we have no further royalty payment obligations, unless earlier terminated according to the terms of the agreement. The agreement may be terminated in its entirety or on a product-by-product and/or a country-by-country basis by us for convenience. The agreement may also be terminated by us for Calithera’s uncured material breach, by Calithera for our uncured material breach and by either party for bankruptcy or patent challenge. If the agreement is terminated early with respect to one or more products or countries, all rights in the terminated products and countries revert to Calithera.

MacroGenics

In October 2017, we entered into a Global Collaboration and License Agreement with MacroGenics. Under this agreement, we received exclusive development and commercialization rights worldwide to MacroGenics’ INCMGA0012, an investigational monoclonal antibody that inhibits PD-1. Except as set forth in the succeeding sentence, we will have sole authority over and bear all costs and expenses in connection with the development and commercialization of INCMGA0012 in all indications, whether as a monotherapy or as part of a combination regimen.  MacroGenics has retained the right to develop and commercialize, at its cost and expense, its pipeline assets in combination with INCMGA0012.  In addition, MacroGenics has the right to manufacture a portion of both companies’ global clinical and commercial supply needs of INCMGA0012.  In December 2017, we paid MacroGenics an upfront payment of $150.0 million. MacroGenics will be eligible to receive up to $420.0 million in future contingent development and regulatory milestones, and up to $330.0 million in commercial milestones as well as tiered royalties ranging from 15% to 24% of global net sales.

The MacroGenics agreement will continue until we are no longer commercializing, developing or manufacturing INCMGA0012 or, if earlier, the termination of the agreement in accordance with its terms.  The agreement may be terminated in its entirety or on a licensed product by licensed product basis by us for convenience.  The agreement may also be terminated by either party under certain other circumstances, including material breach, as set forth in the agreement.

Syros

In January 2018, we entered into a target discovery, research collaboration and option agreement with Syros Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Under this agreement, Syros will use its proprietary gene control platform to identify novel therapeutic targets with a focus in myeloproliferative neoplasms and we have received options to obtain exclusive worldwide rights to intellectual property resulting from the collaboration for up to seven validated targets.  We will have exclusive worldwide rights to develop and commercialize any therapies under the collaboration that modulate those validated targets.  We paid Syros $2.5 million in cash for access to proprietary technology and $7.5 million in cash for research and development services. We have agreed to pay Syros up to $54.0 million in target selection and option exercise fees should we decide to exercise all of our options under the agreement. For products resulting from the collaboration against each of the seven selected and validated targets, we have agreed to pay up to $50.0 million in potential development and regulatory milestones and

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up to $65.0 million in potential commercial milestones. Syros is also eligible to receive low single-digit royalties on net sales of products resulting from the collaboration.

Innovent

In December 2018, we entered into a research collaboration and licensing agreement with Innovent Biologics, Inc. Under the terms of this agreement, Innovent received exclusive development and commercialization rights to our clinical-stage product candidates pemigatinib, itacitinib and parsaclisib in hematology and oncology in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. In January 2019, we received an upfront payment under this agreement of $40.0 million. In addition, we are eligible to receive $20.0 million in connection with the first related IND filing in China, up to $129.0 million in potential development and regulatory milestones, and up to $202.5 million in potential commercial milestones. We are also eligible to receive tiered royalties from the high-teens to the low-twenties on future sales of products resulting from the collaboration. We retain an option to assist in the promotion of the three product candidates in the Innovent territories.

Incyte’s Approach to Drug Discovery and Development

Our productivity in drug discovery is primarily a result of our core competency in medicinal chemistry which is tightly integrated with, and supported by, an experienced team of biologists and pharmaceutical scientists with expertise in multiple therapeutic areas. This discovery team operates in concert with an equally experienced drug development organization with expertise in clinical sciences, statistics, and regulatory affairs. Our drug development organization manages our clinical programs and utilizes clinical research organizations (CROs), expert scientific advisory boards, and leading consultants and suppliers as appropriate to ensure our clinical trials are conducted efficiently, effectively, and in accordance with regulatory and compliance guidelines. 

To succeed in our objective to discover and advance novel therapeutics that address serious unmet medical needs, we have established a broad range of discovery capabilities in‑house, including target validation, high‑throughput screening, medicinal chemistry, computational chemistry, and pharmacological and ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) assessment. We augment these capabilities through collaborations with academic and contract laboratory resources with relevant expertise.

In addition to our small molecule expertise, we have added biotherapeutic antibody discovery capabilities. The collaboration with Agenus has provided us with access to their antibody discovery platform and provided us with both clinical antibodies and pre-clinical candidates. Recently, we have expanded our discovery reach to include bispecific antibodies through a collaboration with Merus. We are complementing these collaborations by building in-house antibody discovery, pharmacology, ADME and CMC capabilities and will partner these efforts with our small molecule portfolio.

Driven by a target- and pathway-centric discovery process, our pipeline has grown and is currently focused primarily in the area of oncology. We conduct a limited number of discovery programs in parallel at any one time. This focus allows us to allocate resources to our selected programs at a level that we believe is competitive with larger pharmaceutical companies. We continually modify the resourcing of our discovery efforts with the goals of maximizing  information content when and where we need it and ensuring that each program, regardless of stage, is executed in the most efficient and data-rich manner possible. We believe this approach has played a critical role in the development of our product portfolio.

Once our compounds reach clinical development, our objective is to rapidly progress the lead candidate into a proof‑of‑concept clinical trial to quickly assess the therapeutic potential of the clinical candidate itself as well as its underlying mechanism of action. This information is then used to evaluate the compound’s development opportunities, identify the most appropriate indication or indications to pursue, and develop a clinical and regulatory plan to advance the molecule forward.

Our development teams are responsible for ensuring that our clinical candidates are expeditiously progressed through clinical safety, proof-of-concept, and formal efficacy/pivotal trials. Our development teams include employees with expertise in drug development, including clinical trial design, statistics, regulatory affairs, medical affairs,

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pharmacovigilance and project management. We have also built internal process chemistry and formulation teams that work closely with external GMP contract manufacturers to support our drug development efforts.

Incyte’s Commercial Strategy

Our strategy is to develop and commercialize our compounds on our own in selected markets where we believe a company of our size can successfully compete, such as in myelofibrosis, polycythemia vera, and other oncology indications. In November 2011, we received regulatory approval of JAKAFI (ruxolitinib) in the United States for the treatment of intermediate or high‑risk myelofibrosis. Since that time, we have focused on increasing utilization of JAKAFI in this patient population. In December 2014, JAKAFI was approved for the treatment of patients with polycythemia vera who have had an inadequate response to or are intolerant of hydroxyurea. JAKAFI is the only FDA‑approved product to treat these two diseases. We have expanded the marketing, medical, sales and operational infrastructure to support continued commercialization of JAKAFI in its two indications and to prepare for potential future indications of JAKAFI in the United States. We are expanding marketing, medical and operational infrastructure outside of the United States and within the United States to prepare for potential approval of other products.

For rights to ruxolitinib outside the United States as well as for pipeline compounds that are outside of our core expertise, would require expensive clinical studies, or could be used in combination with other compounds or biologics, we have established or may in the future establish collaborations or strategic relationships to support development and commercialization, such as our collaborations with Novartis and Lilly for our JAK inhibitors. We believe the key benefits to entering into strategic relationships include the potential to receive upfront payments and future milestones and royalties in exchange for certain rights to our compounds, as well as the potential to expedite the development and commercialization of certain of our compounds.

ICLUSIG is approved in the European Union for the treatment of adult patients with CML who are resistant to dasatinib or nilotinib; who are intolerant to dasatinib or nilotinib and for whom subsequent treatment with imatinib is not clinically appropriate, or who have the T315I mutation.  ICLUSIG is also indicated in adult patients with Philadelphia positive AML who are resistant to dasatinib; who are intolerant to dasatinib and for whom subsequent treatment with imatinib is not clinically appropriate, or who have the T315I mutation. We are focused on increasing the utilization of ICLUSIG in this patient population within our territory as appropriate. 

Please also see Note 18 of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for financial information about geographic areas.

Patents and Other Intellectual Property

We regard the protection of patents and other enforceable intellectual property rights that we own or license as critical to our business and competitive position. Accordingly, we rely on patent, trade secret and copyright law, as well as nondisclosure and other contractual arrangements, to protect our intellectual property. We have established a patent portfolio of patents and patent applications owned or licensed by us that cover aspects of all our drug products and drug candidates. The patents and patent applications relating to our drug products and drug candidates generally include claims directed to the compounds, methods of using the compounds, formulations of the compounds, pharmaceutical salt forms of the compounds, and methods of manufacturing the compounds. Our policy is to pursue patent applications on inventions and discoveries that we believe are commercially important to the development and growth of our business. The following table sets forth the status of the patents and patent applications in the United States, the European Union, and Japan,

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covering our drug products and drug candidates in key programs that show at least proof of concept in their respective clinical development programs:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Drug/Drug Candidate (Target)

    

Status of United States Patent Estate
(Earliest Anticipated Expirations,
Subject to Potential Extensions
and Payment of Maintenance Fees)

    

Status of European Union
and Japan Patent Estate
(Earliest Anticipated Expirations,
Subject to Potential Extensions
and Payment of Maintenance Fees)

 

ruxolitinib (JAK)

 

Granted and pending (2026)

 

Granted and pending (2026)

 

baricitinib (JAK)

 

Granted and pending (2029)

 

Granted and pending (2029)

 

epacadostat (IDO)

 

Granted and pending (2029)

 

Granted and pending (2029)

 

itacitinib (JAK)

 

Granted and pending (2031)

 

Granted and pending (2031)

 

capmatinib (cMET)

 

Granted and pending (2027)

 

Granted and pending (2027)

 

parsaclisib (PI3Kδ)

 

Granted and pending (2032)

 

Granted and pending (2032)

 

pemigatinib (FGFR)

 

Granted and pending (2033)

 

Granted and pending (2033)

 

ponatinib (BCR ABL)

 

 

 

Granted and pending (2026)

 

INCMGA0012 (PD-1)

 

Pending (2036)

 

Pending (2036)

 

Patents extend for varying periods according to the date of patent filing or grant and the legal term of patents in the various countries where patent protection is obtained. The actual protection afforded by a patent, which can vary from country to country, depends on the type of patent, the scope of its coverage and the availability of legal remedies in the country.

We may seek to license rights relating to technologies, drug candidates or drug products in connection with our drug discovery and development programs and commercialization activities. Under these licenses, such as our licenses from Agenus, ARIAD, Calithera, MacroGenics and Merus we may be required to pay up‑front fees, license fees, milestone payments and royalties on sales of future products.

Although we believe our rights under patents and patent applications provide a competitive advantage, the patent positions of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are highly uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions. We may not be able to develop patentable products or processes, and may not be able to obtain patents in the United States or elsewhere from pending applications. Even if patent claims are allowed, the claims may not issue, or in the event of issuance, may not be valid or enforceable or may not be sufficient to protect the technology owned by or licensed to us or provide us with a competitive advantage. Any patent or other intellectual property rights that we own or obtain may be circumvented, challenged or invalidated by our competitors. Others may have patents that relate to our business or technology and that may prevent us from marketing our drug candidates unless we are able to obtain a license to those patents. In addition, litigation or other proceedings may be necessary to defend against claims of infringement, to enforce patents, to protect our other intellectual property rights, to determine the scope and validity of the proprietary rights of third parties or to defend ourselves in patent or other intellectual property right suits brought by third parties. We could incur substantial costs in such litigation or other proceedings. An adverse outcome in any such litigation or proceeding could subject us to significant liability.

With respect to proprietary information that is not patentable, and for inventions for which patents are difficult to enforce, we rely on trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to protect our interests. While we require all employees, consultants and potential business partners to enter into confidentiality agreements, we may not be able to adequately protect our trade secrets or other proprietary information. Others may independently develop substantially equivalent proprietary information and techniques or otherwise gain access to our trade secrets.

Competition

Our drug discovery, development and commercialization activities face, and will continue to face, intense competition from organizations such as pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, as well as academic and research institutions and government agencies. We face significant competition from organizations, particularly fully integrated pharmaceutical companies, that are pursuing pharmaceuticals that are competitive with JAKAFI, ICLUSIG and our drug candidates.

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Many companies and institutions, either alone or together with their collaborative partners, have substantially greater financial resources, larger drug discovery, development and commercial staffs and significantly greater experience than we do in:

·

drug discovery;

·

developing products;

·

undertaking preclinical testing and clinical trials;

·

obtaining FDA and other regulatory approvals of products; and

·

manufacturing, marketing, distributing and selling products.

Accordingly, our competitors may succeed in obtaining patent protection, receiving FDA and other regulatory approval or commercializing products that compete with JAKAFI, ICLUSIG or our drug candidates.

In addition, any drug candidate that we successfully develop may compete with existing therapies that have long histories of safe and effective use. Competition may also arise from:

·

other drug development technologies and methods of preventing or reducing the incidence of disease;

·

new compounds; or

·

other classes of therapeutic agents.

We face and will continue to face intense competition from other companies for collaborative arrangements with pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, for establishing relationships with academic and research institutions and for licenses to drug candidates or proprietary technology. These competitors, either alone or with their collaborative partners, may succeed in developing products that are more effective or commercially successful than ours.

Our ability to compete successfully will depend, in part, on our ability to:

·

develop proprietary products;

·

develop and maintain products that reach the market first, are technologically superior to and/or are of lower cost than other products in the market;

·

attract and retain scientific, product development and sales and marketing personnel;

·

obtain patent or other proprietary protection for our products and technologies;

·

obtain required regulatory approvals; and

·

manufacture, market, distribute and sell any products that we develop.

In a number of countries, including in particular, developing countries, government officials and other groups have suggested that pharmaceutical companies should make drugs available at a low cost. In some cases, governmental authorities have indicated that where pharmaceutical companies do not do so, their patents might not be enforceable to prevent generic competition. Some major pharmaceutical companies have greatly reduced prices for their drugs in certain developing countries. If certain countries do not permit enforcement of any of our patents, sales of our products in those countries, and in other countries by importation from low‑price countries, could be reduced by generic competition or by parallel importation of our product. Alternatively, governments in those countries could require that we grant compulsory

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licenses to allow competitors to manufacture and sell their own versions of our products in those countries, thereby reducing our product sales, or we could respond to governmental concerns by reducing prices for our products. In all of these situations, our results of operations could be adversely affected.

Government Regulation

Our ongoing research and development activities and any manufacturing and marketing of our approved drug products and our drug candidates are subject to extensive regulation by numerous governmental authorities in the United States and other countries. Before marketing in the United States, any drug developed by us must undergo rigorous preclinical testing, clinical trials, and an extensive regulatory clearance process implemented by the FDA under the United States Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and its implementing regulations and, in the case of biologics, the Public Health Service Act. The FDA regulates, among other things, the research, development, testing, manufacture, safety, efficacy, record‑keeping, labeling, storage, approval, advertising, promotion, sale and distribution and import and export, of these products. 

FDA Review and Approval Process

The regulatory review and approval process is lengthy, expensive and uncertain. The steps generally required before a drug may be marketed in the United States include:

·

preclinical laboratory tests, animal studies and formulation studies in compliance with the FDA’s Good Laboratory Practice and Good Manufacturing Practice regulations;

·

submission to the FDA of an Investigational New Drug application (IND) for human clinical testing, which must become effective before human clinical trials may commence;

·

performance of adequate and well‑controlled clinical trials in three phases, as described below, to establish the safety and efficacy of the drug for each indication;

·

submission of an NDA or Biologics License Application (BLA) to the FDA for review;

·

random inspections of clinical sites to ensure validity of clinical safety and efficacy data;

·

satisfactory completion of an FDA inspection of the manufacturing facility or facilities at which the drug is produced to assess compliance with current good manufacturing practices;

·

FDA approval of the NDA or BLA; and

·

payment of user and establishment fees, if applicable.

Similar requirements exist within foreign agencies as well. The time required to satisfy FDA requirements or similar requirements of foreign regulatory agencies may vary substantially based on the type, complexity and novelty of the product or the targeted disease.

Preclinical testing includes laboratory evaluation of product pharmacology, drug metabolism, and toxicity which includes animal studies, to assess potential safety and efficacy as well as product chemistry, stability, formulation, development, and testing. The results of the preclinical tests, together with manufacturing information and analytical data, are submitted to the FDA as part of an IND. An IND will automatically become effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless before that time, the FDA raises safety concerns or questions about the conduct of the clinical trial(s) included in the IND. In the latter case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding FDA concerns or questions before clinical trials can proceed. We cannot be sure that submission of an IND will result in the FDA allowing clinical trials to commence.

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Clinical trials involve the administration of the investigational drug to human subjects under the supervision of qualified investigators and in accordance with good clinical practices regulations covering the protection of human subjects. These regulations require all research subjects to provide informed consent. Clinical trials are conducted under protocols detailing the objectives of the study, the parameters to be used in monitoring safety, and the effectiveness criteria to be evaluated. Each protocol must be submitted to the FDA as part of the IND and each trial must be reviewed and approved by an institutional review board (IRB) before it can begin.

Clinical trials typically are conducted in three sequential phases, but the phases may overlap or be combined. Phase I usually involves the initial introduction of the investigational drug into healthy volunteers to evaluate its safety, dosage tolerance, absorption, metabolism, distribution and excretion. Phase II usually involves clinical trials in a limited patient population to evaluate dosage tolerance and optimal dosage, identify possible adverse effects and safety risks, and evaluate and gain preliminary evidence of the efficacy of the drug for specific indications. Phase III clinical trials usually further evaluate clinical efficacy and safety by testing the drug in its final form in an expanded patient population, providing statistical evidence of efficacy and safety, and providing an adequate basis for labeling. We cannot guarantee that Phase I, Phase II or Phase III testing will be completed successfully within any specified period of time, if at all. Furthermore, we, the IRB, or the FDA may suspend clinical trials at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the subjects or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk.

As a separate amendment to an IND, a clinical trial sponsor may submit to the FDA a request for a Special Protocol Assessment (SPA). Under the SPA procedure, a sponsor may seek the FDA’s agreement on the design and size of a clinical trial intended to form the primary basis of an effectiveness claim. If the FDA agrees in writing, its agreement may not be changed after the trial begins, except when agreed by FDA or in limited circumstances, such as when a substantial scientific issue essential to determining the safety and effectiveness of a drug candidate is identified after a Phase III clinical trial is commenced and agreement is obtained with the FDA. If the outcome of the trial is successful, the sponsor will ordinarily be able to rely on it as the primary basis for approval with respect to effectiveness. However, additional trials could also be requested by the FDA to support approval, and the FDA may make an approval decision based on a number of factors, including the degree of clinical benefit as well as safety. The FDA is not obligated to approve an NDA or BLA as a result of an SPA agreement, even if the clinical outcome is positive.

Even after initial FDA approval has been obtained, post‑approval trials, or Phase IV studies, may be required to provide additional data, and will be required to obtain approval for the sale of a product as a treatment for a clinical indication other than that for which the product was initially tested and approved. Also, the FDA will require post‑approval safety reporting to monitor the side effects of the drug. Results of post‑approval programs may limit or expand the indication or indications for which the drug product may be marketed. Further, if there are any requests for modifications to the initial FDA approval for the drug, including changes in indication, manufacturing process, manufacturing facilities, or labeling, a supplemental NDA or BLA may be required to be submitted to the FDA.

The length of time and related costs necessary to complete clinical trials varies significantly and may be difficult to predict. Clinical results are frequently susceptible to varying interpretations that may delay, limit or prevent regulatory approvals. Additional factors that can cause delay or termination of our clinical trials, or cause the costs of these clinical trials to increase, include:

·

slow patient enrollment due to the nature of the protocol, the proximity of patients to clinical sites, the eligibility criteria for the study, competition with clinical trials for other drug candidates or other factors;

·

inadequately trained or insufficient personnel at the study site to assist in overseeing and monitoring clinical trials;

·

delays in approvals from a study site’s IRB;

·

longer than anticipated treatment time required to demonstrate effectiveness or determine the appropriate product dose;

·

lack of sufficient supplies of the drug candidate for use in clinical trials;

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·

adverse medical events or side effects in treated patients; and

·

lack of effectiveness of the drug candidate being tested.

Any drug is likely to produce some toxicities or undesirable side effects in animals and in humans when administered at sufficiently high doses and/or for sufficiently long periods of time. Unacceptable toxicities or side effects may occur at any dose level, and at any time in the course of animal studies designed to identify unacceptable effects of a drug candidate, known as toxicological studies, or in clinical trials of our drug candidates. The appearance of any unacceptable toxicity or side effect could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, limit, delay or abort the development of any of our drug candidates, and could ultimately prevent their marketing approval by the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities for any or all targeted indications.

The FDA’s fast track, breakthrough therapy, accelerated approval, and priority review designation programs are intended to facilitate the development and expedite the review and approval of drug candidates intended for the treatment of serious or life‑threatening conditions and that demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs for these conditions. Under these programs, FDA can, for example, review portions of an NDA or BLA for a drug candidate before the entire application is complete, thus potentially beginning the review process at an earlier time.

We cannot guarantee that the FDA will grant any of our requests for any of these expedited program designations, that any such designations would affect the time of review or that the FDA will approve the NDA or BLA submitted for any of our drug candidates, whether or not these designations are granted. Additionally, FDA approval of a product can include restrictions on the product’s use or distribution (such as permitting use only for specified medical conditions or limiting distribution to physicians or facilities with special training or experience). Approval of such designated products can be conditioned on additional clinical trials after approval.

Sponsors submit the results of preclinical studies and clinical trials to the FDA as part of an NDA or BLA. NDAs and BLAs must also contain extensive product manufacturing information and proposed labeling. Upon receipt, the FDA initially reviews the NDA or BLA to determine whether it is sufficiently complete to initiate a substantive review. If the FDA identifies deficiencies that would preclude substantive review, the FDA will refuse to accept the NDA or BLA and will inform the sponsor of the deficiencies that must be corrected prior to resubmission. If the FDA accepts the submission for review (then deemed a “filing”), the FDA typically completes the NDA or BLA review within a pre‑determined time frame. Under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, the FDA agrees to review NDAs and BLAs under either a standard review or priority review. FDA procedures provide for priority review of NDAs and BLAs submitted for drugs that, compared to currently marketed products, if any, offer a significant improvement in the treatment, diagnosis or prevention of a disease. The FDA seeks to review NDAs and BLAs that are granted priority status more quickly than NDAs and BLAs given standard review status. The FDA’s stated policy is to act on 90% of priority NDAs and BLAs within eight months of receipt (or six months after filing, which occurs within 60 days after NDA or BLA submission). Although the FDA historically has not met these goals, the agency has made significant improvements in the timeliness of the review process. NDA and BLA review often extends beyond anticipated completion dates due to FDA requests for additional data or clarification, the FDA’s decision to have an advisory committee review, and difficulties in scheduling an advisory committee meeting. The recommendations of an advisory committee are not binding on the FDA.

To obtain FDA approval to market a product, we must demonstrate that the product is safe and effective for the patient population that will be treated. If regulatory approval of a product is granted, the approval will be limited to those disease states and conditions for which the product is safe and effective, as demonstrated through clinical trials. Marketing or promoting a drug for an unapproved indication is prohibited. Furthermore, approval may entail requirements for post‑marketing studies or risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, including the need for patient and/or physician education, patient registries, medication or similar guides, or other restrictions on the distribution of the product. If an NDA or BLA does not satisfy applicable regulatory criteria, the FDA may deny approval of an NDA or BLA or may issue a complete response, and require, among other things, additional clinical data or analyses.

The Orphan Drug Act provides incentives to manufacturers to develop and market drugs for rare diseases and conditions affecting fewer than 200,000 persons in the United States at the time of application for orphan drug designation. The first developer to receive FDA marketing approval for an orphan drug is entitled to a seven year exclusive marketing

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period in the United States for the orphan drug indication. However, a drug that the FDA considers to be clinically superior to, or different from, another approved orphan drug, even though for the same indication, may also obtain approval in the United States during the seven year exclusive marketing period.

Regulation of Manufacturing Process

Even when NDA or BLA approval is obtained, a marketed product, such as JAKAFI, its manufacturer and its manufacturing facilities are subject to continual review and periodic inspections by the FDA. The manufacturing process for pharmaceutical products is highly regulated and regulators may shut down manufacturing facilities that they believe do not comply with regulations. Discovery of previously unknown problems with a product, manufacturer or facility may result in restrictions on the product, manufacturer or facility, including costly recalls or withdrawal of the product from the market. Manufacturing facilities are always subject to inspection by the applicable regulatory authorities.

We and our third‑party manufacturers are subject to current Good Manufacturing Practices, which are extensive regulations governing manufacturing processes, including but not limited to stability testing, record keeping and quality standards as defined by the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, or ICH, FDA and the European Medicines Agency. Similar regulations are in effect in other countries. Manufacturing facilities are subject to inspection by the applicable regulatory authorities and are subject to manufacturing licenses where applicable. These facilities, whether our own or our contract manufacturers, must be inspected before we can use them in commercial manufacturing of our related products. We or our contract manufacturers may not be able to comply with applicable Good Manufacturing Practices and FDA or other regulatory requirements. If we or our contract manufacturers fail to comply, we or our contract manufacturers may be subject to legal or regulatory action, such as suspension of manufacturing license, seizure of product, or voluntary recall of product. Furthermore, continued compliance with applicable Good Manufacturing Practices will require continual expenditure of time, money and effort on the part of us or our contract manufacturers in the areas of production and quality control and record keeping and reporting, in order to ensure full compliance.

Post‑Approval Regulation

Any products manufactured or distributed by us pursuant to FDA approvals are subject to pervasive and continuing regulation by the FDA, including record‑keeping requirements, reporting of adverse experiences with the drug and other reporting, advertising and promotion restrictions. The FDA’s rules for advertising and promotion require, among other things, that our promotion be fairly balanced and adequately substantiated by clinical studies, and that we not promote our products for unapproved uses. We must also submit appropriate new and supplemental applications and obtain FDA approval for certain changes to the approved product, product labeling or manufacturing process. On its own initiative, the FDA may require changes to the labeling of an approved drug if it becomes aware of new safety information that the agency believes should be included in the approved drug’s labeling. The FDA also enforces the requirements of the Prescription Drug Marketing Act, or PDMA, which, among other things, imposes various requirements in connection with the distribution of product samples to physicians.

In addition to inspections related to manufacturing, we are subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA and other regulatory bodies related to the other regulatory requirements that apply to marketed drugs manufactured or distributed by us. The FDA also may conduct periodic inspections regarding our review and reporting of adverse events, or related to compliance with the requirements of the PDMA concerning the handling of drug samples. When the FDA conducts an inspection, the inspectors will identify any deficiencies they believe exist in the form of a notice of inspectional observations. The observations may be more or less significant. If we receive a notice of inspectional observations, we likely will be required to respond in writing, and may be required to undertake corrective and preventive actions in order to address the FDA’s concerns.

There are a variety of state laws and regulations that apply in the states or localities where JAKAFI and our drug candidates are or may be marketed. For example, we must comply with state laws that require the registration of manufacturers and wholesale distributors of pharmaceutical products in that state, including, in certain states, manufacturers and distributors who ship products into the state even if such manufacturers or distributors have no place of business within the state. Some states also impose requirements on manufacturers and distributors to establish the pedigree

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of product in the chain of distribution, including some states that require manufacturers and others to adopt new technology capable of tracking and tracing product as it moves through the distribution chain. Any applicable state or local regulations may hinder our ability to market, or increase the cost of marketing, our products in those states or localities.

The FDA’s policies may change and additional government regulations may be enacted which could impose additional burdens or limitations on our ability to market products after approval. Moreover, increased attention to the containment of health care costs in the United States and in foreign markets could result in new government regulations which could have a material adverse effect on our business. We cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of adverse governmental regulation which might arise from future legislative or administrative action, either in the United States or abroad.

Marketing Exclusivity

The FDA may grant five years of exclusivity in the United States for the approval of NDAs for new chemical entities, and three years of exclusivity for supplemental NDAs, for among other things, new indications, dosages or dosage forms of an existing drug if new clinical investigations that were conducted or sponsored by the applicant are essential to the approval of the supplemental application. Additionally, six months of marketing exclusivity in the United States is available if, in response to a written request from the FDA, a sponsor submits and the agency accepts requested information relating to the use of the approved drug in the pediatric population. The six month pediatric exclusivity is added to any existing patent or non‑patent exclusivity period for which the drug is eligible. Orphan drug products are also eligible for pediatric exclusivity if the FDA requests and the company completes pediatric clinical trials. Under the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act, the FDA may grant 12 years of data exclusivity for innovative biological products.

Foreign Regulation

Outside the United States, our ability to market a product is contingent upon receiving a marketing authorization from the appropriate regulatory authorities. The requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials, marketing authorization, pricing and reimbursement vary widely from country to country. At present, foreign marketing authorizations are applied for at a national level, although within the European Union (EU) registration procedures are available to companies wishing to market a product in more than one EU member state. If the competent regulatory authority is satisfied that adequate evidence of safety, quality and efficacy has been presented, a marketing authorization may be granted. This foreign regulatory approval process involves all of the risks associated with FDA approval discussed above and may also include additional risks.

Whether or not we obtain FDA approval for a product, we must obtain the requisite approvals from regulatory authorities in non-US countries prior to the commencement of clinical trials or marketing of the product in those countries. Certain countries outside of the United States have a process that requires the submission of a clinical trial application, or CTA, much like an IND prior to the commencement of human clinical trials. In Europe, a CTA must be submitted to the competent national health authority and to independent ethics committees in each country in which a company plans to conduct clinical trials. Once the CTA is approved in accordance with a country’s requirements, clinical trial development may proceed in that country and are conducted in accordance with GCP and other applicable regulatory requirements.

To obtain regulatory approval of an investigational drug under EU regulatory systems, we must submit a marketing authorization application (MAA). This application is similar to the NDA in the United States, with the exception of, among other things, regional and/or country-specific document requirements. Drugs can be authorized in the EU by using (i) the centralized authorization procedure, (ii) the mutual recognition procedure, (iii) the decentralized procedure or (iv) national authorization procedures.

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) implemented the centralized procedure for the approval of human drugs to facilitate marketing authorizations that are valid throughout the EU. This procedure results in a single marketing authorization granted by the European Commission that is valid across the EU. Under the centralized procedure, the maximum timeframe for the evaluation of a marketing authorization application by the EMA is 210 days (excluding clock stops, when additional written or oral information is to be provided by the applicant in response to questions asked by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP)). A positive opinion on the MAA by the CHMP then needs

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to be endorsed by the European Commission. Accelerated assessment might be granted by the CHMP in exceptional cases, in which case the EMA ensures that the evaluation for the opinion of the CHMP is completed within 150 days (excluding clock stops) and the opinion issued thereafter.

The mutual recognition procedure (MRP) for the approval of human drugs is an alternative approach to facilitate individual national marketing authorizations within the EU. The MRP may be applied for all human drugs for which the centralized procedure is not obligatory. The MRP is based on the principle of the mutual recognition by EU member states of their respective national marketing authorizations. Based on a marketing authorization in the reference member state, the applicant may apply for marketing authorizations in other member states. In such case, the reference member state shall update its existing assessment report about the drug. After the assessment is completed, copies of the report are sent to all member states, together with the approved summary of product characteristics, labeling and package leaflet. The concerned member states then recognize the decision of the reference member state and the summary of product characteristics, labeling and package leaflet. National marketing authorizations shall be granted within 30 days after acknowledgement of the agreement.

Should any Member State refuse to recognize the marketing authorization by the reference member state, the member states shall make all efforts to reach a consensus. If this fails, the procedure is submitted to an EMA scientific committee for arbitration. The opinion of this EMA Committee is then forwarded to the Commission, for the start of the decision making process. As in the centralized procedure, this process entails consulting various European Commission Directorates General and the Standing Committee on Human Medicinal Products or Veterinary Medicinal Products, as appropriate.

Legislation similar to the Orphan Drug Act has been enacted in other countries outside of the United States, including the EU. The orphan legislation in the EU is available for therapies addressing conditions that affect five or fewer out of 10,000 persons, are life‑threatening or chronically debilitating conditions and for which no satisfactory treatment is authorized. The market exclusivity period is for ten years, although that period can be reduced to six years if, at the end of the fifth year, available evidence establishes that the product does not justify maintenance of market exclusivity.

For other countries outside of the EU, such as non-EU countries in Eastern Europe, Middle-East, Latin America, Japan or other countries in Asia, the requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials, product licensing, pricing and reimbursement vary. In all cases, again, the clinical trials are conducted in accordance with GCP and the other applicable regulatory requirements.

If we fail to comply with applicable foreign regulatory requirements, we may be subject to, among other things, fines, suspension of clinical trials, suspension or withdrawal of regulatory approvals, product recalls, seizure of products, operating restrictions and criminal prosecution.

Manufacturing

Our manufacturing strategy is to contract with third parties to manufacture the raw materials, our active pharmaceutical ingredients, or API, and finished dosage form for clinical and commercial uses. We currently do not operate manufacturing facilities for clinical or commercial production of JAKAFI, ICLUSIG, or our drug candidates. In addition, we expect for the foreseeable future to continue to rely on third parties for the manufacture of commercial supplies of the raw materials, API and finished drug product for any drugs that we successfully develop and are approved for commercial sale. In this manner, we continue to build and maintain our supply chain and quality assurance resources.

Manufacturing of our Products

Our supply chain for manufacturing raw materials, API and drug product ready for distribution and commercialization is a multi‑step international process. Establishing and managing the supply chain requires a significant financial commitment and the creation and maintenance of numerous third‑party contractual relationships.

We contract with third parties to manufacture JAKAFI, ICLUSIG, and our drug candidates for clinical and commercial purposes. Third-party manufacturers supply raw materials, and other third-party manufacturers convert these

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raw materials into API or convert the API into final dosage form. For most of our drug candidates, once our raw materials are produced, we rely on one third-party to manufacture the API, another to make finished drug product and a third to package and label the finished product. For ruxolitinib phosphate, the API for JAKAFI, we have two qualified third-party contract manufacturers from which we can source drug substance. The manufacturing of Ponatinib, the API for ICLUSIG, is the sole responsibility of Takeda, the intellectual property holder. We procure API from Takeda, which outsources the API manufacturing to a third party. 

We also rely on third-party contract manufacturers to tablet or capsulate all of our active pharmaceutical ingredients for clinical and commercial uses. For JAKAFI, we have two qualified third-party manufacturers from which we can source commercial drug product.  For ICLUSIG we have two qualified third-party manufacturers from which we can source commercial drug product. Secondary packaging of ICLUSIG is performed by a qualified third-party manufacturer. Primary packaged product for ICLUSIG can be used for clinical and commercial purposes.

We may not be able to obtain sufficient quantities of any of our raw materials, drug candidates, API, or finished goods if our designated manufacturers do not have the capacity or capability to manufacture our products according to our schedule and specifications. If any of these single source suppliers were to become unable or unwilling to supply us with API or finished product that complies with applicable regulatory requirements, we could incur significant delays in our clinical trials or interruption of commercial supply which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We have established a quality assurance program intended to ensure that our third-party manufacturers and service providers produce materials and provide services, as applicable, in accordance with the FDA and EMA’s current Good Manufacturing Practices and other applicable regulations. Our quality assurance program extends to our licensed facilities that oversee the manufacturing and distribution activities.

For our future products, we intend to continue to establish third‑party suppliers to manufacture sufficient quantities of our drug candidates to undertake clinical trials and to manufacture sufficient quantities of any product that is approved for commercial sale. If we are unable to contract for large scale manufacturing with third parties on acceptable terms for our future products or develop manufacturing capabilities internally, our ability to conduct large scale clinical trials and meet customer demand for commercial products will be adversely affected.

Third‑party Manufacturers

Our third‑party manufacturers are independent entities, under contract with us, who are subject to their own unique operational and financial risks which are out of our control. If we or any of our third‑party manufacturers fail to perform as required, this could impair our ability to deliver our products on a timely basis or cause delays in our clinical trials and applications for regulatory approval. To the extent these risks materialize and affect their performance obligations to us, our financial results may be adversely affected.

We believe the technology used to manufacture our products is proprietary. For products manufactured by our third‑party manufacturers, we have licensed the necessary aspects of this manufacturing technology that we believe is proprietary to us to enable them to manufacture the products for us. We have agreements with these third‑party manufacturers that are intended to restrict these manufacturers from using or revealing our technology, but we cannot be certain that these third‑party manufacturers will comply with these restrictions.

While we believe there are multiple third parties capable of providing most of the materials and services we need in order to manufacture API and distribute finished goods, and that supply of materials that cannot be second sourced can be managed with inventory planning, there is always a risk that we may underestimate demand, and that our manufacturing capacity through third-party manufacturers may not be sufficient. In addition, because of the significant lead times involved in our supply chain for ruxolitinib phosphate, we may have less flexibility to adjust our supply in response to changes in demand than if we had shorter lead times.  Our strategy is to maintain 24 months of safety stock of API to be able to respond to changes in demand to provide on-time supply of drug product as well as at least 6 months of semi-finished goods inventory.

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Access to Supplies and Materials

Our third-party manufacturers need access to certain supplies and products to manufacture JAKAFI, ICLUSIG, and our drug candidates. If delivery of material from their suppliers were interrupted for any reason or if they are unable to purchase sufficient quantities of raw materials used to manufacture JAKAFI, ICLUSIG, and our drug candidates, they may be unable to ship JAKAFI and ICLUSIG for commercial supply or to supply our drug candidates in development for clinical trials. For example, currently raw materials used to manufacture ruxolitinib phosphate, the API in JAKAFI, are supplied by Chinese-based companies. As a result, an international trade dispute between China and the United States or any other actions by the Chinese government that would limit or prevent Chinese companies from supplying these materials would adversely affect our ability to manufacture and supply our products to meet market needs and have a material and adverse effect on our operating results.

Human Resources

As of December 31, 2018, we had 1,367 employees, including 748 in research and development, 129 in medical affairs, 289 in sales and marketing and 201 in operations support, finance and administrative positions. Geographically, 1,106 employees were based in the United States and 261 employees were based in Europe and Japan.  None of our employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements, and management considers relations with our employees to be good.

Available Information

We were incorporated in Delaware in 1991 and our website is located at www.incyte.com. We make available free of charge on our website our annual reports on Form 10‑K, quarterly reports on Form 10‑Q, current reports on Form 8‑K and amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file or furnish such materials to the Securities and Exchange Commission. Our website and the information contained therein or connected thereto are not intended to be incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

Item 1A.  Risk Factors

RISKS RELATING TO COMMERCIALIZATION OF OUR PRODUCTS

We depend heavily on our lead product, JAKAFI (ruxolitinib), which is marketed as JAKAVI outside the United States. If we are unable to successfully commercialize JAKAFI in its approved indications or to successfully obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize ruxolitinib for the treatment of additional indications, or if we are significantly delayed or limited in doing so, our business may be materially harmed.

JAKAFI is our first and, currently, only product marketed by us that is approved for sale in the United States. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, in November 2011 for the treatment of patients with intermediate or high‑risk myelofibrosis and in December 2014 for the treatment of patients with polycythemia vera who have had an inadequate response to or are intolerant of hydroxyurea, which we refer to as uncontrolled polycythemia vera. Although we have received regulatory approval for these indications, such approval does not guarantee future revenues. While in June 2016 we acquired exclusive rights to develop and commercialize ICLUSIG in the European Union, or EU, and other countries and in June 2018 the FDA approved for sale OLUMIANT (baricitinib), which we exclusively licensed to Eli Lilly and Company, for the treatment of specified rheumatoid arthritis indications, we anticipate that JAKAFI product sales will continue to contribute a significant percentage of our total revenues over the next several years.

The commercial success of JAKAFI and our ability to generate and maintain revenues from the sale of JAKAFI will depend on a number of factors, including:

·

the number of patients with intermediate or high‑risk myelofibrosis or uncontrolled polycythemia vera who are diagnosed with the disease and the number of such patients that may be treated with JAKAFI;

·

the acceptance of JAKAFI by patients and the healthcare community;

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·

whether physicians, patients and healthcare payors view JAKAFI as therapeutically effective and safe relative to cost and any alternative therapies;

·

the ability to obtain and maintain sufficient coverage or reimbursement by third‑party payors;

·

the ability of our third‑party manufacturers to manufacture JAKAFI in sufficient quantities with acceptable quality;

·

the ability of our company and our third‑party providers to provide marketing and distribution support for JAKAFI;

·

the label and promotional claims allowed by the FDA;

·

the maintenance of regulatory approval for the approved indications in the United States; and

·

our ability to develop, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize ruxolitinib in the United States for additional indications.

If we are not successful in commercializing JAKAFI in the United States, or are significantly delayed or limited in doing so, our business may be materially harmed and we may need to delay other drug discovery and development initiatives or even significantly curtail operations.

In addition, our receipt of royalties under our collaboration agreements with Novartis for sales of JAKAVI outside the United States and with Lilly for worldwide sales of OLUMIANT will depend on factors similar to those listed above for jurisdictions outside the United States.

If we are unable to obtain, or maintain at anticipated levels, reimbursement for our products from government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations, our pricing may be affected or our product sales, results of operations or financial condition could be harmed.

We may not be able to sell our products on a profitable basis or our profitability may be reduced if we are required to sell our products at lower than anticipated prices or reimbursement is unavailable or limited in scope or amount. JAKAFI and ICLUSIG are expensive and almost all patients will require some form of third-party coverage to afford their cost. Our future revenues and profitability will be adversely affected if we cannot depend on government and other third‑party payors to defray the cost of our products to the patient. Reimbursement systems in international markets vary significantly by country and by region, and reimbursement approvals must be obtained on a country-by-country basis. Reimbursement in the EU must be negotiated on a country-by-country basis and in many countries the product cannot be commercially launched until reimbursement is approved. The timing to complete the negotiation process in each country is highly uncertain, and in some countries, we expect that it may exceed 12 months.  Risks related to pricing and reimbursement are described below under “—Other Risks Relating to our Business— Health care reform measures could impact the pricing and profitability of pharmaceuticals, and adversely affect the commercial viability of our products and drug candidates. Our ability to generate revenues will be diminished if we are unable to obtain an adequate level of reimbursement from private insurers, government insurance programs or other third-party payors of health care costs, which could be affected by current and potential healthcare reform legislation.” If government and other third‑party payors refuse to provide coverage and reimbursement with respect to our products, determine to provide a lower level of coverage and reimbursement than anticipated, or reduce previously approved levels of coverage and reimbursement, then our pricing or reimbursement for our products may be affected and our product sales, results of operations or financial condition could be harmed.

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We depend upon a limited number of specialty pharmacies and wholesalers for a significant portion of any revenues from JAKAFI, and the loss of, or significant reduction in sales to, any one of these specialty pharmacies or wholesalers could adversely affect our operations and financial condition.

We sell JAKAFI primarily to specialty pharmacies and wholesalers. Specialty pharmacies dispense JAKAFI to patients in fulfillment of prescriptions and wholesalers sell JAKAFI to hospitals and physician offices. We do not promote JAKAFI to specialty pharmacies or wholesalers, and they do not set or determine demand for JAKAFI. Our ability to successfully commercialize JAKAFI will depend, in part, on the extent to which we are able to provide adequate distribution of JAKAFI to patients. Although we have contracted with a number of specialty pharmacies and wholesalers, they are expected generally to carry a very limited inventory and may be reluctant to be part of our distribution network in the future if demand for the product does not increase. Further, it is possible that these specialty pharmacies and wholesalers could decide to change their policies or fees, or both, at some time in the future. This could result in their refusal to carry smaller volume products such as JAKAFI, or lower margins or the need to find alternative methods of distributing our product. Although we believe we can find alternative channels to distribute JAKAFI on relatively short notice, our revenue during that period of time may suffer and we may incur additional costs to replace any such specialty pharmacy or wholesaler. The loss of any large specialty pharmacy or wholesaler as part of our distribution network, a significant reduction in sales we make to specialty pharmacies or wholesalers, or any failure to pay for the products we have shipped to them could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

If we are unable to establish and maintain effective sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, or to enter into agreements with third parties to do so, we will not be able to successfully commercialize our products.

Prior to our commercialization of JAKAFI, we had no experience selling and marketing drug products and with pricing and obtaining adequate third‑party reimbursement for drug products. Under our collaboration and license agreement with Novartis, we have retained commercialization rights to JAKAFI in the United States. We have established commercial capabilities in the United States, but cannot guarantee that we will be able to enter into and maintain any marketing, distribution or third‑party logistics agreements with third‑party providers on acceptable terms, if at all. In connection with our June 2016 acquisition from ARIAD Pharmaceuticals, Inc. we licensed rights to develop and commercialize ICLUSIG in certain countries and we acquired the European sales, marketing and distribution operations of ARIAD.  We may not be able to maintain those operations or retain their personnel or distribution arrangements. We may not be able to correctly judge the size and experience of the sales and marketing force and the scale of distribution capabilities necessary to successfully market and sell our products. Establishing and maintaining sales, marketing and distribution capabilities are expensive and time‑consuming. Competition for personnel with experience in sales and marketing can be high. Our expenses associated with building and maintaining the sales force and distribution capabilities may be disproportional compared to the revenues we may be able to generate on sales of our products.

If we fail to comply with applicable laws and regulations, we could lose our approval to market our products or be subject to other governmental enforcement activity.

We cannot guarantee that we will be able to maintain regulatory approval to market our products in the jurisdictions in which they are currently marketed. If we do not maintain our regulatory approval to market our products, in particular JAKAFI, our results of operations will be materially harmed. We and our collaborators, third‑party manufacturers and suppliers are subject to rigorous and extensive regulation by the FDA and other federal and state agencies as well as foreign governmental agencies. These regulations continue to apply after product marketing approval, and cover, among other things, testing, manufacturing, quality control, labeling, advertising, promotion, risk mitigation, and adverse event reporting requirements.

The commercialization of our products is subject to post‑regulatory approval product surveillance, and our products may have to be withdrawn from the market or subject to restrictions if previously unknown problems occur. Regulatory agencies may also require additional clinical trials or testing for our products, and our products may be recalled or may be subject to reformulation, additional studies, changes in labeling, warnings to the public and negative publicity.  For example, from late 2013 through 2014, ICLUSIG was subject to review by the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, of the benefits and risks of ICLUSIG to better understand the nature, frequency and severity of events obstructing the arteries or veins, the potential mechanism that leads to these side effects and whether there needed to be a revision in the

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dosing recommendation, patient monitoring and a risk management plan for ICLUSIG. This review was completed in January 2015, with additional warnings in the product information but without any change in the approved indications.  The EMA could take additional actions in the future that reduce the commercial potential of ICLUSIG.

Failure to comply with the laws and regulations administered by the FDA or other agencies could result in:

·

administrative and judicial sanctions, including warning letters;

·

fines and other civil penalties;

·

suspension or withdrawal of regulatory approval to market our products;

·

interruption of production;

·

operating restrictions;

·

product recall or seizure;

·

injunctions; and

·

criminal prosecution.

The occurrence of any such event may have a material adverse effect on our business.

If the use of our products harms patients, or is perceived to harm patients even when such harm is unrelated to our products, our regulatory approvals could be revoked or otherwise negatively impacted or we could be subject to costly and damaging product liability claims.

The testing of JAKAFI and ICLUSIG, the manufacturing, marketing and sale of JAKAFI and the marketing and sale of ICLUSIG expose us to product liability and other risks. Side effects and other problems experienced by patients from the use of our products could:

·

lessen the frequency with which physicians decide to prescribe our products;

·

encourage physicians to stop prescribing our products to their patients who previously had been prescribed our products;

·

cause serious harm to patients that may give rise to product liability claims against us; and

·

result in our need to withdraw or recall our products from the marketplace.

If our products are used by a wide patient population, new risks and side effects may be discovered, the rate of known risks or side effects may increase, and risks previously viewed as less significant could be determined to be significant.

Previously unknown risks and adverse effects of our products may also be discovered in connection with unapproved, or off‑label, uses of our products. We are prohibited by law from promoting or in any way supporting or encouraging the promotion of our products for off‑label uses, but physicians are permitted to use products for off‑label purposes. In addition, we are studying and expect to continue to study JAKAFI in diseases for potential additional indications in controlled clinical settings, and independent investigators are doing so as well. In the event of any new risks or adverse effects discovered as new patients are treated for intermediate or high‑risk myelofibrosis or uncontrolled polycythemia vera and as JAKAFI is studied in or used by patients for off‑label indications, regulatory authorities may delay or revoke their approvals, we may be required to conduct additional clinical trials, make changes in labeling of

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JAKAFI, reformulate JAKAFI or make changes and obtain new approvals. We may also experience a significant drop in the sales of JAKAFI, experience harm to our reputation and the reputation of JAKAFI in the marketplace or become subject to lawsuits, including class actions. Any of these results could decrease or prevent sales of JAKAFI or substantially increase the costs and expenses of commercializing JAKAFI. Similar results could occur with respect to our commercialization of ICLUSIG.

Patients who have been enrolled in our clinical trials or who may use our products in the future often have severe and advanced stages of disease and known as well as unknown significant pre‑existing and potentially life‑threatening health risks. During the course of treatment, patients may suffer adverse events, including death, for reasons that may or may not be related to our products. Such events could subject us to costly litigation, require us to pay substantial amounts of money to injured patients, delay, negatively impact or end our opportunity to receive or maintain regulatory approval to market our products, or require us to suspend or abandon our commercialization efforts. Even in a circumstance in which we do not believe that an adverse event is related to our products, the investigation into the circumstance may be time consuming or inconclusive. These investigations may interrupt our sales efforts, impact and limit the type of regulatory approvals our products receive or maintain, or delay the regulatory approval process in other countries.

Factors similar to those listed above also apply to our collaboration partner Novartis and to ICLUSIG for jurisdictions outside the United States.

If we market our products in a manner that violates various laws and regulations, we may be subject to civil or criminal penalties.

In addition to FDA and related regulatory requirements, we are subject to health care “fraud and abuse” laws, such as the federal False Claims Act, the anti‑kickback provisions of the federal Social Security Act, and other state and federal laws and regulations. Federal and state anti‑kickback laws prohibit, among other things, knowingly and willfully offering, paying, soliciting or receiving remuneration to induce, or in return for purchasing, leasing, ordering or arranging for the purchase, lease or order of any health care item or service reimbursable under Medicare, Medicaid, or other federally‑ or state‑financed health care programs. Federal false claims laws prohibit any person from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false claim for payment to the federal government, or knowingly making, or causing to be made, a false statement to get a false claim paid. Pharmaceutical companies have been prosecuted under these laws for a variety of alleged promotional and marketing activities.

Although physicians are permitted, based on their medical judgment, to prescribe products for indications other than those approved by the FDA, manufacturers are prohibited from promoting their products for such off‑label uses. We market JAKAFI for intermediate or high‑risk myelofibrosis and uncontrolled polycythemia vera and provide promotional materials to physicians regarding the use of JAKAFI for these indications. Although we believe that our promotional materials for physicians do not constitute off‑label promotion of JAKAFI, the FDA or other agencies may disagree. If the FDA or another agency determines that our promotional materials or other activities constitute off‑label promotion of JAKAFI, it could request that we modify our promotional materials or other activities or subject us to regulatory enforcement actions, including the issuance of a warning letter, injunction, seizure, civil fine and criminal penalties. It is also possible that other federal, state or foreign enforcement authorities might take action if they believe that the alleged improper promotion led to the submission and payment of claims for an unapproved use, which could result in significant fines or penalties under other statutory authorities, such as laws prohibiting false claims for reimbursement. Even if it is later determined we are not in violation of these laws, we may be faced with negative publicity, incur significant expenses defending our position and have to divert significant management resources from other matters.

The European Union and member countries impose similar strict restrictions on the promotion and marketing of drug products.  The off-label promotion of medicinal products is prohibited in the EU and in other territories. The promotion of medicinal products that are not subject to a marketing authorization is also prohibited in the EU. Violations of the rules governing the promotion of medicinal products in the EU and in other territories could be penalized by administrative measures, fines and imprisonment.

The majority of states also have statutes or regulations similar to the federal anti‑kickback law and false claims laws, which apply to items and services reimbursed under Medicaid and other state programs, or, in several states, apply

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regardless of the payor. In recent years, several states and localities, including California, Connecticut, the District of Columbia, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Vermont, and West Virginia, have enacted legislation requiring pharmaceutical companies to establish marketing compliance programs, file periodic reports with the state or make periodic public disclosures on sales, marketing, pricing, clinical trials, and other activities. Similar legislation is being considered in other states. Additionally, as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the federal government has enacted the Physician Payment Sunshine provisions. The Sunshine provisions require manufacturers to publicly report certain payments or other transfers of value made to physicians and teaching hospitals. Many of these requirements are new and uncertain, and the penalties for failure to comply with these requirements are unclear. Nonetheless, if we are found not to be in full compliance with these laws, we could face enforcement action and fines and other penalties, and could receive adverse publicity. See also “—Other Risks Relating to our Business—If we fail to comply with the extensive legal and regulatory requirements affecting the health care industry, we could face increased costs, penalties and a loss of business” below.

Competition for our products could harm our business and result in a decrease in our revenue.

Present and potential competitors for JAKAFI could include major pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, as well as specialty pharmaceutical firms.  For example, in January 2019, Celgene Corporation announced that it had submitted an NDA for fedratinib, a drug candidate for the treatment of myelofibrosis, and expected FDA approval by year-end 2019. See “—Other Risks Relating to our Business— We face significant competition for our drug discovery and development efforts, and if we do not compete effectively, our commercial opportunities will be reduced or eliminated” for a description of risks relating to this type of competition.  In addition, JAKAFI could face competition from generic products.  As a result of the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, commonly known as the Hatch-Waxman Act, in the United States, generic manufacturers may seek approval of a generic version of an innovative pharmaceutical by filing with the FDA an Abbreviated New Drug Application, or ANDA. The Hatch-Waxman Act provides significant incentives to generic manufacturers to challenge U.S. patents on successful innovative pharmaceutical products.  In February 2016, we received a notice letter regarding an ANDA that requested approval to market a generic version of JAKAFI and purported to challenge patents covering ruxolitinib phosphate and its use that expire in 2028. The notice letter does not challenge the ruxolitinib composition of matter patent, which expires in December 2027.  To date, to our knowledge, the FDA has taken no action with respect to this ANDA. Separately, in January 2018 the Patent Trial and Appeal Board of United States Patent and Trademark Office denied a petition challenging our patent covering deuterated ruxolitinib analogs, although the challenging party retains the right to challenge the validity of the patent in federal court. There can be no assurance that our patents will be upheld or that any litigation in which we might engage with any such generic manufacturer would be successful in protecting JAKAFI’s exclusivity.  The entry of a generic version of JAKAFI could result in a decrease in JAKAFI sales and materially harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

ICLUSIG currently competes with existing therapies that are approved for the treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, or CML, who are resistant or intolerant to prior tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or TKI, therapies, on the basis of, among other things, efficacy, cost, breadth of approved use and the safety and side-effect profile. In addition, a generic version of imatinib was launched in the United States in February 2016, and generic versions are expected to be launched in other markets. Although we currently believe that generic versions of imatinib will not materially impact our commercialization of ICLUSIG, given ICLUSIG’s various indication statements globally that are currently focused on resistant or intolerant CML, we cannot be certain how physicians, payors, patients, regulatory authorities and other market participants will respond to the availability of generic versions of imatinib. 

OTHER RISKS RELATING TO OUR BUSINESS

We may be unsuccessful in our efforts to discover and develop drug candidates and commercialize drug products.

None of our drug candidates, other than JAKAFI/JAKAVI, has received regulatory approval. Our ability to discover and develop drug candidates and to commercialize additional drug products will depend on our ability to:

·

hire and retain key employees;

·

identify high quality therapeutic targets;

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·

identify potential drug candidates;

·

develop products internally or license drug candidates from others;

·

identify and enroll suitable human subjects, either in the United States or abroad, for our clinical trials;

·

complete laboratory testing;

·

commence, conduct and complete safe and effective clinical trials on humans;

·

obtain and maintain necessary intellectual property rights to our products;

·

obtain and maintain necessary regulatory approvals for our products, both in the United States and abroad;

·

enter into arrangements with third parties to provide services or to manufacture our products on our behalf;

·

deploy sales and marketing resources effectively or enter into arrangements with third parties to provide these functions in compliance with all applicable laws;

·

obtain appropriate coverage and reimbursement levels for the cost of our products from governmental authorities, private health insurers and other third‑party payors;

·

lease facilities at reasonable rates to support our growth; and

·

enter into arrangements with third parties to license and commercialize our products.

We have limited experience with many of the activities listed above and may not be successful in discovering, developing, or commercializing additional drug products. Discovery and development of drug candidates are expensive, uncertain and time‑consuming, and we do not know if our efforts will lead to discovery of any drug candidates that can be successfully developed and marketed. Of the compounds or biologics that we identify as potential drug products or that we may in‑license from other companies, including potential products for which we are conducting clinical trials, only a few, if any, are likely to lead to successful drug development programs and commercialized drug products.

We depend heavily on the success of our most advanced drug candidates. We might not be able to commercialize any of our drug candidates successfully, and we may spend significant time and money attempting to do so.

We have invested significant resources in the development of our most advanced drug candidates. Ruxolitinib is in Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of patients with steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease and is in other clinical trials. Itacitinib is in a Phase III clinical trial for the treatment of patients with acute graft-versus-host disease.  Further, we have a number of drug candidates in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials. Our ability to generate product revenues will depend on the successful development and eventual commercialization of our most advanced drug candidates. We, or our collaborators or licensees, may decide to discontinue development of any or all of our drug candidates at any time for commercial, scientific or other reasons.  For example: in early 2016, we decided to discontinue the clinical trials of ruxolitinib in pancreatic cancer and solid tumors and itacitinib in pancreatic cancer; and, in April 2018, we along with Merck stopped the ECHO-301 study with epacadostat, and we also significantly downsized the epacadostat development

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program. If a product is developed but not approved or marketed, we may have spent significant amounts of time and money on it, which could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition as well as our business plans.

If we or our collaborators are unable to obtain regulatory approval for our drug candidates in the United States and foreign jurisdictions, we or our collaborators will not be permitted to commercialize products resulting from our research.

In order to commercialize drug products in the United States, drug candidates will have to obtain regulatory approval from the FDA. Satisfaction of regulatory requirements typically takes many years. To obtain regulatory approval, we or our collaborators, as the case may be, must first show that our drug candidates are safe and effective for target indications through preclinical testing (animal testing) and clinical trials (human testing). Preclinical testing and clinical development are long, expensive and uncertain processes, and we do not know whether the FDA will allow us or our collaborators to undertake clinical trials of any drug candidates in addition to our compounds currently in clinical trials. If regulatory approval of a product is granted, this approval will be limited to those disease states and conditions for which the product is demonstrated through clinical trials to be safe and effective.

Completion of clinical trials may take several years and failure may occur at any stage of testing. The length of time required varies substantially according to the type, complexity, novelty and intended use of the drug candidate. Interim results of a preclinical test or clinical trial do not necessarily predict final results, and acceptable results in early clinical trials may not be repeated in later clinical trials. For example, a drug candidate that is successful at the preclinical level may cause harmful or dangerous side effects when tested at the clinical level. Our rate of commencement and completion of clinical trials may be delayed, and existing clinical trials with our drug candidates may be stopped, due to many potential factors, including:

·

the high degree of risk and uncertainty associated with drug development;

·

our inability to formulate or manufacture sufficient quantities of materials for use in clinical trials;

·

variability in the number and types of patients available for each study;

·

difficulty in maintaining contact with patients after treatment, resulting in incomplete data;

·

unforeseen safety issues or side effects;

·

poor or unanticipated effectiveness of drug candidates during the clinical trials; or

·

government or regulatory delays.

Data obtained from clinical trials are susceptible to varying interpretation, which may delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval. Many companies in the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industry, including our company, have suffered significant setbacks in advanced clinical trials, even after achieving promising results in earlier clinical trials. In addition, regulatory authorities may refuse or delay approval as a result of other factors, such as changes in regulatory policy during the period of product development and regulatory agency review. For example, the FDA has in the past required, and could in the future require, that we or our collaborators conduct additional trials of any of our drug candidates, which would result in delays. In April 2017, we and our collaborator Lilly announced that the FDA had issued a complete response letter for the New Drug Application, or NDA, of OLUMIANT as a once-daily oral medication for the treatment of moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis. The letter indicated that additional clinical data were needed to determine the most appropriate doses and to further characterize safety concerns across treatment arms. In June 2018, after a resubmission of the NDA, the FDA approved the 2mg dose of OLUMIANT for the treatment of adults with moderately-to-severely active rheumatoid arthritis who have had an inadequate response to one or more tumor necrosis factor inhibitor therapies.  The FDA did not at that time approve any higher dose of OLUMIANT and required a warning label in connection with its approval.

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Compounds or biologics developed by us or with or by our collaborators and licensees may not prove to be safe and effective in clinical trials and may not meet all of the applicable regulatory requirements needed to receive marketing approval. For example, in January 2016, a Phase II trial that was evaluating ruxolitinib in combination with regorafenib in patients with relapsed or refractory metastatic colorectal cancer and high C-reactive protein was stopped early after a planned analysis of interim efficacy data determined that the likelihood of the trial meeting its efficacy endpoint was insufficient.  In addition, in February 2016, we made a decision to discontinue our JANUS 1 study, our JANUS 2 study, our other studies of ruxolitinib in colorectal, breast and lung cancer, and our study of INCB39110 in pancreatic cancer after a planned analysis of interim efficacy data of JANUS 1 demonstrated that ruxolitinib plus capecitabine did not show a sufficient level of efficacy to warrant continuation. Also, in April 2018, we along with Merck announced that the ECHO-301 study had been stopped and we also significantly downsized the epacadostat development program. If clinical trials of any of our compounds or biologics are stopped for safety, efficacy or other reasons or fail to meet their respective endpoints, our overall development plans, business, prospects, expected operating results and financial condition could be materially harmed and the value of our company could be negatively affected. 

Outside the United States, our and our collaborators’ ability to market a product is contingent upon receiving a marketing authorization from the appropriate regulatory authorities. This foreign regulatory approval process typically includes all of the risks associated with the FDA approval process described above and may also include additional risks. The requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials, product licensing, pricing and reimbursement vary greatly from country to country and may require us to perform additional testing and expend additional resources. Approval by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries, and approval by one foreign regulatory authority does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or by the FDA.

Health care reform measures could impact the pricing and profitability of pharmaceuticals, and adversely affect the commercial viability of our products and drug candidates. Our ability to generate revenues will be diminished if we are unable to obtain an adequate level of reimbursement from private insurers, government insurance programs or other third‑party payors of health care costs, which could be affected by current and potential healthcare reform legislation.

Our ability to commercialize our current and any future approved products successfully will depend in part on the extent to which adequate reimbursement levels for the cost of our products and related treatment are obtained from third‑party payors, such as private insurers, government insurance programs, including Medicare and Medicaid, health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and other health care related organizations.

In recent years, through legislative and regulatory actions, the federal government has made substantial changes to various payment systems under the Medicare and other federal health care programs. Comprehensive reforms to the U.S. healthcare system were enacted, including changes to the methods for, and amounts of, Medicare reimbursement. While there is currently significant uncertainty regarding the implementation of some of these reforms or the scope of amended or additional reforms, the implementation of reforms could significantly reduce payments from Medicare and Medicaid. Reforms or other changes to these payment systems, may change the availability, methods and rates of reimbursements from Medicare, private insurers and other third-party payors for our current and any future approved products. Some of these changes and proposed changes could result in reduced reimbursement rates or in eliminating dual sources of payment, which could reduce the price that we or any of our collaborators or licensees receive for any products in the future, and which would adversely affect our business strategy, operations and financial results. Further federal and state proposals to regulate prices of pharmaceutical products and other health care reforms are possible, which could limit the prices that can be charged for any of our products and may further limit the commercial viability of our products and drug candidates. In certain foreign markets, pricing or profitability of prescription pharmaceuticals is subject to government control. If reimbursement for our products is unavailable or limited in scope or amount, or if pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels, our business could be materially harmed. There may be future changes that result in reductions in current coverage and reimbursement levels for our current or any future approved products, and we cannot predict the scope of any future changes or the impact that those changes would have on our operations.

Third‑party payors are increasingly challenging the prices charged for medical products and services. Also, the trend toward managed health care in the United States, the organizations for which could control or significantly influence the purchase of health care services and products, as well as legislative and regulatory proposals to reform health care or reduce government insurance programs, may all result in lower prices for or rejection of our products. Adoption of our

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products by the medical community may be limited without adequate reimbursement for those products. Cost control initiatives may decrease coverage and payment levels for our products and, in turn, the price that we will be able to charge for any product. Our products may not be considered cost‑effective, and coverage and reimbursement may not be available or sufficient to allow us to sell our products on a profitable basis. We are unable to predict all changes to the coverage or reimbursement methodologies that will be applied by private or government payors to our current and any future approved products.

The continuing efforts of legislatures, health agencies and third‑party payors to contain or reduce the costs of health care, any denial of private or government payor coverage or inadequate reimbursement for our drug candidates could materially and adversely affect our business strategy, operations, future revenues and profitability, and the future revenues and profitability of our potential customers, suppliers, collaborators and licensees and the availability of capital.  The same risks apply to our compounds developed and marketed by our collaborators, and our future potential milestone and royalty revenues could be affected in a similar manner.

We depend on our collaborators and licensees for the future development and commercialization of some of our drug candidates. Conflicts may arise between our collaborators and licensees and us, or our collaborators and licensees may choose to terminate their agreements with us, which may adversely affect our business.

We have licensed to Novartis rights to ruxolitinib outside of the United States and worldwide rights to our MET inhibitor compounds and licensed to Lilly worldwide rights to baricitinib. In addition, we have licensed to Innovent certain Asian rights to three of our clinical stage compounds.  Under the terms of our agreements with these collaborators, we have no or limited control over the further clinical development of these drug candidates in the relevant territories and any revenues we may receive if these drug candidates receive regulatory approval and are commercialized in the relevant territories will depend primarily on the development and commercialization efforts of others. While OLUMIANT was approved by the European Commission in February 2017 for the treatment of moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis in adult patients and by Japan’s Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in July 2017 for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in patients with inadequate response to standard-of-care therapies, the NDA for OLUMIANT for the treatment of moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis was approved in June 2018, and only in the lower dosage tablet and with a warning label.  Delays in any marketing approval by the FDA, European or other regulatory authorities, or any label modifications or restrictions in connection with any such approval, or the existence of other risks relating to approved drug products, including those described under “Risks Relating to Commercialization of Our Products,” could delay the receipt of and reduce resulting potential royalty and milestone revenue from baricitinib or any of our other out-licensed drug candidates.  

Conflicts may arise with our collaborators and licensees if they pursue alternative technologies or develop alternative products either on their own or in collaboration with others as a means for developing treatments for the diseases that we have targeted. Competing products and product opportunities may lead our collaborators and licensees to withdraw their support for our drug candidates. Any failure of our collaborators and licensees to perform their obligations under our agreements with them or otherwise to support our drug candidates could negatively impact the development of our drug candidates, lead to our loss of potential revenues from product sales and milestones and delay our achievement, if any, of profitability. Additionally, conflicts may arise if, among other things, there is a dispute about the achievement and payment of a milestone amount or the ownership of intellectual property that is developed during the course of a collaborative relationship.

Our existing collaborative and license agreements can be terminated by our collaborators and licensees for convenience, among other circumstances. If any of our collaborators or licensees terminates its agreement with us, or terminates its rights with respect to certain indications or drug candidates, we may not be able to find a new collaborator for them, and our business could be adversely affected. Should an agreement be terminated before we have realized the benefits of the collaboration or license, our reputation could be harmed, we may not obtain revenues that we anticipated receiving, and our business could be adversely affected.

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The success of our drug discovery and development efforts may depend on our ability to find suitable collaborators to fully exploit our capabilities. If we are unable to establish collaborations or if these future collaborations are unsuccessful in the development and commercialization of our drug candidates, our research, development and commercialization efforts may be unsuccessful, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

An element of our business strategy is to enter into collaborative or license arrangements with other parties, under which we license our drug candidates to those parties for development and commercialization or under which we study our drug candidates in combination with other parties’ compounds or biologics. For example, in addition to our Novartis, Lilly and Innovent collaborations, we have entered into clinical study relationships with respect to several of our programs, including epacadostat, and are evaluating strategic relationships with respect to several of our other programs. However, because collaboration and license arrangements are complex to negotiate, we may not be successful in our attempts to establish these arrangements. Also, we may not have drug candidates that are desirable to other parties, or we may be unwilling to license a drug candidate to a particular party because such party interested in it is a competitor or for other reasons. The terms of any such arrangements that we establish may not be favorable to us. Alternatively, potential collaborators may decide against entering into an agreement with us because of our financial, regulatory or intellectual property position or for scientific, commercial or other reasons. If we are not able to establish collaboration or license arrangements, we may not be able to develop and commercialize a drug product, which could adversely affect our business and our revenues.

We will likely not be able to control the amount and timing of resources that our collaborators or licensees devote to our programs or drug candidates. If our collaborators or licensees prove difficult to work with, are less skilled than we originally expected, do not devote adequate resources to the program, are unable to obtain regulatory approval of our drug candidates, pursue alternative technologies or develop alternative products, or do not agree with our approach to development or manufacturing of the drug candidate, the relationship could be unsuccessful. Our collaborations with respect to epacadostat involved the study of our collaborators’ drugs used in combination with epacadostat on a number of indications or tumor types, many of which were the same across multiple collaborations. We cannot assure you that potential conflicts will not arise or be alleged among these collaborations. If a business combination involving a collaborator or licensee and a third-party were to occur, the effect could be to terminate or cause delays in development of a drug candidate.

If we fail to enter into additional licensing agreements or if these arrangements are unsuccessful, our business and operations might be adversely affected.

In addition to establishing collaborative or license arrangements under which other parties license our drug candidates for development and commercialization or under which we study our drug candidates in combination with such parties’ compounds or biologics, we may explore opportunities to develop our clinical pipeline by in-licensing drug candidates or therapeutics targets that fit within our focus on oncology, such as our collaborations with Agenus Inc., Calithera Biosciences, Inc., Innovent Biologics, Inc., MacroGenics, Inc., Merus N.V., and Syros Pharmaceuticals, Inc., or explore additional opportunities to further develop and commercialize existing drug candidates in specific jurisdictions, such as our June 2016 acquisition of the development and commercialization rights to ICLUSIG in certain countries. We may be unable to enter into any additional in-licensing agreements because suitable drug candidates that are within our expertise may not be available to us on terms that are acceptable to us or because competitors with greater resources seek to in-license the same drug candidates. Drug candidates that we would like to develop or commercialize may not be available to us because they are controlled by competitors who are unwilling to license the rights to the drug candidate to us. In addition, we may enter into license agreements that are unsuccessful and our business and operations might be adversely affected if we are unable to realize the expected economic benefits of a collaboration or other licensing arrangement, by the termination of a drug candidate and termination and winding down of the related license agreement, or due to other business or regulatory issues, including financial difficulties, that may adversely affect a licensor’s ability to continue to perform its obligations under an in-license agreement. As discussed above under “We depend on our collaborators and licensees for the future development and commercialization of some of our drug candidates. Conflicts may arise between our collaborators and licensees and us, or our collaborators and licensees may choose to terminate their agreements with us, which may adversely affect our business,” conflicts or other issues may arise with our licensors. Those conflicts could result in delays in our plans to develop drug candidates or result in the expenditure of additional funds to

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resolve those conflicts that could have an adverse effect on our results of operations. We may also need to license drug delivery or other technology in order to continue to develop our drug candidates. If we are unable to enter into additional agreements to license drug candidates, drug delivery technology or other technology or if these arrangements are unsuccessful, our research and development efforts could be adversely affected.

Even if a drug candidate that we develop receives regulatory approval, we may decide not to commercialize it if we determine that commercialization of that product would require more money and time than we are willing to invest.

Even if any of our drug candidates receives regulatory approval, it could be subject to post‑regulatory surveillance, and may have to be withdrawn from the market or subject to restrictions if previously unknown problems occur. Regulatory agencies may also require additional clinical trials or testing, and the drug product may be recalled or may be subject to reformulation, additional studies, changes in labeling, warnings to the public and negative publicity. As a result, we may not continue to commercialize a product even though it has obtained regulatory approval. Further, we may decide not to continue to commercialize a product if the market does not accept the product because it is too expensive or because third parties such as insurance companies or Medicare, have not approved it for substantial reimbursement. In addition, we may decide not to continue to commercialize a product if competitors develop and commercialize similar or superior products or have proprietary rights that preclude us from ultimately marketing our products.

Any approved drug product that we bring to the market may not gain market acceptance by physicians, patients, healthcare payors and others in the medical community.

Even if we are successful in gaining regulatory approval of any of our drug candidates in addition to JAKAFI or acquire rights to approved drug products in addition to ICLUSIG, we may not generate significant product revenues and we may not become profitable if these drug products do not achieve an adequate level of acceptance. Physicians may not recommend our drug products until longer‑term clinical data or other factors demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our drug products as compared to other alternative treatments. Even if the clinical safety and efficacy of our drug products is established, physicians may elect not to prescribe these drug products for a variety of reasons, including the reimbursement policies of government and other third‑party payors and the effectiveness of our competitors in marketing their products.

Market acceptance of our drug products, if approved for commercial sale, will depend on a number of factors, including:

·

the willingness and ability of patients and the healthcare community to use our drug products;

·

the ability to manufacture our drug products in sufficient quantities with acceptable quality and to offer our drug products for sale at competitive prices;

·

the perception of patients and the healthcare community, including third‑party payors, regarding the safety, efficacy and benefits of our drug products compared to those of competing products or therapies;

·

the label and promotional claims allowed by the FDA;

·

the pricing and reimbursement of our drug products relative to existing treatments; and

·

marketing and distribution support for our drug products.

We have limited capacity to conduct preclinical testing and clinical trials, and our resulting dependence on other parties could result in delays in and additional costs for our drug development efforts.

We have limited internal resources and capacity to perform preclinical testing and clinical trials. As part of our development strategy, we often hire clinical research organizations, or CROs, to perform preclinical testing and clinical trials for drug candidates. If the CROs that we hire to perform our preclinical testing and clinical trials do not meet deadlines, do not follow proper procedures, or a conflict arises between us and our CROs, our preclinical testing and

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clinical trials may take longer than expected, may cost more, may be delayed or may be terminated. If we were forced to find a replacement entity to perform any of our preclinical testing or clinical trials, we may not be able to find a suitable entity on favorable terms, or at all. Even if we were able to find another company to perform a preclinical test or clinical trial, the delay in the test or trial may result in significant additional expenditures. Events such as these may result in delays in our obtaining regulatory approval for our drug candidates or our ability to commercialize our products and could result in increased expenditures that would adversely affect our operating results.

We face significant competition for our drug discovery and development efforts, and if we do not compete effectively, our commercial opportunities will be reduced or eliminated.

The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are intensely competitive and subject to rapid and significant technological change. Our drug discovery and development efforts may target diseases and conditions that are already subject to existing therapies or that are being developed by our competitors, many of which have substantially greater resources, larger research and development staffs and facilities, more experience in completing preclinical testing and clinical trials, and formulation, marketing and manufacturing capabilities. As a result of these resources, our competitors may develop drug products that render our products obsolete or noncompetitive by developing more effective drugs, developing their products more efficiently or pricing their products more competitively. Our ability to develop competitive products would be limited if our competitors succeeded in obtaining regulatory approvals for drug candidates more rapidly than we were able to or in obtaining patent protection or other intellectual property rights that limited our drug development efforts. Any drug products resulting from our research and development efforts, or from our joint efforts with collaborators or licensees, might not be able to compete successfully with our competitors’ existing and future products, or obtain regulatory approval in the United States or elsewhere. The development of products or processes by our competitors with significant advantages over those that we are developing could harm our future revenues and profitability.

Our reliance on other parties to manufacture our drug products and drug candidates could result in a short supply of the drugs, delays in clinical trials or drug development, increased costs, and withdrawal or denial of a regulatory authority’s approval.

We do not currently operate manufacturing facilities for clinical or commercial production of JAKAFI and our other drug candidates or for ICLUSIG. We currently hire third parties to manufacture the raw materials, active pharmaceutical ingredient, or API, and finished drug product of JAKAFI, ICLUSIG and our other drug candidates for clinical trials.  In addition, we expect to continue to rely on third parties for the manufacture of commercial supplies of raw materials, API and finished drug product for any drugs that we successfully develop. We also hire third parties to package and label the finished product. The FDA requires that the raw materials, API and finished product for JAKAFI and our other drug candidates be manufactured according to its current Good Manufacturing Practices regulations and regulatory authorities in other countries have similar requirements. There are only a limited number of manufacturers that comply with these requirements. Failure to comply with current Good Manufacturing Practices and the applicable regulatory requirements of other countries in the manufacture of our drug candidates and products could result in the FDA or a foreign regulatory authority halting our clinical trials, withdrawing or denying regulatory approval of our drug product, enforcing product recalls or other enforcement actions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We may not be able to obtain sufficient quantities of our drug candidates or any drug products we may develop if our designated manufacturers do not have the capacity or capability to manufacture them according to our schedule and specifications. Manufacturers of pharmaceutical products often encounter difficulties in production, especially in scaling up initial production. These problems include difficulties with production costs and yields, quality control and assurance and shortages of qualified personnel.  In addition, we may not be able to arrange for our drug candidates or any drug products that we may develop to be manufactured by one of these parties on reasonable terms, if at all.  We generally have a single source or a limited number of suppliers that are qualified to supply each of the API and finished product of JAKAFI, ICLUSIG and our other drug candidates and, in the case of JAKAFI, we only have a single source for its raw materials. If any of these suppliers were to become unable or unwilling to supply us with raw materials, API or finished product that complies with applicable regulatory requirements, we could incur significant delays in our clinical trials or interruption of commercial supply that could have a material adverse effect on our business. If we have promised delivery of a drug candidate or drug product and are unable to meet the delivery requirement due to manufacturing difficulties, our development programs could be delayed, we may have to expend additional sums in order to ensure that manufacturing

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capacity is available when we need it even if we do not use all of the manufacturing capacity, and our business and operating results could be harmed.

We may not be able to adequately manage and oversee the manufacturers we choose, they may not perform as agreed or they may terminate their agreements with us. Foreign manufacturing approval processes typically include all of the risks associated with the FDA approval process for manufacturing and may also include additional risks.

A number of our collaborations involve the manufacture of antibodies. Either we or our collaborators have primary responsibility for manufacturing activities, and we are currently using third-party contract manufacturing organizations. Manufacturing antibodies and products containing antibodies is a more complex process than manufacturing small molecule drugs and subject to additional risks. The process of manufacturing antibodies and products containing antibodies is highly susceptible to product loss due to contamination, equipment failure or improper installation or operation of equipment, vendor or operator error, inconsistency in yields, variability in product characteristics, and difficulties in scaling the production process. Even minor deviations from normal manufacturing processes could result in reduced production yields, product defects and other supply disruptions. If microbial, viral or other contaminations are discovered in our product candidates or in the manufacturing facilities in which our product candidates are made, such manufacturing facilities may need to be closed for an extended period of time to investigate and remedy the contamination.

If we fail to comply with the extensive legal and regulatory requirements affecting the health care industry, we could face increased costs, penalties and a loss of business.

Our activities, and the activities of our collaborators, partners and third‑party providers, are subject to extensive government regulation and oversight both in the United States and in foreign jurisdictions. The FDA and comparable agencies in other jurisdictions directly regulate many of our most critical business activities, including the conduct of preclinical and clinical studies, product manufacturing, advertising and promotion, product distribution, adverse event reporting and product risk management. States increasingly have been placing greater restrictions on the marketing practices of healthcare companies. In addition, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies have been the target of lawsuits and investigations alleging violations of government regulations, including claims asserting submission of incorrect pricing information, impermissible off‑label promotion of pharmaceutical products, payments intended to influence the referral of federal or state healthcare business, submission of false claims for government reimbursement, antitrust violations, violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and similar anti‑bribery or anti‑corruption laws, or violations related to environmental matters. There is also enhanced scrutiny of company-sponsored patient assistance programs, including insurance premium and co-pay assistance programs and donations to third-party charities that provide such assistance. In December 2018, we received a civil investigative demand from the U.S. Department of Justice for documents and information relating to our speaker programs and patient assistance programs, including our support of non-profit organizations that provide financial assistance to eligible patients. Violations of governmental regulation by us, our vendors or donation recipients may be punishable by criminal and civil sanctions, including damages, fines and penalties and exclusion from participation in government programs, including Medicare and Medicaid. In addition to damages, fines and penalties for violation of laws and regulations, we could be required to repay amounts we received from government payors, or pay additional rebates and interest if we are found to have miscalculated the pricing information we have submitted to the government. Actions taken by federal or local governments, legislative bodies and enforcement agencies with respect to these legal and regulatory compliance matters could also result in reduced demand for our products, reduced coverage of our products by health care payors, or both. We cannot ensure that our compliance controls, policies, and procedures will in every instance protect us from acts committed by our employees, collaborators, partners or third‑party providers that would violate the laws or regulations of the jurisdictions in which we operate. Whether or not we have complied with the law, an investigation into alleged unlawful conduct could increase our expenses, damage our reputation, divert management time and attention and adversely affect our business. Risks relating to compliance with laws and regulations may be heightened as we continue to expand our global operations and enter new therapeutic areas with different patient populations, which due to different product distribution methods, marketing programs or patient assistance programs may result in additional regulatory burdens and obligations.

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As our drug discovery and development operations are conducted at our headquarters in Wilmington, Delaware, the loss of access to this facility would negatively impact our business.

Our facility in Wilmington, Delaware is our headquarters and is also where we conduct all of our drug discovery, research, development and marketing activities. In addition, natural disasters or actions of activists opposed to aspects of pharmaceutical research may disrupt our experiments or our ability to access or use our facility. The loss of access to or use of our Wilmington, Delaware facility, either on a temporary or permanent basis would result in an interruption of our business and, consequently, would adversely affect our overall business.

We depend on key employees in a competitive market for skilled personnel, and the loss of the services of any of our key employees or our inability to attract and retain additional personnel would affect our ability to expand our drug discovery and development programs and achieve our objectives.

We are highly dependent on the members of our executive management team and principal members of our commercial, development, medical, operations and scientific staff. We experience intense competition for qualified personnel. Our future success also depends in part on the continued service of our executive management team and key personnel and our ability to recruit, train and retain essential personnel for our drug discovery and development programs, and for our medical affairs and commercialization activities. If we lose the services of any of these people or if we are unable to recruit sufficient qualified personnel, our research and product development goals, and our commercialization efforts could be delayed or curtailed. We do not maintain “key person” insurance on any of our employees.

If we fail to manage our growth effectively, our ability to develop and commercialize products could suffer.

We expect that if our drug discovery efforts continue to generate drug candidates, our clinical drug candidates continue to progress in development, and we continue to build our development, medical and commercial organizations, we will require significant additional investment in personnel, management and resources. Our ability to achieve our research, development and commercialization objectives depends on our ability to respond effectively to these demands and expand our internal organization, systems, controls and facilities to accommodate additional anticipated growth. If we are unable to manage our growth effectively, our business could be harmed and our ability to execute our business strategy could suffer.

We may acquire businesses or assets, form joint ventures or make investments in other companies that may be unsuccessful, divert our management’s attention and harm our operating results and prospects.

As part of our business strategy, we may pursue additional acquisitions of what we believe to be complementary businesses or assets or seek to enter into joint ventures. We also may pursue strategic alliances in an effort to leverage our existing infrastructure and industry experience to expand our product offerings or distribution, or make investments in other companies. For example, in June 2016, we completed the acquisition of the European operations of ARIAD and obtained the exclusive license to develop and commercialize ICLUSIG in Europe and other countries. The success of our acquisitions, joint ventures, strategic alliances and investments will depend on our ability to identify, negotiate, complete and, in the case of acquisitions, integrate those transactions and, if necessary, obtain satisfactory debt or equity financing to fund those transactions.  We may not realize the anticipated benefits of any acquisition, joint venture, strategic alliance or investment. We may not be able to integrate acquisitions successfully into our existing business, maintain the key business relationships of businesses we acquire, or retain key personnel of an acquired business, and we could assume unknown or contingent liabilities or incur unanticipated expenses. Integration of acquired companies or businesses also may require management resources that otherwise would be available for ongoing development of our existing business.  Any acquisitions or investments made by us also could result in significant write-offs or the incurrence of debt and contingent liabilities, any of which could harm our operating results. For example, in the year ended December 31, 2018, we recorded unrealized losses related to our investments in Agenus Inc., Calithera Biosciences, Inc., Merus N.V. and Syros Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and we may in the future experience additional losses related to our investments.  In addition, if we choose to issue shares of our stock as consideration for any acquisition, dilution to our stockholders could result.

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Risks associated with the expansion of our operations outside of the United States could adversely affect our business.

Our acquisition of ARIAD’s European operations significantly expanded our operations in Europe, and we plan to continue to expand our operations and conduct certain development activities outside of the United States, including our recent expansion in Japan. We have limited experience with conducting activities outside of the United States. International operations and business expansion plans are subject to numerous additional risks, including:

·

multiple, conflicting and changing laws and regulations such as tax laws, privacy regulations, tariffs, export and import restrictions, employment, immigration and labor laws, regulatory requirements, and other governmental approvals, permits and licenses;

·

difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations and difficulties in connection with assimilating and integrating any operations and personnel we might acquire  into our company;

·

risks associated with obtaining and maintaining, or the failure to obtain or maintain, regulatory approvals for the sale or use of our products in various countries;

·

complexities associated with managing government payor systems, multiple payor‑reimbursement regimes or patient self‑pay systems;

·

financial risks, such as longer payment cycles, difficulty obtaining financing in foreign markets, difficulty enforcing contracts and intellectual property rights, difficulty collecting accounts receivable and exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations;

·

general political and economic conditions in the countries in operate, including terrorism and political unrest, curtailment of trade and other business restrictions, and uncertainties associated with the future relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union; and

·

regulatory and compliance risks that relate to maintaining accurate information and control over activities that may fall within the purview of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, its books and records provisions or its anti‑bribery provisions, or similar anti‑bribery or anti‑corruption laws and regulations, such as the U.K. Anti-Bribery Act and the U.K. Criminal Finances Act.

Any of the risks described above, if encountered, could significantly increase our costs of operating internationally, prevent us from operating in certain jurisdictions, or otherwise significantly harm our future international expansion and operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If product liability lawsuits are brought against us, we could face substantial liabilities and may be required to limit commercialization of our products and our results of operations could be harmed.

In addition to the risks described above under “—Risks Relating to Commercialization of Our Products—If the use of our products harms patients, or is perceived to harm patients even when such harm is unrelated to our products, our regulatory approvals could be revoked or otherwise negatively impacted or we could be subject to costly and damaging product liability claims,” the conduct of clinical trials of medical products that are intended for human use entails an inherent risk of product liability. If any product that we or any of our collaborators or licensees develops causes or is alleged to cause injury during clinical trials or commercialization, we may be held liable. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against product liability claims, we may incur substantial liabilities, including substantial damages to be paid to the plaintiffs and legal costs, or we may be required to limit further development and commercialization of our products. Additionally, any product liability lawsuit could cause injury to our reputation, participants and investigators to withdraw from clinical trials, and potential collaborators or licensees to seek other partners, any of which could impact our results of operations.

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Our product liability insurance policy may not fully cover our potential liabilities. In addition, we may determine that we should increase our coverage, and this insurance may be prohibitively expensive to us or our collaborators or licensees and may not fully cover our potential liabilities. Since December 30, 2017, we elected to self-insure a portion of our exposure to product liability risks through our wholly-owned captive insurance subsidiary, in tandem with third-party insurance policies. Our inability to obtain sufficient product liability insurance at an acceptable cost to protect against potential product liability claims could prevent or inhibit the development or commercialization of our drug candidates and products, and if our liabilities from any such claims exceed our third-party insurance limits and self-insurance reserves, our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition could be adversely impacted.

Because our activities involve the use of hazardous materials, we may be subject to claims relating to improper handling, storage or disposal of these materials that could be time consuming and costly.

We are subject to various environmental, health and safety laws and regulations governing, among other things, the use, handling, storage and disposal of regulated substances and the health and safety of our employees. Our research and development processes involve the controlled use of hazardous and radioactive materials and biological waste resulting in the production of hazardous waste products. We cannot completely eliminate the risk of accidental contamination or discharge and any resultant injury from these materials. If any injury or contamination results from our use or the use by our collaborators or licensees of these materials, we may be sued and our liability may exceed our insurance coverage and our total assets. Further, we may be required to indemnify our collaborators or licensees against all damages and other liabilities arising out of our development activities or products produced in connection with these collaborations or licenses. Compliance with the applicable environmental and workplace laws and regulations is expensive. Future changes to environmental, health, workplace and safety laws could cause us to incur additional expense or may restrict our operations or impair our research, development and production efforts.

RISKS RELATING TO OUR FINANCIAL RESULTS

We may incur losses in the future, and we expect to continue to incur significant expenses to discover and develop drugs, which may make it difficult for us to achieve sustained profitability on a quarterly or annual basis in the future.

Due to historical net losses, we had an accumulated deficit of $1.9 billion as of December 31, 2018. We intend to continue to spend significant amounts on our efforts to discover and develop drugs. As a result, we may incur losses in future periods as well.  Our revenues, expenses and net income (loss) may fluctuate, even significantly, due to the risks described in these “Risk Factors” and factors discussed in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” as well as the timing of charges and expenses that we may take, including those relating to transactions such as acquisitions and the entry into collaborative agreements.

We anticipate that our drug discovery and development efforts and related expenditures will increase as we focus on the studies, including preclinical tests and clinical trials prior to seeking regulatory approval, that are required before we can sell a drug product.

The development of drug products will require us to spend significant funds on research, development, testing, obtaining regulatory approvals, manufacturing and marketing. To date, we do not have any drug products that have generated significant revenues other than from sales of JAKAFI and we cannot assure you that we will generate significant revenues from the drug candidates that we license or develop, including ICLUSIG, for several years, if ever.

We cannot be certain whether or when we will achieve sustained or increased profitability on a quarterly or annual basis because of the factors discussed above and the significant uncertainties relating to our ability to generate commercially successful drug products. Even if we are successful in obtaining regulatory approvals for manufacturing and commercializing drug products in addition to JAKAFI and ICLUSIG, we may incur losses if our drug products do not generate significant revenues.

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We may need additional capital in the future. If we are unable to generate sufficient funds from operations, the capital markets may not permit us to raise additional capital at the time that we require it, which could result in limitations on our research and development or commercialization efforts or the loss of certain of our rights in our technologies or drug candidates.

Our future funding requirements will depend on many factors and we anticipate that we may need to raise additional capital to fund our business plan and research and development efforts going‑forward.

Additional factors that may affect our future funding requirements include:

·

the amount of revenues generated from our business activities;

·

any changes in the breadth of our research and development programs;

·

the results of research and development, preclinical testing and clinical trials conducted by us or our current or future collaborators or licensees, if any;

·

our exercise of any co‑development options with collaborators that may require us to fund future development;

·

the acquisition of businesses, technologies, or drug candidates, or the licensing of technologies or drug candidates, if any;

·

costs for future facility requirements;

·

our ability to maintain and establish new corporate relationships and research collaborations;

·

competing technological and market developments;

·

the time and costs involved in filing, prosecuting, defending and enforcing patent and intellectual property claims;

·

the receipt of contingent licensing or milestone fees or royalties on product sales from our current or future collaborative and license arrangements, if established; and

·

the timing of regulatory approvals, if any.

If we require additional capital at a time when investment in companies such as ours, or in the marketplace generally, is limited due to the then prevailing market or other conditions, we may have to scale back our operations, eliminate one or more of our research or development programs, or attempt to obtain funds by entering into an agreement with a collaborator or licensee that would result in terms that are not favorable to us or relinquishing our rights in certain of our proprietary technologies or drug candidates. If we are unable to raise funds at the time that we desire or at any time thereafter on acceptable terms, we may not be able to continue to develop our drug candidates. The sale of equity or additional convertible debt securities in the future may be dilutive to our stockholders and may provide for rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of our holders of common stock, and debt financing arrangements may require us to pledge certain assets or enter into covenants that could restrict our operations or our ability to incur further indebtedness.

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Our marketable securities and long term investments are subject to risks that could adversely affect our overall financial position.

We invest our cash in accordance with an established internal policy and customarily in instruments, corporate bonds and money market funds which historically have been highly liquid and carried relatively low risk. In recent periods, similar types of investments and money market funds have experienced losses in value or liquidity issues that differ from their historical pattern.

Should a portion of our cash or marketable securities lose value or have their liquidity impaired, it could adversely affect our overall financial position by imperiling our ability to fund our operations and forcing us to seek additional financing sooner than we would otherwise. Such financing, if available, may not be available on commercially attractive terms.

As discussed under “Other Risks Relating to Our Business— We may acquire businesses or assets, form joint ventures or make investments in other companies that may be unsuccessful, divert our management’s attention and harm our operating results and prospects,” any investments that we may make in companies with which we have strategic alliances, such as Agenus and Merus, could result in our recognition of losses on those investments. In addition, to the extent we may seek to sell or otherwise monetize those investments, we may not be able to do so at our desired price or valuation levels, or at all, due to the limited liquidity of some or all of those investments.

Any loss in value of our long term investments could adversely affect our financial position on the consolidated balance sheets and consolidated statements of operations.

Our current revenues are derived from JAKAFI and ICLUSIG product sales, JAKAVI and OLUMIANT product royalties, collaborations and from licensing our intellectual property. If we are unable to achieve milestones, develop products or renew or enter into new collaborations, our revenues may decrease, and future milestone and royalty payments may not contribute significantly to revenues for several years, and may never result in revenues.

We derived substantially all of our revenues for the year ended December 31, 2018 from JAKAFI and ICLUSIG product revenues, JAKAVI and OLUMIANT product royalties and our collaborations and licensing our intellectual property to others. Future revenues from research and development collaborations depend upon continuation of the collaborations, the achievement of milestones and royalties we earn from any future products developed from our research. If we are unable to successfully achieve milestones or our collaborators fail to develop successful products, we will not earn the future revenues contemplated under our collaborative agreements.  For example, delays in or other limitations with respect to the approval of baricitinib in the United States for the treatment of moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis, or the failure to obtain such approval, as discussed under “—We depend on our collaborators and licensees for the future development and commercialization of some of our drug candidates. Conflicts may arise between our collaborators and licensees and us, or our collaborators and licensees may choose to terminate their agreements with us, which may adversely affect our business.” would affect potential future royalty and milestone revenue. In addition, our revenues are subject to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations due to the global nature of our operations. To the extent that our non-U.S. source revenues represent a more significant portion of our total revenues, these fluctuations could materially affect our operating results.

RISKS RELATING TO INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND LEGAL MATTERS

If we are subject to arbitration, litigation and infringement claims, they could be costly and disrupt our drug discovery and development efforts.

The technology that we use to make and develop our drug products, the technology that we incorporate in our products, and the products we are developing may be subject to claims that they infringe the patents or proprietary rights of others. The success of our drug discovery and development efforts will also depend on our ability to develop new compounds, drugs and technologies without infringing or misappropriating the proprietary rights of others. We are aware of patents and patent applications filed in certain countries claiming intellectual property relating to some of our drug discovery targets and drug candidates. While the validity of issued patents, patentability of pending patent applications

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and applicability of any of them to our programs are uncertain, if any of these patents are asserted against us or if we choose to license any of these patents, our ability to commercialize our products could be harmed or the potential return to us from any product that may be successfully commercialized could be diminished.

From time to time we have received, and we may in the future receive, notices from third parties offering licenses to technology or alleging patent, trademark, or copyright infringement, claims regarding trade secrets or other contract claims. Receipt of these notices could result in significant costs as a result of the diversion of the attention of management from our drug discovery and development efforts. Parties sending these notices may have brought and in the future may bring litigation against us or seek arbitration relating to contract claims.

We may be involved in future lawsuits or other legal proceedings alleging patent infringement or other intellectual property rights or contract violations. In addition, litigation or other legal proceedings may be necessary to:

·

assert claims of infringement;

·

enforce our patents or trademarks;

·

protect our trade secrets or know‑how; or

·

determine the enforceability, scope and validity of the proprietary rights of others.

We may be unsuccessful in defending or pursuing these lawsuits, claims or other legal proceedings. Regardless of the outcome, litigation or other legal proceedings can be very costly and can divert management’s efforts. An adverse determination may subject us to significant liabilities or require us or our collaborators or licensees to seek licenses to other parties’ patents or proprietary rights. We or our collaborators or licensees may also be restricted or prevented from manufacturing or selling a drug or other product that we or they develop. Further, we or our future collaborators or licensees may not be able to obtain any necessary licenses on acceptable terms, if at all. If we are unable to develop non‑infringing technology or license technology on a timely basis or on reasonable terms, our business could be harmed.

We may be unable to adequately protect or enforce our proprietary information, which may result in its unauthorized use, a loss of revenue under a collaboration agreement or loss of sales to generic versions of our products or otherwise reduce our ability to compete in developing and commercializing products.

Our business and competitive position depends in significant part upon our ability to protect our proprietary technology, including any drug products that we create. Despite our efforts to protect this information, unauthorized parties may attempt to obtain and use information that we regard as proprietary. For example, one of our collaborators may disclose proprietary information pertaining to our drug discovery efforts. In addition, while we have filed numerous patent applications with respect to ruxolitinib and our drug candidates in the United States and in foreign countries, our patent applications may fail to result in issued patents. In addition, because patent applications can take several years to issue as patents, there may be pending patent applications of others that may later issue as patents that cover some aspect of ruxolitinib and our drug candidates. Our existing patents and any future patents we may obtain may not be broad enough to protect our products or all of the potential uses of our products, or otherwise prevent others from developing competing products or technologies. In addition, our patents may be challenged and invalidated or may fail to provide us with any competitive advantages if, for example, others were first to invent or first to file a patent application for the technologies and products covered by our patents.  As noted above under “—Risks Relating to Commercialization of Our Products—Competition for our products could potentially harm our business and result in a decrease in our revenue,” a potential generic drug company competitor has challenged certain patents relating to JAKAFI.

Additionally, when we do not control the prosecution, maintenance and enforcement of certain important intellectual property, such as a drug candidate in‑licensed to us or subject to a collaboration with a third-party, the protection of the intellectual property rights may not be in our hands. If we do not control the intellectual property rights in‑licensed to us with respect to a drug candidate and the entity that controls the intellectual property rights does not adequately protect those rights, our rights may be impaired, which may impact our ability to develop, market and commercialize the in‑licensed drug candidate.

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Our means of protecting our proprietary rights may not be adequate, and our competitors may:

·

independently develop substantially equivalent proprietary information, products and techniques;

·

otherwise gain access to our proprietary information; or

·

design around patents issued to us or our other intellectual property.

We pursue a policy of having our employees, consultants and advisors execute proprietary information and invention agreements when they begin working for us. However, these agreements may not provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets or other proprietary information in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure. If we fail to maintain trade secret and patent protection, our potential future revenues may be decreased.

If the effective term of our patents is decreased due to changes in the United States patent laws or if we need to refile some of our patent applications, the value of our patent portfolio and the revenues we derive from it may be decreased.

The value of our patents depends, in part, on their duration. A shorter period of patent protection could lessen the value of our rights under any patents that we obtain and may decrease the revenues we derive from our patents. The United States patent laws were amended in 1995 to change the term of patent protection from 17 years from patent issuance to 20 years from the earliest effective filing date of the application. Because the time from filing to issuance of biotechnology applications may be more than three years depending on the subject matter, a 20‑year patent term from the filing date may result in substantially shorter patent protection.

Additionally, United States patent laws were amended in 2011 with the enactment of the America Invents Act and third parties are now able to challenge the validity of issued U.S. patents through various review proceedings; thus rendering the validity of U.S. patents more uncertain. We may be obligated to participate in review proceedings to determine the validity of our U.S. patents. We cannot predict the ultimate outcome of these proceedings, the conduct of which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our efforts and resources. If we are unsuccessful in these proceedings some or all of our claims in the patents may be narrowed or invalidated and the patent protection for our products and drug candidates in the United States could be substantially shortened. Further, if all of the patents covering one of our products are invalidated, the FDA could approve requests to manufacture a generic version of that product prior to the expiration date of those patents.

Other changes in the United States patent laws or changes in the interpretation of patent laws could diminish the value of our patents or narrow the scope of our patent protection. For example, the Supreme Court of the United States recently ruled that isolated DNA sequences cannot be patented. Although we no longer receive significant revenues generated from our former information products business, the majority of our gene patent portfolio from that business consists of patents on isolated DNA sequences, and this ruling limits our ability to derive additional revenues from our gene patent portfolio. Additionally, the Supreme Court resolved a split among the circuit courts of appeals regarding antitrust challenges to settlements of patent infringement lawsuits under the Hatch‑Waxman Act between brand‑name drug companies and generic drug companies. The Court rejected the “scope of the patent” test and ruled that settlements involving “reverse payments” from brand‑name drug companies to generic drug companies should be analyzed under the rule of reason. This ruling may create uncertainty and make it more difficult to settle patent litigation if a company seeking to manufacture a generic version of one of our products challenges the patents covering that product prior to the expiration date of those patents.

International patent protection is particularly uncertain and costly, and our involvement in opposition proceedings in foreign countries may result in the expenditure of substantial sums and management resources.

Biotechnology and pharmaceutical patent law outside the United States is even more uncertain and costly than in the United States and is currently undergoing review and revision in many countries. Further, the laws of some foreign countries may not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as United States laws. For example, certain countries do not grant patent claims that are directed to the treatment of humans. We have participated, and may in the future participate, in opposition proceedings to determine the validity of our foreign patents or our competitors’ foreign

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patents, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our efforts. For example, there is a patent opposition proceeding in India against our Indian patent that covers the composition of matter and use of certain Janus Kinase inhibitors, including ruxolitinib phosphate, for the treatment of myeloid proliferative disorders, cancer, immune‑related diseases, skin disorders, and other diseases. Successful challenges to our patent or other intellectual property rights through these proceedings could result in a loss of rights in the relevant jurisdiction and allow third parties to use our proprietary technologies without a license from us or our collaborators, which may also result in loss of future royalty payments. In addition, successful challenges may jeopardize or delay our ability to enter into new collaborations or commercialize potential products, which could harm our business and results of operations.

RISKS RELATING TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND DATA PRIVACY

Significant disruptions of information technology systems, breaches of data security, or unauthorized disclosures of sensitive data or personally identifiable information or individually identifiable health information could adversely affect our business, and could subject us to liability or reputational damage.

Our business is increasingly dependent on critical, complex, and interdependent information technology (IT) systems, including Internet-based systems, some of which are managed or hosted by third parties, to support business processes as well as internal and external communications. The size and complexity of our IT systems make us potentially vulnerable to IT system breakdowns, malicious intrusion, and computer viruses, which may result in the impairment of our ability to operate our business effectively.

We are continuously evaluating and, where appropriate, enhancing our IT systems to address our planned growth, including to support our planned manufacturing operations. There are inherent costs and risks associated with implementing the enhancements to our IT systems, including potential delays in access to, or errors in, critical business and financial information, substantial capital expenditures, additional administrative time and operating expenses, retention of sufficiently skilled personnel to implement and operate the enhanced systems, demands on management time, and costs of delays or difficulties in transitioning to the enhanced systems, any of which could harm our business and results of operations. In addition, the implementation of enhancements to our IT systems may not result in productivity improvements at a level that outweighs the costs of implementation, or at all.  In addition, our systems and the systems of our third-party providers and collaborators are potentially vulnerable to data security breaches which may expose sensitive data to unauthorized persons or to the public. Such data security breaches could lead to the loss of confidential information, trade secrets or other intellectual property, could lead to the public exposure of personal information (including personally identifiable information or individually identifiable health information) of our employees, clinical trial patients, customers, business partners, and others, could lead to potential identity theft, or could lead to reputational harm.  Data security breaches could also result in loss of clinical trial data or damage to the integrity of that data. In addition, the increased use of social media by our employees and contractors could result in inadvertent disclosure of sensitive data or personal information, including but not limited to, confidential information, trade secrets and other intellectual property.

Any such disruption or security breach, as well as any action by us or our employees or contractors that might be inconsistent with the rapidly evolving data privacy and security laws and regulations applicable within the United States and elsewhere where we conduct business, could result in enforcement actions by U.S. states, the U.S. Federal government or foreign governments, liability or sanctions under data privacy laws that protect personally identifiable information, regulatory penalties, other legal proceedings such as but not limited to private litigation, the incurrence of significant remediation costs, disruptions to our development programs, business operations and collaborations, diversion of management efforts and damage to our reputation, which could harm our business and operations. Because of the rapidly moving nature of technology and the increasing sophistication of cybersecurity threats, our measures to prevent, respond to and minimize such risks may be unsuccessful. 

In addition, the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union adopted a comprehensive general data privacy regulation, known as the GDPR, which took effect in May 2018 and governs the collection and use of personal data in the European Union. The GDPR, which is wide-ranging in scope, imposes several requirements relating to the consent of the individuals to whom the personal data relates, the information provided to the individuals, the security and confidentiality of the personal data, data breach notification and the use of third party processors in connection with the processing of the personal data. The GDPR also imposes strict rules on the transfer of personal data out of the European

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Union to the United States, provides an enforcement authority and imposes large penalties for noncompliance, including the potential for fines of up to €20 million or 4% of the annual global revenues of the infringer, whichever is greater.

Increasing use of social media could give rise to liability, breaches of data security, or reputational damage.

We and our employees are increasingly utilizing social media tools as a means of communication both internally and externally. Despite our efforts to monitor evolving social media communication guidelines and comply with applicable rules, there is risk that the use of social media by us or our employees to communicate about our products or business may cause us to be found in violation of applicable requirements. In addition, our employees may knowingly or inadvertently make use of social media in ways that may not comply with our social media policy or other legal or contractual requirements, which may give rise to liability, lead to the loss of trade secrets or other intellectual property, or result in public exposure of personal information of our employees, clinical trial patients, customers, and others. Furthermore, negative posts or comments about us or our products in social media could seriously damage our reputation, brand image, and goodwill.

Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

Item 2.  Properties

Our global headquarters is in Wilmington, Delaware, which is where our principal drug discovery and development operations are also located. We own two buildings comprising approximately 344,000 square feet of laboratory and office space at this site.  In March 2017, we acquired additional adjacent buildings, currently occupied by tenants, with a view toward further expanding our headquarters facilities.

We lease approximately 112,000 square feet of office space in Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania and approximately 100,000 square feet of additional laboratory and office space in Wilmington, Delaware. 

We conduct our European clinical development operations from our offices in Geneva, Switzerland and Lausanne, Switzerland and our Japanese office is in Tokyo. In February 2018, we signed an agreement to rent a building in Morges, Switzerland for an initial term of 15 years, with multiple options to extend for an additional 20 years. The building will undergo extensive renovations prior to our occupation and, when completed, will serve as our new European headquarters.  In July 2018, we purchased a parcel of land in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland upon which we are building a large molecule production facility. Construction commenced in July 2018, with expected completion in the second half of 2020.

Item 3.  Legal Proceedings

From time to time, we are party to legal proceedings in the course of our business.  The outcome of any such proceedings, regardless of the merits, is inherently uncertain. Legal proceedings, including litigation, government investigations and enforcement actions, can result in significant costs and occupy significant management resources.  We do not expect any such current legal proceedings to have a material adverse impact on our business or financial condition.

In December 2018, we received a civil investigative demand from the U.S. Department of Justice for documents and information relating to our speaker programs and patient assistance programs, including our support of non-profit organizations that provide financial assistance to eligible patients. We are cooperating with this inquiry. We have not yet been made aware of the substance of any civil claims.

Item 4.  Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

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Executive Officers of the Registrant

Our executive officers are as follows:

Hervé Hoppenot, age 59, joined Incyte as President and Chief Executive Officer and a Director, in January 2014 and was appointed Chairman of the Board in May 2015. Mr. Hoppenot served as the President of Novartis Oncology, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, the U.S. subsidiary of Novartis AG, a pharmaceutical company, from January 2010 to January 2014. Prior to that, Mr. Hoppenot served in other executive positions at Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, serving from September 2006 to January 2010 as Executive Vice President, Chief Commercial Officer of Novartis Oncology and Head of Global Product Strategy & Scientific Development of Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation and from 2003 to September 2006 as Senior Vice President, Head of Global Marketing of Novartis Oncology. Prior to joining Novartis, Mr. Hoppenot served in various increasingly senior roles at Aventis S.A. (formerly Rhône‑Poulenc S.A.), a pharmaceutical company, including as Vice President Oncology US of Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. from 2000 to 2003 and Vice President US Oncology Operations of Rhone‑Poulenc Rorer Pharmaceuticals, Inc. from 1998 to 2000. Mr. Hoppenot holds a Diploma from ESSEC International Business School. Mr. Hoppenot is also a director of Cellectis S.A.

Dashyant Dhanak, age 58, joined Incyte in December 2018 as Executive Vice President, Chief Scientific Officer.  Prior to joining Incyte, Dr. Dhanak served as Vice President and Head of Discovery Sciences of Janssen Research & Development, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson, a pharmaceutical company, from 2013 until November 2018.  Prior to his tenure at Janssen, Dr. Dhanak spent 25 years at GlaxoSmithKline, a pharmaceutical company, in positions of increased responsibility across multiple disease areas, including his last position as Vice President and Head of the Cancer Epigenetics Discovery Performance Unit.  Dr. Dhanak received a B.S. in Chemistry from the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and his Ph.D. from the University of London.  He completed his postdoctoral research in natural product synthesis at Northwestern University.

Barry P. Flannelly, age 61, has served as Executive Vice President and General Manager US since June 2015 and joined Incyte as Executive Vice President, Business Development and Strategic Planning in August 2014. Prior to joining Incyte, he served as Chief Executive Officer of OSS Healthcare Inc., a biotechnology start‑up company, from August 2013 to July 2014. He served as Vice President, Global Product Strategy and Commercial Planning of Nektar Therapeutics, a biopharmaceutical company, from April 2011 until April 2013, and as Senior Vice President, Commercial, of Onyx Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company, from August 2008 until January 2011. Prior thereto, Dr. Flannelly held key positions at biopharmaceutical and pharmaceutical companies such as Abraxis BioScience, Inc. and Novartis. Dr. Flannelly earned his doctorate in pharmacy from the University of Maryland, School of Pharmacy, his master’s degree in business administration from the University of Baltimore, and his B.S. degree in Pharmacy from Massachusetts College of Pharmacy.

Vijay Iyengar, age 46, joined Incyte in May 2016 as Executive Vice President, Global Strategy and Corporate Development.  Prior to joining Incyte, from April 2014 to April 2016, he was the President of Genoptix Corporation, a Novartis Company.  From December 2011 to March 2014, he was the Vice President and Rare Diseases Franchise Head at Novartis Oncology and from July 2009 to December 2011, he was the Vice President and Oncology General Manager of Novartis Greece. From October 2007 to June 2009, he was the Global Brand Executive Director at Novartis Pharmaceuticals, and from January 2006 to October 2007, he was the Global Brand Director, Oncology at Novartis Pharmaceuticals. Dr. Iyengar received his B.S. degree in Biology from Stanford University and earned his M.D. from Harvard Medical School.

Maria E. Pasquale, age 53, joined Incyte in April 2018 as Executive Vice President and General Counsel.  Prior to joining Incyte, Ms. Pasquale joined Incyte from Celgene Corporation, a biopharmaceutical company, where for 17 years she held positions of increasing levels of responsibility, including Chief Counsel; Senior Vice President, Legal and Deputy General Counsel and Assistant Corporate Secretary, and, most recently, Executive Vice President and Global Chief Compliance Officer.  Prior to her tenure at Celgene, Ms. Pasquale spent a decade supporting pharmaceutical clients as a global patent and litigation attorney at Pennie & Edmonds LLP in New York (now part of Jones Day).  Before her career in law, Ms. Pasquale was an Assistant Research Scientist at the Institute for Basic Research and the Cold Spring Harbor

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Laboratory.  Ms. Pasquale holds a J.D. from Brooklyn Law School and a B.S. in biochemistry from the State University of New York at Stony Brook.

Christiana Stamoulis, age 48, joined Incyte in February 2019 as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer.  Prior to joining Incyte, she served as President from February 2018 until January 2019 and Chief Financial Officer from January 2015 to January 2019 of Unum Therapeutics Inc., a biopharmaceutical company.  From January 2014 until she joined Unum, Ms. Stamoulis was an independent advisor to biopharmaceutical companies. From 2009 until December 2013, Ms. Stamoulis was a Senior Vice President of Corporate Strategy and Business Development at Vertex Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company. Prior to joining Vertex, Ms. Stamoulis spent nearly 15 years in the investment banking and management consulting industries.  She was a Managing Director in the Investment Banking division of Citigroup and, prior to that, she was a senior investment banker in the Healthcare Investment Banking Group of Goldman, Sachs & Co., where she spent the majority of her investment banking career. Ms. Stamoulis started her career as a strategy consultant at The Boston Consulting Group. Ms. Stamoulis holds two undergraduate degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and an M.B.A. from the MIT Sloan School of Management.

Steven Stein, age 52, has served as Executive Vice President and Chief Medical Officer since May 2016 and joined Incyte as Senior Vice President and Chief Medical Officer in March 2015. Prior to joining Incyte, from May 2011 to February 2015, he was the Senior Vice President, US Clinical Development & Medical Affairs at Novartis Pharmaceuticals.  From February 2004 to April 2011, Dr. Stein was the Vice President, Global Oncology, Clinical Development and the Head of Medicines Development for Hematology and Supportive Care for GlaxoSmithKline.  Dr. Stein held a post-doctoral fellowship in hematology/oncology at the University of Pennsylvania from 1998 to 2001, and earned his M.D. from the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa in 1990.

Paula J. Swain, age 61, has served as Executive Vice President, Human Resources since August 2002 and joined Incyte as Senior Vice President of Human Resources in January 2002. Ms. Swain served as Senior Vice President of Human Resources at Bristol‑Myers Squibb Company from October 2001 to January 2002, after it acquired DuPont Pharmaceuticals Company. From July 1998 to October 2001, Ms. Swain was Senior Vice President of Human Resources at DuPont Pharmaceuticals. From October 1992 to July 1998, Ms. Swain held a variety of human resources positions of increasing responsibility at DuPont Pharmaceuticals. Ms. Swain received her B.A. in Psychology and Industrial Relations from Rockhurst University.

Wenqing Yao, age 56, has served as Executive Vice President, Head of Discovery Chemistry since October 2014.  Dr. Yao joined Incyte as Director, Chemistry in February 2002 and held roles of increasing responsibility at Incyte. Prior to joining Incyte, Dr. Yao held scientific research positions with DuPont Pharmaceuticals and Bristol‑Myers Squibb Company from 1996 to 2002. Dr. Yao received his B.S. in chemistry from Xuzhou Normal University, his M.S. in organic chemistry from NanKai University and his Ph.D. in organic/medicinal chemistry from the University of Pennsylvania.

PART II

Item 5Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Our common stock, $.001 par value per share, is traded on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “INCY.” As of December 31, 2018, our common stock was held by 139 stockholders of record. We have never declared or paid dividends on our capital stock and do not anticipate paying any dividends in the foreseeable future.

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Item 6.  Selected Financial Data

Selected Consolidated Financial Data

(in thousands, except per share data)

The data set forth below should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in Item 7 and the Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes included in Item 8 of this Report.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

2017

 

2016

 

2015

 

2014

 

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

    

    

 

    

    

 

    

    

 

    

    

 

    

    

 

 

Revenues:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product revenues, net(1)

 

$

1,466,900

 

$

1,200,312

 

$

882,404

 

$

601,015

 

$

357,562

 

Product royalty revenues(2)

 

 

234,780

 

 

160,791

 

 

110,711

 

 

74,821

 

 

48,966

 

Milestone and contract revenues(3)

 

 

180,000

 

 

175,000

 

 

112,512

 

 

77,857

 

 

104,857

 

Other revenues

 

 

203

 

 

113

 

 

92

 

 

58

 

 

110

 

Total revenues

 

 

1,881,883

 

 

1,536,216

 

 

1,105,719

 

 

753,751

 

 

511,495

 

Costs and expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of product revenues (including definite-lived intangible amortization)

 

 

94,123

 

 

79,479

 

 

58,187

 

 

26,972

 

 

3,004

 

Research and development(4)

 

 

1,197,957

 

 

1,326,134

 

 

581,861

 

 

479,514

 

 

347,523

 

Selling, general and administrative(4)

 

 

434,407

 

 

366,286

 

 

303,251

 

 

196,614

 

 

165,772

 

Change in fair value of acquisition-related contingent consideration

 

 

26,173

 

 

7,704

 

 

17,422

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

Total costs and expenses

 

 

1,752,660

 

 

1,779,603

 

 

960,721

 

 

703,100

 

 

516,299

 

Income (loss) from operations

 

 

129,223

 

 

(243,387)

 

 

144,998

 

 

50,651

 

 

(4,804)

 

Other income (expense), net(4)

 

 

31,760

 

 

17,153

 

 

4,412

 

 

7,089

 

 

3,350

 

Interest expense

 

 

(1,543)

 

 

(6,900)

 

 

(38,745)

 

 

(45,603)

 

 

(46,828)

 

Unrealized loss on long term investment

 

 

(44,093)

 

 

(24,275)

 

 

(3,261)

 

 

(4,581)

 

 

 —

 

Expense related to senior note conversions

 

 

 —

 

 

(54,881)

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(265)

 

Income (loss) before provision (benefit) for income taxes

 

 

115,347

 

 

(312,290)

 

 

107,404

 

 

7,556

 

 

(48,547)

 

Provision (benefit) for income taxes

 

 

5,854

 

 

852

 

 

3,182

 

 

1,025

 

 

(66)

 

Net income (loss)

 

$

109,493

 

$

(313,142)

 

$

104,222

 

$

6,531

 

$

(48,481)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income (loss) per share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

$

0.52

 

$

(1.53)

 

$

0.55

 

$

0.04

 

$

(0.29)

 

Diluted

 

$

0.51

 

$

(1.53)

 

$

0.54

 

$

0.03

 

$

(0.29)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shares used in computing net income (loss) per share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

 

212,383

 

 

204,580

 

 

187,873

 

 

179,601

 

 

167,947

 

Diluted

 

 

215,635

 

 

204,580

 

 

194,125

 

 

187,302

 

 

167,947

 


(1)

2018, 2017 and 2016 product revenues, net, relate to our product sales of JAKAFI and product sales of ICLUSIG from the date of acquisition on June 1, 2016.  2015 and 2014 product revenues, net, relate to our product sales of JAKAFI.

(2)

2018 and 2017 product royalty revenues relate to Novartis net sales of JAKAVI outside of the United States and Lilly net sales of OLUMIANT outside of the United States.  2016, 2015 and 2014 product royalty revenues relate to Novartis net sales of JAKAVI outside the United States.

(3)

Milestone and contract revenues relate to our collaborative research and license agreements with Novartis and Lilly.

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(4)

Upon the retrospective adoption of ASU No. 2017-07 on January 1, 2018, the presentation of other components of net periodic benefit cost were reclassed out of operating income and into other income (expense), net for the periods presented, as applicable. See Note 1 of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information on the adoption of ASU No. 2017-07.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

2017

 

2016

 

2015

 

2014

 

Consolidated Balance Sheets Data:

    

 

    

    

 

    

    

 

    

    

 

    

    

 

    

    

Cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities

 

$

1,438,323

 

$

1,169,645

 

$

808,546

 

$

707,783

 

$

600,263

 

Working capital

 

 

1,406,977

 

 

1,129,458

 

 

720,677

 

 

674,368

 

 

458,512

 

Total assets

 

 

2,645,762

 

 

2,302,582

 

 

1,638,597

 

 

1,007,440

 

 

796,477

 

Convertible senior notes

 

 

17,434

 

 

24,001

 

 

651,481

 

 

619,893

 

 

675,167

 

Stockholders’ equity (deficit)

 

 

1,925,967

 

 

1,630,629

 

 

419,467

 

 

171,155

 

 

(81,628)

 

 

 

 

 

Item 7.  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” and the Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes included elsewhere in this Report.

Overview

Incyte is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of proprietary therapeutics. Our global headquarters is located in Wilmington, Delaware. We conduct our European clinical development operations from our offices in Geneva, Switzerland and Lausanne, Switzerland, and have recently opened our Japanese office in Tokyo.

JAKAFI (ruxolitinib) is our first product to be approved for sale in the United States. It is an oral JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor and was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in November 2011 for the treatment of patients with intermediate or high‑risk myelofibrosis and in December 2014 for the treatment of patients with polycythemia vera who have had an inadequate response to or are intolerant of hydroxyurea. Myelofibrosis and polycythemia vera are both rare blood cancers.

In June 2016, we acquired from ARIAD Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (ARIAD) all of the outstanding shares of ARIAD Pharmaceuticals (Luxembourg) S.à.r.l., the parent company of ARIAD’s European subsidiaries responsible for the development and commercialization of ICLUSIG in the European Union and other countries, including Switzerland, Norway, Turkey, Israel and Russia. We obtained an exclusive license to develop and commercialize ICLUSIG in those countries. ICLUSIG is approved in the European Union for the treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia and Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia who are resistant to or intolerant of certain second-generation BCR-ABL inhibitors and all patients who have the T3151 mutation. 

Under our collaboration agreement with Novartis International Pharmaceutical Ltd., Novartis received exclusive development and commercialization rights to ruxolitinib outside of the United States for all hematologic and oncologic indications and sells ruxolitinib outside of the United States under the name JAKAVI. In April 2016, we amended this agreement to provide that Novartis has exclusive research, development and commercialization rights outside of the United States to ruxolitinib (excluding topical formulations) in the graft-versus-host-disease field.

Under our collaboration agreement with Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly received exclusive worldwide development and commercialization rights to our second oral JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor, baricitinib, for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In January 2016, Lilly submitted a New Drug Application (NDA) to the FDA and a Marketing Authorization Application (MAA) to the European Medicines Agency for baricitinib as treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. In February 2017, we and Lilly announced that the European Commission approved baricitinib as OLUMIANT for the treatment of

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moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis in adult patients who have responded inadequately to, or who are intolerant to, one or more disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. In July 2017, Japan's Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare granted marketing approval for OLUMIANT for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in patients with inadequate response to standard-of-care therapies.  In June 2018, the FDA approved the 2mg dose of OLUMIANT for the treatment of adults with moderately-to-severely active rheumatoid arthritis who have had an inadequate response to one or more tumor necrosis factor inhibitor therapies.

Since we began our drug-discovery and development activities in early 2002, we have filed Investigational New Drug (IND) applications and progressed multiple internally developed proprietary compounds into clinical development.

License Agreements and Business Relationships

We establish business relationships, including collaborative arrangements with other companies and medical research institutions to assist in the clinical development and/or commercialization of certain of our drugs and drug candidates and to provide support for our research programs. We also evaluate opportunities for acquiring products or rights to products and technologies that are complementary to our business from other companies and medical research institutions.

Below is a brief description of our significant business relationships and collaborations and related license agreements that expand our pipeline and provide us with certain rights to existing and potential new products and technologies.

Novartis

In November 2009, we entered into a Collaboration and License Agreement with Novartis. Under the terms of the agreement, Novartis received exclusive development and commercialization rights outside of the United States to ruxolitinib and certain back‑up compounds for hematologic and oncology indications, including all hematological malignancies, solid tumors and myeloproliferative diseases. We retained exclusive development and commercialization rights to JAKAFI (ruxolitinib) in the United States and in certain other indications. Novartis also received worldwide exclusive development and commercialization rights to our MET inhibitor compound capmatinib and certain back‑up compounds in all indications. We retained options to co‑develop and to co‑promote capmatinib in the United States.

Under this agreement, we received an upfront payment and immediate milestone payment totaling $210.0 million and were initially eligible to receive additional payments of up to approximately $1.2 billion if defined development and commercialization milestones are achieved. We are also eligible to receive tiered, double‑digit royalties ranging from the upper‑teens to the mid‑twenties percent on future ruxolitinib net sales outside of the United States, and tiered, worldwide royalties on future capmatinib net sales that range from 12% to 14%. In addition, Novartis has received reimbursement and pricing approval for ruxolitinib in a specified number of countries, and we are now obligated to pay to Novartis tiered royalties in the low single-digits on future ruxolitinib net sales within the United States. Each company is responsible for costs relating to the development and commercialization of ruxolitinib in its respective territories, with costs of collaborative studies shared equally. Novartis is also responsible for all costs relating to the development and commercialization of capmatinib.

In April 2016, we amended this agreement to provide that Novartis has exclusive research, development and commercialization rights outside of the United States to ruxolitinib (excluding topical formulations) in the GVHD field. Under this amendment, we received a $5.0 million payment in exchange for the development and commercialization rights to ruxolitinib in GVHD outside of the United States and became eligible to receive up to $75.0 million of additional potential development and regulatory milestones relating to GVHD.  In March 2017, we recognized a $25.0 million milestone for the first patient first visit in a GVHD study and in December 2017, we recognized a $40.0 million milestone for Novartis achieving annual net sales of a JAK licensed product of $600.0 million. In December 2018, we recognized a $60.0 million milestone for Novartis achieving annual net sales of a JAK licensed product of $900.0 million.

The Novartis agreement will continue on a program‑by‑program basis until Novartis has no royalty payment obligations with respect to such program or, if earlier, the termination of the agreement or any program in accordance with

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the terms of the agreement. Royalties are payable by Novartis on a product‑by‑product and country‑by‑country basis until the latest to occur of (i) the expiration of the last valid claim of the licensed patent rights covering the licensed product in the relevant country, (ii) the expiration of regulatory exclusivity for the licensed product in such country and (iii) a specified period from first commercial sale in such country of the licensed product by Novartis or its affiliates or sublicensees. The agreement may be terminated in its entirety or on a program‑by‑program basis by Novartis for convenience. The agreement may also be terminated by either party under certain other circumstances, including material breach.

Lilly

In December 2009, we entered into a License, Development and Commercialization Agreement with Lilly. Under the terms of the agreement, Lilly received exclusive worldwide development and commercialization rights to baricitinib and certain back‑up compounds for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We received an initial payment of $90.0 million, and were initially eligible to receive additional payments of up to $665.0 million based on the achievement of defined development, regulatory and commercialization milestones.

We retained options to co-develop our JAK1/JAK2 inhibitors with Lilly on a compound-by-compound and indication-by-indication basis. Lilly is responsible for all costs relating to the development and commercialization of the compounds unless we elect to co-develop any compounds or indications. If we elect to co-develop any compounds and/or indications, we would be responsible for funding 30% of the associated future global development costs from the initiation of a Phase IIb trial through regulatory approval, including post-launch studies required by a regulatory authority. We would receive an incremental royalty rate increase across all tiers resulting in effective royalty rates ranging up to the high twenties on potential future global net sales for compounds and/or indications that we elect to co-develop.  For indications that we elect not to co-develop, we would receive tiered, double-digit royalty payments on future global net sales with rates ranging up to 20% if the product is successfully commercialized. We previously had retained an option to co-promote products in the United States but, in March 2016, we waived our co-promotion option as part of an amendment to the agreement. 

In July 2010, we elected to co-develop baricitinib with Lilly in rheumatoid arthritis and we are responsible for funding 30% of the associated future global development costs for this indication from the initiation of the Phase IIb trial through regulatory approval, including post-launch studies required by a regulatory authority. We subsequently elected to co-develop baricitinib with Lilly in psoriatic arthritis, atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata, systemic lupus erythematosus and axial spondyloarthritis.

In March 2016, we entered into an amendment to the agreement with Lilly that allows us to engage in the development and commercialization of ruxolitinib in the GVHD field. We paid Lilly an upfront payment of $35.0 million and Lilly is eligible to receive up to $40.0 million in additional regulatory milestone payments relating to ruxolitinib in the GVHD field.

In February 2017, the European Commission announced the approval of baricitinib as OLUMIANT, triggering a $65.0 million milestone payment from Lilly.  In July 2017, Japan's MHLW granted marketing approval for OLUMIANT, triggering a $15.0 million milestone payment from Lilly.  In December 2017, we recognized a $30.0 million milestone payment for the first patient treated in the atopic dermatitis Phase III program for baricitinib. In June 2018, the FDA approved the 2mg dose of OLUMIANT, triggering a $100.0 million milestone payment from Lilly. In September 2018, we recognized a $20.0 million milestone payment for the first patient treated in systemic lupus erythematosus Phase III program for baricitinib.

The Lilly agreement will continue until Lilly no longer has any royalty payment obligations or, if earlier, the termination of the agreement in accordance with its terms. Royalties are payable by Lilly on a product‑by‑product and country‑by‑country basis until the latest to occur of (i) the expiration of the last valid claim of the licensed patent rights covering the licensed product in the relevant country, (ii) the expiration of regulatory exclusivity for the licensed product in such country and (iii) a specified period from first commercial sale in such country of the licensed product by Lilly or its affiliates or sublicensees. The agreement may be terminated by Lilly for convenience, and may also be terminated under certain other circumstances, including material breach.

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Agenus

In January 2015, we entered into a License, Development and Commercialization Agreement with Agenus Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiary, 4-Antibody AG (now known as Agenus Switzerland Inc.), which we collectively refer to as Agenus. Under this agreement, the parties have agreed to collaborate on the discovery of novel immuno-therapeutics using Agenus’ antibody discovery platforms. In February 2017, we and Agenus amended this agreement.

Under the terms of this agreement, as amended, we received exclusive worldwide development and commercialization rights to four checkpoint modulators directed against GITR, OX40, LAG-3 and TIM-3. In addition to the initial four program targets, we and Agenus have the option to jointly nominate and pursue additional targets within the framework of the collaboration, and in November 2015, three more targets were added. Targets may be designated profit-share programs, where all costs and profits are shared equally by us and Agenus, or royalty-bearing programs, where we are responsible for all costs associated with discovery, preclinical, clinical development and commercialization activities. The programs relating to GITR and OX40 and two of the undisclosed targets were profit-share programs until February 2017, while the other targets currently under collaboration are royalty-bearing programs.  The February 2017 amendment converted the programs relating to GITR and OX40 to royalty-bearing programs and removed from the collaboration the profit-share programs relating to the two undisclosed targets, with one reverting to us and one reverting to Agenus.  Should any of those removed programs be successfully developed by a party, the other party will be eligible to receive the same milestone payments as the royalty-bearing programs and royalties at a 15% rate on global net sales.  There are currently no profit-share programs.  For each royalty-bearing product other than GITR and OX40, Agenus will be eligible to receive tiered royalties on global net sales ranging from 6% to 12%.  For GITR and OX40, Agenus will be eligible to receive 15% royalties on global net sales. Under the February 2017 amendment, we paid Agenus $20.0 million in accelerated milestones relating to the clinical development of the GITR and OX40 programs.  Agenus is eligible to receive up to an additional $510.0 million in future contingent development, regulatory and commercialization milestones across all programs in the collaboration.  The agreement may be terminated by us for convenience upon 12 months’ notice and may also be terminated under certain other circumstances, including material breach.

Takeda (ARIAD)

In June 2016, we acquired from ARIAD Pharmaceuticals, Inc. all of the outstanding shares of ARIAD Pharmaceuticals (Luxembourg) S.à.r.l., the parent company of ARIAD’s European subsidiaries responsible for the development and commercialization of ICLUSIG in the European Union and other countries.  We obtained an exclusive license to develop and commercialize ICLUSIG in Europe and other select countries. ARIAD Pharmaceuticals, Inc. was subsequently acquired by Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited in 2017.  As such, Takeda will be eligible to receive from us tiered royalties on net sales of ICLUSIG in our territory and up to $135.0 million in potential future oncology development and regulatory approval milestone payments, together with additional milestone payments for non-oncology indications, if approved, in our territory.

Merus

In December 2016, we entered into a Collaboration and License Agreement with Merus N.V. Under this agreement, which became effective in January 2017, the parties have agreed to collaborate with respect to the research, discovery and development of bispecific antibodies utilizing Merus’ technology platform.  The collaboration encompasses up to eleven independent programs. 

The most advanced collaboration program is MCLA-145, a bispecific antibody targeting PD-L1 and CD137, for which we received exclusive development and commercialization rights outside of the United States. Merus retained exclusive development and commercialization rights in the United States to MCLA-145.  Each party will share equally the costs of mutually agreed global development activities for MCLA-145, and fund itself any independent development activities in its territory.  Merus will be responsible for commercializing MCLA-145 in the United States and we will be responsible for commercializing it outside of the United States.   

In addition to receiving rights to MCLA-145 outside of the United States, we received worldwide exclusive development and commercialization rights to up to ten additional programs.  Of these ten additional programs, Merus

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retained the option, subject to certain conditions, to co-fund development of up to two such programs.  If Merus exercises its co-funding option for a program, Merus would be responsible for funding 35% of the associated future global development costs and, for certain of such programs, would be responsible for reimbursing us for certain development costs incurred prior to the option exercise.  Merus will also have the right to participate in a specified proportion of detailing activities in the United States for one of those co-developed programs. All costs related to the co-funded collaboration programs are subject to joint research and development plans and overseen by a joint development committee, but we will have final determination as to such plans in cases of dispute.  We will be responsible for all research, development and commercialization costs relating to all other programs. 

In February 2017, we paid Merus an upfront non-refundable payment of $120.0 million. For each program as to which Merus does not have commercialization or development co-funding rights, Merus will be eligible to receive up to $100.0 million in future contingent development and regulatory milestones, and up to $250.0 million in commercialization milestones as well as tiered royalties ranging from 6% to 10% of global net sales.  For each program as to which Merus exercises its option to co-fund development, Merus will be eligible to receive a 50% share of profits (or sustain 50% of any losses) in the United States and be eligible to receive tiered royalties ranging from 6% to 10% of net sales of products outside of the United States.  If Merus opts to cease co-funding a program as to which it exercised its co-development option, then Merus will no longer receive a share of profits in the United States but will be eligible to receive the same milestones from the co-funding termination date and the same tiered royalties described above with respect to programs where Merus does not have a right to co-fund development and, depending on the stage at which Merus chose to cease co-funding development costs, Merus will be eligible to receive additional royalties ranging up to 4% of net sales in the United States.  For MCLA-145, we and Merus will each be eligible to receive tiered royalties on net sales in the other party’s territory at rates ranging from 6% to 10%.  

The Merus agreement will continue on a program-by-program basis until we have no royalty payment obligations with respect to such program or, if earlier, the termination of the agreement or any program in accordance with the terms of the agreement.  The agreement may be terminated in its entirety or on a program-by-program basis by us for convenience.  The agreement may also be terminated by either party under certain other circumstances, including material breach, as set forth in the agreement.  If the agreement is terminated with respect to one or more programs, all rights in the terminated programs revert to Merus, subject to payment to us of a reverse royalty of up to 4% on sales of future products, if Merus elects to pursue development and commercialization of products arising from the terminated programs. 

Calithera

In January 2017, we entered into a Collaboration and License Agreement with Calithera Biosciences, Inc. Under this agreement, we received an exclusive, worldwide license to develop and commercialize small molecule arginase inhibitors, including INCB01158 (CB-1158), which is currently in Phase I clinical trials, for hematology and oncology indications. We have agreed to co-fund 70% of the global development costs for the development of the licensed products for hematology and oncology indications. Calithera will have the right to conduct certain clinical development under the collaboration, including combination studies of a licensed product with a proprietary compound of Calithera. We will be entitled to 60% of the profits and losses from net sales of licensed product in the United States, and Calithera will have the right to co-detail licensed products in the United States, and we have agreed to pay Calithera tiered royalties ranging from the low to mid-double digits on net sales of licensed products outside the United States. Calithera may opt out of its co-funding obligation, in which case the U.S. profit sharing will no longer be in effect, and we have agreed to pay Calithera tiered royalties ranging from the low to mid-double digits on net sales of licensed products both in the United States and outside the United States, and additional royalties to reimburse Calithera for previously incurred development costs. Calithera retains rights to certain arginase inhibitors that are not part of the collaboration for specific orphan indications outside of hematology and oncology, subject to our rights to negotiate a license for any such programs under specified circumstances if Calithera elects to out-license them.

In January 2017, we paid Calithera an upfront license fee of $45.0 million and have agreed to pay potential development, regulatory and sales milestone payments of over $430.0 million if the profit share is in effect, or $750.0 million if the profit share terminates.

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The Calithera agreement will continue on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis for so long as we are developing or commercializing products in the United States (if the parties are sharing profits in the United States) and until we have no further royalty payment obligations, unless earlier terminated according to the terms of the agreement. The agreement may be terminated in its entirety or on a product-by-product and/or a country-by-country basis by us for convenience. The agreement may also be terminated by us for Calithera’s uncured material breach, by Calithera for our uncured material breach and by either party for bankruptcy or patent challenge. If the agreement is terminated early with respect to one or more products or countries, all rights in the terminated products and countries revert to Calithera.

MacroGenics

In October 2017, we entered into a Global Collaboration and License Agreement with MacroGenics. Under this agreement, we received exclusive development and commercialization rights worldwide to MacroGenics’ INCMGA0012, an investigational monoclonal antibody that inhibits PD-1. Except as set forth in the succeeding sentence, we will have sole authority over and bear all costs and expenses in connection with the development and commercialization of INCMGA0012 in all indications, whether as a monotherapy or as part of a combination regimen.  MacroGenics has retained the right to develop and commercialize, at its cost and expense, its pipeline assets in combination with INCMGA0012.  In addition, MacroGenics has the right to manufacture a portion of both companies’ global clinical and commercial supply needs of INCMGA0012.  In December 2017, we paid MacroGenics an upfront payment of $150.0 million. MacroGenics will be eligible to receive up to $420.0 million in future contingent development and regulatory milestones, and up to $330.0 million in commercial milestones as well as tiered royalties ranging from 15% to 24% of global net sales.

The MacroGenics agreement will continue until we are no longer commercializing, developing or manufacturing INCMGA0012 or, if earlier, the termination of the agreement in accordance with its terms.  The agreement may be terminated in its entirety or on a licensed product by licensed product basis by us for convenience.  The agreement may also be terminated by either party under certain other circumstances, including material breach, as set forth in the agreement.

Syros

In January 2018, we entered into a target discovery, research collaboration and option agreement with Syros Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Under this agreement, Syros will use its proprietary gene control platform to identify novel therapeutic targets with a focus in myeloproliferative neoplasms and we have received options to obtain exclusive worldwide rights to intellectual property resulting from the collaboration for up to seven validated targets.  We will have exclusive worldwide rights to develop and commercialize any therapies under the collaboration that modulate those validated targets.  We paid Syros $2.5 million in cash for access to proprietary technology and $7.5 million in cash for research and development services. We have agreed to pay Syros up to $54.0 million in target selection and option exercise fees should we decide to exercise all of our options under the agreement. For products resulting from the collaboration against each of the seven selected and validated targets, we have agreed to pay up to $50.0 million in potential development and regulatory milestones and up to $65.0 million in potential commercial milestones. Syros is also eligible to receive low single-digit royalties on net sales of products resulting from the collaboration.

Innovent

In December 2018, we entered into a research collaboration and licensing agreement with Innovent Biologics, Inc. Under the terms of this agreement, Innovent received exclusive development and commercialization rights to our clinical-stage product candidates pemigatinib, itacitinib and parsaclisib in hematology and oncology in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. In January 2019, we received an upfront payment under this agreement of $40.0 million. In addition, we are eligible to receive $20.0 million in connection with the first related IND filing in China, up to $129.0 million in potential development and regulatory milestones, and up to $202.5 million in potential commercial milestones. We are also eligible to receive tiered royalties from the high-teens to the low-twenties on future sales of products resulting from the collaboration. We retain an option to assist in the promotion of the three product candidates in the Innovent territories.

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Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Estimates

The preparation of financial statements requires us to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates. We base our estimates on historical experience and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form our basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from those estimates under different assumptions or conditions. We believe the following critical accounting policies reflect the more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. See Note 1 of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a complete list of our significant accounting policies.

Revenue Recognition. We adopted the new accounting standard for the recognition of revenue under ASC 606 for the fiscal year beginning on January 1, 2018. Under this standard, we recognize revenue only when we have satisfied a performance obligation through transferring control of the promised good or service to a customer. Control, in this instance, may mean the ability to prevent other entities from directing the use of, and receiving benefit from, a good or service. The standard indicates that an entity must determine at contract inception whether it will transfer control of a promised good or service over time or satisfy the performance obligation at a point in time through analysis of the following criteria: (i) the entity has a present right to payment, (ii) the customer has legal title, (iii) the customer has physical possession, (iv) the customer has the significant risks and rewards of ownership and (v) the customer has accepted the asset. We assess collectability based primarily on the customer’s payment history and on the creditworthiness of the customer. For additional information on the new accounting standard for the recognition of revenue see Note 1 of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Product Revenues

Our product revenues consist of U.S. sales of JAKAFI and European sales of ICLUSIG.  Product revenues are recognized once we satisfy the performance obligation at a point in time under the revenue recognition criteria as described above. We recognize revenues for product received by our customers net of allowances for customer credits, including estimated rebates, chargebacks, discounts, returns, distribution service fees, patient assistance programs, and government rebates, such as Medicare Part D coverage gap reimbursements in the U.S. These sales allowances and accruals are recorded based on estimates which are described in detail below.  Estimates are assessed as of the end of each reporting period and are updated to reflect current information.  We believe that our sales allowances and accruals are reasonable and appropriate based on current facts and circumstances.

Customer Credits: Our customers are offered various forms of consideration, including allowances, service fees and prompt payment discounts. We expect our customers will earn prompt payment discounts and, therefore, we deduct the full amount of these discounts from total product sales when revenues are recognized. Service fees are also deducted from total product sales as they are earned.

Rebates and Discounts:  We accrue rebates for mandated discounts under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program in the U.S. and mandated discounts in Europe in markets where government-sponsored healthcare systems are the primary payers for healthcare. These accruals are based on statutory discount rates and expected utilization as well as historical data we have accumulated since product launch. Our estimates for expected utilization of rebates are based on data received from our customers. Rebates are generally invoiced and paid in arrears so that the accrual balance consists of an estimate of the amount expected to be incurred for the current quarter’s activity, plus an accrual balance for known prior quarters’ unpaid rebates. If actual future rebates vary from estimates, we may need to adjust prior period accruals, which would affect revenue in the period of adjustment.

Chargebacks: Chargebacks are discounts that occur when certain contracted customers purchase directly from our wholesalers at a discounted price. The wholesalers, in turn, charges back to us the difference between the price initially paid by the wholesalers and the discounted price paid by the contracted customers. In addition to actual chargebacks received, we maintain an accrual for chargebacks based on the estimated contractual discounts on the inventory levels on

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hand in our distribution channel.  If actual future chargebacks vary from these estimates, we may need to adjust prior period accruals, which would affect revenue in the period of adjustment.

Medicare Part D Coverage Gap:  Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit mandates manufacturers to fund 50% of the Medicare Part D insurance coverage gap for prescription drugs sold to eligible patients. Our estimates for the expected Medicare Part D coverage gap are based on historical invoices received and in part from data received from our customers. Funding of the coverage gap is generally invoiced and paid in arrears so that the accrual balance consists of an estimate of the amount expected to be incurred for the current quarter’s activity, plus an accrual balance for known prior quarters. If actual future funding varies from estimates, we may need to adjust prior period accruals, which would affect revenue in the period of adjustment.

Co-payment Assistance:  Patients who have commercial insurance and meet certain eligibility requirements may receive co-payment assistance. We accrue a liability for co-payment assistance based on actual program participation and estimates of program redemption using data provided by third-party administrators.

Product Royalty Revenues

Royalty revenues on commercial sales for JAKAVI by Novartis are estimated based on information provided by Novartis. Royalty revenues on commercial sales for OLUMIANT by Lilly are estimated based on information provided by Lilly. We exercise judgment in determining whether the information provided is sufficiently reliable for us to base our royalty revenue recognition thereon. If actual royalties vary from estimates, we may need to adjust the prior period, which would affect royalty revenue and receivable in the period of adjustment.

Milestone and Contract Revenues

Our license agreements often include contractual milestones, which typically relate to the achievement of pre-specified development, regulatory and commercialization events outside of our control, such as regulatory approval of a compound, first patient dosing or achievement of sales-based thresholds. For such cases, we believe that revenue related to these events should not be recognized until the milestone has been achieved.

Stock Compensation.    Share-based payment transactions with employees, which include stock options, restricted stock units (RSUs) and performance shares (PSUs), are recognized as compensation expense over the requisite service period based on their estimated fair values at the date of grant as well as expected forfeiture rates based on actual experience. The stock compensation process requires significant judgment and the use of estimates, particularly surrounding Black-Scholes assumptions such as stock price volatility over the option term and expected option lives, as well as expected forfeiture rates and the probability of PSUs vesting. The fair value of stock options, which are subject to graded vesting, are recognized as compensation expense over the requisite service period using the accelerated attribution method.  The fair value of RSUs that are subject to cliff vesting are recognized as compensation expense over the requisite service period using the straight-line attribution method, and the fair value of RSUs that are subject to graded vesting are recognized as compensation expense over the requisite service period using the accelerated attribution method.  The fair value of PSUs are recognized as compensation expense beginning at the time in which the performance conditions are deemed probable of achievement. We assess the probably of achievement of performance conditions, including projected product revenues and clinical development milestones, as of the end of each reporting period. Once a performance condition is considered probable, we record compensation expense based on the portion of the service period elapsed to date with respect to that award, with a cumulative catch-up, net of estimated forfeitures, and recognize any remaining compensation expense, if any, over the remaining requisite service period using the straight-line attribution method for PSUs that are subject to cliff vesting and using the accelerated attribution method for PSUs that are subject to graded vesting.

Income Taxes. We account for income taxes using an asset and liability approach to financial accounting for income taxes.  Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement carrying amounts and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for years in which the basis differences are expected to reverse. We periodically assess the likelihood of the realization of deferred tax assets, and reduce the carrying amount of these deferred tax assets to an amount that is considered to be more-likely-than-

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not to be realizable. Our assessment considers recent cumulative earnings experience, projections of future taxable income (losses) and ongoing prudent and feasible tax planning strategies.  When performing our assessment on projections of future taxable income (losses), we consider factors such as the likelihood of regulatory approval and commercial success of products currently under development, among other factors.   Significant judgment is required in making this assessment and, to the extent that a reversal of any portion of our valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets is deemed appropriate, a tax benefit will be recognized against our income tax provision in the period of such reversal.

We recognize the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more-likely-than-not that the position will be sustained upon examination by the taxing authorities, including resolutions of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefit that is recorded for these positions is measured at the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50 percent likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. We adjust the level of the liability to reflect any subsequent changes in the relevant facts surrounding the uncertain positions. Any interest and penalties on uncertain tax positions are included within the tax provision.

We record estimates and prepare and file tax returns in various jurisdictions across the U.S., Europe, and Asia based upon our interpretation of local tax laws and regulations.  While we exercise significant judgment when applying complex tax laws and regulations in these various taxing jurisdictions, many of our tax returns are open to audit, and may be subject to future tax, interest, and penalty assessments.

We believe our estimates for the valuation allowances against certain deferred tax assets and the amount of benefits associated with uncertain tax positions recognized in our financial statements are appropriate based upon our assessment of the factors mentioned above.   

Acquisition-related contingent consideration.  Acquisition-related contingent consideration, which consists of our future royalty and certain potential milestone obligations to ARIAD/Takeda, was recorded on the acquisition date at the estimated fair value of the obligation, in accordance with the acquisition method of accounting. The fair value of the contingent consideration was determined using an income approach based on estimated ICLUSIG revenues in the European Union and other countries. As the fair value measurement is based on significant inputs that are unobservable in the market, this represents a Level 3 measurement.

The fair value of the acquisition-related contingent consideration is remeasured each reporting period, with changes in fair value recorded in the consolidated statements of operations. The assumptions used to determine the fair value of the acquisition-related contingent consideration include projected ICLUSIG revenues and discount rates which, require significant judgement and are analyzed on a quarterly basis. While we use the best available information to prepare our projected ICLUSIG revenues and discount rate assumptions, actual ICLUSIG revenues and/or market conditions could differ significantly.  Changes to one or multiple inputs could have a material impact on the amount of acquisition-related contingent consideration expense recorded during the reporting period.

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Table of Contents

Results of Operations

Years Ended December 31, 2018 and 2017

We recorded net income for the year ended December 31, 2018 of $109.5 million and net loss for the year ended December 31, 2017 of $313.1 million. On a per share basis, basic net income was $0.52 and diluted net income was $0.51 for the year ended December 31, 2018.  On a per share basis, basic and diluted net loss was $1.53 for the year ended December 31, 2017.

Revenues

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For the Year Ended,

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

    

2018

    

2017

    

 

 

(in millions)

 

JAKAFI revenues, net

 

$

1,387.0

 

$

1,133.4

 

ICLUSIG revenues, net

 

 

79.9

 

 

66.9

 

Total product revenues, net

 

 

1,466.9

 

 

1,200.3

 

JAKAVI product royalty revenues

 

 

194.7

 

 

151.7

 

OLUMIANT product royalty revenues

 

 

40.1

 

 

9.1

 

Total product royalty revenues

 

 

234.8

 

 

160.8

 

Milestone and contract revenues

 

 

180.0

 

 

175.0

 

Other revenues

 

 

0.2

 

 

0.1

 

Total revenues

 

$

1,881.9

 

$

1,536.2

 

Our product revenues, net for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, were $1.5 billion and $1.2 billion, respectively. The increase in JAKAFI product revenues was comprised of a volume increase of $166.1 million and a price increase of $87.5 million. Our product revenues may fluctuate from period to period due to our customers’ purchasing patterns over the course of a year, including as a result of increased inventory building by customers in advance of expected or announced price increases. Product revenues are recorded net of estimated product returns, pricing discounts including rebates offered pursuant to mandatory federal and state government programs and chargebacks, prompt pay discounts and distribution fees and co-pay assistance. Our revenue recognition policies require estimates of the aforementioned sales allowances each period.

The following table provides a summary of activity with respect to our sales allowances and accruals:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

Co-Pay

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

Discounts and

 

Government

 

Assistance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Distribution

 

Rebates and

 

and Other

 

Product

 

 

 

 

Year Ended  December 31, 2018

    

Fees

    

Chargebacks

    

Discounts

    

Returns

    

Total

 

Balance at January 1, 2018

 

$

4,080

 

$

30,938

 

$

338

 

$

1,692

 

$

37,048

 

Allowances for current period sales