Industry: business services
Intercontinental Exchange operates regulated exchanges, clearing houses and listings venues, and provides data services for commodity and financial markets.
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Book value of equity per share||$30.54||4.2%||5.5%||17.7%|
|BV including aggregate dividends||7.7%||8%||19.2%|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
A company creates wealth for its long-term shareholders in 2 main ways - through dividend payments and through the accumulation of retained earnings. This graph shows the accumulation of per-share equity of long-term shareholders (green bars), which consists of the retained earnings plus all capital invested in the company, and the cumulative dividends the company has paid over time per share of its stock (blue bars).
In the words of Warren Buffett: "We're looking for... businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt."
Return on equity is a key metric of financial performance, indicating a company's ability to generate earnings using shareholder capital. Over time, ROE is one of the major determinants of the rate at which a company creates shareholder wealth. The average ROE for large U.S. companies is 12%, and many investors use it as a threshold for attractive investments.
Companies can boost ROE by increasing leverage, which reduces the safety of the investment. Therefore, it is useful to look at the return on assets (ROA), which measures a company's earning power regardless of its capital structure. A widening gap between ROE and ROA may be a warning sign that should be thoroughly investigated.
Earnings per share is a popular metric used to value a company (using P/E ratio); growth in EPS is often used to judge company growth potential. However, many investors believe that EPS is an inferior metric to ROE, because it ignores the amount of capital the company used to generate earnings.
Free cash flow shows how much cash a company generates from operations, above and beyond what is required to maintain or expand its productive assets. This cash can be returned to investors, or spent by management on growing the company or paying back its debts.
Balance sheets of many companies contain intangible assets such as goodwill, trademarks, patents, etc. Many investors consider intangibles more difficult to value than physical assets. If intangible assets had been valued incorrectly, they must be impaired, resulting in a loss charged against shareholder equity. This chart demonstrates the potential loss to shareholder equity from such impairments.
Companies often use debt financing to increase their return on equity. However, as the amount of debt financing increases relative to the amount of equity financing, the company becomes more sensitive to down turns and other negative events. As a result, many investors use the ratio of debt to equity as a measure of a company's financial risk, and avoid companies that have this ratio above 1.
This chart shows shareholder equity as a percentage of total assets, allowing investors to judge the overall leverage. Companies with a higher proportion of equity can be viewed as safer investments. This metric is particularly important for highly leveraged institutions, such as banks, where it must be at least 4% according to government regulations.
The ratio of current assets to current liabilities is known as the current ratio. This metric is a quick measure of the company's ability to pay its short-term obligations. A current ratio below 1 is a warning sign that should be investigated, especially for companies that cannot count on adequate cash flow from operations.
This chart shows the cumulative dilution of investor ownership in a company over time. Dilution reduces an investor's participation in the future earnings. Dilution increases when a company issues new shares, and decreases when a company buys its shares back. Many investors avoid companies with large chronic dilution.
analysis provides insight into factors affecting the Return On Equity of a company.
The DuPont equation decomposes ROE as follows:
ROE = (Net margin) * (Asset turnover) * (Asset to equity ratio)
Net margin indicates operating efficiency, Asset turnover measures the total asset use efficiency, and the Asset to equity ratio is a measure of financial leverage.
The dividend payout ratio tells investors what percentage of earnings a company returns to shareholders, and what percentage it retains and reinvests. This ratio represents a major capital allocation decision by the company, and can be used to judge management rationality. Rational management should pay out all earnings that cannot be productively reinvested. Therefore, a low dividend payout ratio for a profitable company with a low growth potential may be a warning sign.
Many investors use the P/B ratio as a quick way of judging company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - specifically seek out companies with low P/B ratios. However, investors should be careful not to make investment decisions on this metric alone, without considering a company's earning and growth potential, since a low P/B ratio can be a sign of a bleak future for the business.
P/E ratio is a popular way of making a quick judgment of a company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - often seek solid companies with low P/E ratios as investment opportunities. However, P/E ratio represents an oversimplified approach to business valuation, and can often lead to incorrect investment decisions.
On September 14, 2006, we entered into a merger agreement to acquire NYBOT, a leading soft commodity exchange, for consideration of approximately $1.1 billion, including merger-related transaction costs. The transaction was closed on January 12, 2007. The transaction consideration was comprised of 10.297 million shares of our common stock and approximately $415 million in cash, including merger-related transaction costs. Under the terms of the merger agreement, NYBOT, a member-owned, not-for-profit entity domiciled in New York, was merged into a Delaware for-profit corporation and became a wholly-owned subsidiary of ICE. The number of shares of our common stock issued pursuant to the merger agreement represents approximately 15% of our issued and outstanding share capital following the consummation of the merger.
The Company completed its acquisition of NYBOT, formerly a member-owned not-for-profit corporation, on January 12, 2007. In accordance with the Agreement and Plan of Merger dated as of September 14, 2006, as amended by the First Amendment dated October 30, 2006, among the Company, NYBOT and CFC Acquisition Co., a Delaware corporation and a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, NYBOT merged with and into CFC Acquisition Co., with CFC Acquisition Co. surviving the merger as a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company under the name of NYBOT. In the acquisition, each outstanding NYBOT membership interest was converted into, at the election of each NYBOT member, either (i) cash equal to $1,074,719, (ii) 17,025 shares of the Companys common stock or (iii) a combination of cash consideration and stock consideration, in each case subject to proration in accordance with the Merger Agreement. In addition, each outstanding NYBOT membership interest was converted into the right to receive a pro rata share of any bonus pool amounts not paid to NYBOT officers and governors and a pro rata share of NYBOTs excess working capital as of the Acquisition Date. The Company determined that NYBOTs excess working capital as of the Acquisition Date was $2.1 million and this amount was paid in cash to the NYBOT members that received the merger consideration. The maximum amount of cash payable by the Company as merger consideration, excluding the excess working capital, and including any cash payable in respect of the bonus pool was $400 million. The Company paid the remainder of the merger consideration, excluding the excess working capital and the cash portion of the bonus pool, in shares of the Companys common stock.
On November 13, 2013, the Company acquired 100% of NYSE Euronext for a combination of cash and stock. The total purchase price was $11.1 billion and included cash consideration of $2.7 billion and the issuance of 42.4 million shares of the Company's common stock to NYSE Euronext stockholders. The fair value of the shares issued was $8.4 billion based on the closing share price of the Company's common stock of 197.80 per share on November 12, 2013. IntercontinentalExchange Group, Inc. was organized on March 6, 2013 as a direct, wholly-owned subsidiary of IntercontinentalExchange, Inc. for the purpose of effecting the acquisition of NYSE Euronext Holdings LLC. Upon the completion of the acquisition, IntercontinentalExchange, Inc. and NYSE Euronext each became wholly-owned subsidiaries of the Company.
In September 2014, we entered into a Rule 10b5-1 trading plan as authorized by our board of directors permitting open market repurchases of our common stock based on certain parameters described in the trading plan. During the six months and three months ended June 30, 2015, we repurchased 1,744,839 and 872,539 shares, respectively, of our outstanding common stock under our Rule 10b5-1 trading plan at a cost of $399 million and $202 million, respectively. As of June 30, 2015, the remaining board authorization permits repurchases of up to $398 million of our common stock with no fixed expiration date.
On December 11, 2015, we acquired 100% of Trayport in a stock transaction. The total purchase price was $620 million, comprised of 2.5 million shares of our common stock, and their results are included in our consolidated results effective from the acquisition date. Refer to note 3 to our consolidated financial statements and related notes, which are included elsewhere in this Annual Report, for more information on this acquisition. Trayport licenses its technology to serve brokers, exchanges and traders to facilitate electronic and hybrid trade execution primarily in the energy markets. The transaction is expected to enable us to provide new technology and software-related services to our energy customers.
On December 14, 2015, we acquired 100% of Interactive Data in a stock and cash transaction. The total purchase price was $5.6 billion, comprised of cash consideration of $4.1 billion and 6.5 million shares of our common stock, and their results are included in our consolidated results effective from the acquisition date. The cash consideration is gross of $301 million of cash held by Interactive Data on the date of the acquisition. The cash consideration was funded from $2.5 billion of net proceeds received on November 24, 2015 in connection with the offering of new senior notes and $1.6 billion of borrowing under our commercial paper program. Refer to note 3 to our consolidated financial statements and related notes, which are included elsewhere in this Annual Report, for more information on this acquisition. Interactive Data is a leading provider of financial market data, analytics and related trading solutions, serving the mutual fund, bank, asset management, hedge fund, securities and financial instrument processing and administration sectors. The acquisition builds on our global market data growth strategy by expanding the markets served, adding technology platforms and increasing new data and valuation services. The combined company will offer customers efficiencies in accessing data on an integrated platform while serving the growing demand for data, analysis, valuation and connectivity globally.
On October 24, 2017, we acquired a 4.7% stake in Euroclear for EURO 275 million in cash ($327 million based on the euro/U.S. dollar exchange rate of 1.1903 as of October 24, 2017). During December 2017, we reached an agreement to buy an additional 5.1% stake in Euroclear for EURO 243 million in cash ($292 million based on the euro/U.S. dollar exchange rate of 1.2003 as of December 31, 2017) and expect to receive necessary regulatory approval during the first quarter of 2018. Upon closing, we will own a 9.8% stake in Euroclear for a total investment of EURO 518 million ($619 million based on the exchange rates above). Euroclear is a leading provider of post-trade services, including settlement, central securities depositories and related services for cross-border transactions across asset classes.
On December 14, 2017, we sold Trayport to TMX Group for POUND 550 million ($733 million based on the pound sterling/U.S. dollar exchange rate of 1.3331 as of December 14, 2017). The proceeds of the sale included a combination of cash and our acquisitions of NGX and Shorcan Energy, both wholly-owned subsidiaries of TMX Group, for POUND 200 million ($267 million). NGX, headquartered in Calgary, provides electronic execution, central counterparty clearing and data services to the North American natural gas, electricity and oil markets. Shorcan Energy offers brokerage services for the North American crude oil markets. We recognized a gain of $110 million upon the closing of this transaction, equal to the gross proceeds received from TMX Group, less the adjusted carrying value and the costs to sell Trayport.
On January 2, 2018, we acquired 100% of BondPoint from Virtu Financial, Inc. for $400 million in cash. BondPoint is a leading provider of electronic fixed income trading solutions for the buy-side and sell-side offering access to centralized liquidity and automated trade execution services through its ATS and provides trading services to more than 500 financial services firms.