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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
Commission File Number: 1-1927
THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Ohio
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
34-0253240
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
 
200 Innovation Way, Akron, Ohio
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
 
44316-0001
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (330) 796-2121
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
 
Name of
 Each Exchange
 on Which
Registered
Common Stock, Without Par Value
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes þ
No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes o
No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes þ
No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes þ
No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer þ
 
Accelerated filer o
 
Non-accelerated filer o

 
Smaller reporting company o
 
Emerging growth company o
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
Yes o
No þ
The aggregate market value of the common stock held by nonaffiliates of the registrant, computed by reference to the last sales price of such common stock as of the closing of trading on June 29, 2018, was approximately $5.5 billion.

Shares of Common Stock, Without Par Value, outstanding at January 31, 2019:
232,197,396
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:
Portions of the Company’s Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on April 8, 2019 are incorporated by reference in Part III.


Table of Contents

THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY
Annual Report on Form 10-K
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2018
Table of Contents

Item
Number
 
Page Number
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



Table of Contents

PART I.

ITEM 1.    BUSINESS.
BUSINESS OF GOODYEAR
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (the “Company”) is an Ohio corporation organized in 1898. Its principal offices are located at 200 Innovation Way, Akron, Ohio 44316-0001. Its telephone number is (330) 796-2121. The terms “Goodyear,” “Company” and “we,” “us” or “our” wherever used herein refer to the Company together with all of its consolidated U.S. and foreign subsidiary companies, unless the context indicates to the contrary.
We are one of the world’s leading manufacturers of tires, engaging in operations in most regions of the world. In 2018, our net sales were $15,475 million and Goodyear’s net income was $693 million. Together with our U.S. and international subsidiaries, we develop, manufacture, market and distribute tires for most applications. We also manufacture and market rubber-related chemicals for various applications. We are one of the world’s largest operators of commercial truck service and tire retreading centers. In addition, we operate approximately 1,000 tire and auto service center outlets where we offer our products for retail sale and provide automotive repair and other services. We manufacture our products in 47 manufacturing facilities in 21 countries, including the United States, and we have marketing operations in almost every country around the world. We employ approximately 64,000 full-time and temporary associates worldwide.
AVAILABLE INFORMATION
We make available free of charge on our website, http://www.goodyear.com, our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after we file or furnish such reports to the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). The information on our website is not incorporated by reference in or considered to be a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
DESCRIPTION OF GOODYEAR’S BUSINESS
GENERAL INFORMATION REGARDING OUR SEGMENTS
For the year ended December 31, 2018, we operated our business through three operating segments representing our regional tire businesses: Americas; Europe, Middle East and Africa (“EMEA”); and Asia Pacific.
Our principal business is the development, manufacture, distribution and sale of tires and related products and services worldwide. We manufacture and market numerous lines of rubber tires for:
automobiles
trucks
buses
aircraft
motorcycles
earthmoving and mining equipment
farm implements
industrial equipment, and
various other applications.
In each case, our tires are offered for sale to vehicle manufacturers for mounting as original equipment (“OE”) and for replacement worldwide. We manufacture and sell tires under the Goodyear, Dunlop, Kelly, Debica, Sava and Fulda brands and various other Goodyear owned “house” brands, and the private-label brands of certain customers. In certain geographic areas we also:
retread truck, aviation and off-the-road ("OTR") tires,
manufacture and sell tread rubber and other tire retreading materials,
sell chemical products, and/or
provide automotive and commercial repair services and miscellaneous other products and services.

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Our principal products are new tires for most applications. Approximately 85% of our sales in 2018, and 87% of our sales in 2017 and 2016 were for new tires. Sales of chemical products and natural rubber to unaffiliated customers were 4% in 2018, and 3% in 2017 and 2016, of our consolidated sales (7%, 6% and 5% of Americas total sales in 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively). The percentages of each segment’s sales attributable to new tires during the periods indicated were:
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
Sales of New Tires By
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Americas
 
79
%
 
81
%
 
82
%
Europe, Middle East and Africa
 
94

 
94

 
94

Asia Pacific
 
91

 
90

 
89


Each segment exports tires to other segments. The financial results of each segment exclude sales of tires exported to other segments, but include operating income derived from such transactions.
Goodyear does not include motorcycle, aviation, race or all-terrain vehicle tires in reported tire unit sales.
Tire unit sales for each segment during the periods indicated were:
GOODYEAR’S ANNUAL TIRE UNIT SALES — SEGMENT
 
Year Ended December 31,
(In millions of tires)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Americas
70.9

 
70.9

 
74.1

Europe, Middle East and Africa
57.8

 
57.1

 
61.1

Asia Pacific
30.5

 
31.2

 
30.9

Goodyear worldwide tire units
159.2

 
159.2

 
166.1


Our replacement and OE tire unit sales during the periods indicated were:
GOODYEAR’S ANNUAL TIRE UNIT SALES — REPLACEMENT AND OE
 
 
(In millions of tires)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Replacement tire units
115.1

 
113.5

 
117.3

OE tire units
44.1

 
45.7

 
48.8

Goodyear worldwide tire units
159.2

 
159.2

 
166.1


New tires are sold under highly competitive conditions throughout the world. On a worldwide basis, we have two major competitors: Bridgestone (based in Japan) and Michelin (based in France). Other significant competitors include Continental, Cooper, Hankook, Kumho, Pirelli, Sumitomo, Toyo, Yokohama and various regional tire manufacturers.
We compete with other tire manufacturers on the basis of product design, performance, price and terms, reputation, warranty terms, customer service and consumer convenience. Goodyear and Dunlop brand tires enjoy a high recognition factor and have a reputation for performance and product design. The Kelly, Debica, Sava and Fulda brands and various house brand tire lines offered by us, and tires manufactured and sold by us to private brand customers, compete primarily on the basis of value and price.
We do not consider our tire businesses to be seasonal to any significant degree.
AMERICAS
Americas, our largest segment in terms of revenue, develops, manufactures, distributes and sells tires and related products and services in North, Central and South America, and sells tires to various export markets, primarily through intersegment sales. Americas manufactures tires in six plants in the United States, two plants in Canada and five plants in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru.
Americas manufactures and sells tires for automobiles, trucks, buses, earthmoving, mining and industrial equipment, aircraft, and for various other applications.

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Goodyear brand radial passenger tire lines sold throughout Americas include the Assurance family of product lines for the premium and mid-tier passenger and cross-over utility segments; the Direction family of product lines for the mid-tier consumer segment; the Eagle family of product lines for the high-performance segment; the Wrangler family of product lines for the sport utility vehicle and light truck segments; and the Ultra Grip family of winter tires. Additionally, we offer Dunlop brand radial tire lines including Signature HP, SP Sport and Direzza for the passenger and performance segments; Grandtrek tire lines for the cross-over, sport utility vehicle and light truck segments; and SP Winter, Winter Maxx and Grandtrek tire lines for the winter tire segment. Americas also manufactures and sells several lines of Kelly brand radial tires for passenger cars and light trucks including the Kelly Edge A/S, Edge HP, Edge AT and Safari TSR. Goodyear’s Americas commercial business provides commercial truck tires, retreads, services, tools and business solutions to trucking fleets. Americas also:
manufactures tread rubber and other tire retreading materials for trucks, heavy equipment and aviation,
retreads truck, aviation and OTR tires, primarily as a service to its commercial customers,
sells products and installation services online through our website, www.goodyear.com,
provides automotive maintenance and repair services at approximately 570 Company-owned retail outlets primarily under the Goodyear or Just Tires names,
provides trucking fleets with new tires, retreads, mechanical service, preventative maintenance and roadside assistance from approximately 190 Company-owned Goodyear Commercial Tire & Service Centers,
sells automotive repair and maintenance items, automotive equipment and accessories and other items to dealers and consumers,
sells chemical products and natural rubber to Goodyear’s other business segments and to unaffiliated customers, and
provides miscellaneous other products and services.
In 2018, Americas launched four new consumer tires under the Goodyear brand, the Goodyear Assurance MaxLife, Goodyear Assurance Outlast, Goodyear Cargo Marathon 2 and the Goodyear Eagle Enforcer. Americas also launched the Kelly Edge HT in the Kelly brand family. Americas commercial truck tire business launched eight new tires under the Goodyear Endurance, Goodyear Fuel Max, Goodyear Marathon, Goodyear Armor Max and Goodyear Urban Max lines to service our long haul, regional, mixed service and city service customers.
During the third quarter of 2018, we formed a 50/50 joint venture with Bridgestone Americas, Inc. (“Bridgestone”) that combined our Company-owned wholesale distribution business and Bridgestone’s tire wholesale warehouse business to create TireHub, LLC (“TireHub”), a national tire distributor in the United States.
Markets and Other Information
Tire unit sales to replacement and OE customers served by Americas during the periods indicated were:
AMERICAS UNIT SALES — REPLACEMENT AND OE
 
Year Ended December 31,
(In millions of tires)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Replacement tire units
53.8

 
53.5

 
55.0

OE tire units
17.1

 
17.4

 
19.1

Total tire units
70.9

 
70.9

 
74.1


Americas is a major supplier of tires to most manufacturers of automobiles, trucks, buses, aircraft, and earthmoving, mining and industrial equipment that have production facilities located in the Americas.
Americas' primary competitors are Bridgestone and Michelin. Other significant competitors include Continental, Cooper, Pirelli, and imports from other regions, primarily Asia.
Goodyear, Dunlop and Kelly brand tires are sold in Americas through several channels of distribution, including through TireHub, our sole national wholesale tire distributor in the United States, and a network of aligned U.S. regional wholesale tire distributors. The principal channel for Goodyear brand tires is a large network of independent dealers. Goodyear, Dunlop and Kelly brand tires are also sold to numerous national and regional retailers and in Goodyear Company-owned stores in the United States.
We are subject to regulation by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”), which has established various standards and regulations applicable to tires sold in the United States. NHTSA has the authority to order the recall of automotive products, including tires, having a defect related to motor vehicle safety or that do not comply with a motor vehicle safety standard. In addition, the Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act (the “TREAD Act”) imposes numerous reporting requirements with respect to tires. The TREAD Act also requires tire manufacturers, among other things, to

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remedy tire safety defects without charge for five years and comply with revised and more rigorous tire testing standards. NHTSA is also in the process of establishing national tire labeling regulations, under which certain tires sold in the United States will be required to be rated for rolling resistance, traction and tread wear.
Our Brazilian operations are subject to a tire certification and labeling regulation which requires that consumers be informed about rolling resistance, wet grip braking and noise characteristics. The tire certification and labeling regulation applies to all radial passenger car, light truck and commercial truck tires sold in Brazil.
EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA
Europe, Middle East and Africa, our second largest segment in terms of revenue, develops, manufactures, distributes and sells tires for automobiles, trucks, buses, aircraft, motorcycles, and earthmoving, mining and industrial equipment throughout Europe, the Middle East and Africa under the Goodyear, Dunlop, Debica, Sava and Fulda brands and other house brands, and sells tires to various export markets, primarily through intersegment sales. EMEA manufactures tires in thirteen plants in France, Germany, Luxembourg, Poland, Slovenia, South Africa and Turkey. EMEA also:
sells aviation tires and manufactures and sells retreaded aviation tires,
provides various retreading and related services for truck and OTR tires, primarily for its commercial truck tire customers,
offers automotive repair services at Company-owned retail outlets, and
provides miscellaneous other products and services.
In 2018, EMEA launched a number of new consumer tires under the Goodyear, Dunlop, Debica, Sava and Fulda brands, including our new Goodyear Eagle F1 Asymmetric 3 SUV, Dunlop Sport Maxx RT2 SUV and Debica Frigo SUV2. EMEA also introduced a number of commercial truck tires including the KMax, Fuel Max Performance and Omnitrac.
Markets and Other Information
Tire unit sales to replacement and OE customers served by EMEA during the periods indicated were:
EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA UNIT SALES — REPLACEMENT AND OE
 
Year Ended December 31,
(In millions of tires)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Replacement tire units
42.9

 
41.4

 
43.8

OE tire units
14.9

 
15.7

 
17.3

Total tire units
57.8

 
57.1


61.1


EMEA is a significant supplier of tires to most vehicle manufacturers across the region.
EMEA’s primary competitors are Michelin, Bridgestone, Continental, Pirelli, several regional and local tire producers, and imports from other regions, primarily Asia.
Goodyear and Dunlop brand tires are sold for replacement in EMEA through various channels of distribution, principally independent multi-brand tire dealers. In some areas, Goodyear brand tires, as well as Dunlop, Debica, Sava and Fulda brand tires, are distributed through independent dealers, regional distributors and retail outlets, of which approximately 50 are owned by Goodyear.
Our European operations are subject to regulation by the European Union. The Tire Labeling Regulation applies to all passenger car, light truck and commercial truck tires and requires that consumers be informed about the tire's fuel efficiency, wet grip and noise characteristics.

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ASIA PACIFIC
Our Asia Pacific segment develops, manufactures, distributes and sells tires for automobiles, trucks, buses, aircraft, farm, and earthmoving, mining and industrial equipment throughout the Asia Pacific region, and sells tires to various export markets, primarily through intersegment sales. Asia Pacific manufactures tires in seven plants in China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia and Thailand. Asia Pacific also:
retreads truck tires and aviation tires,
manufactures tread rubber and other tire retreading materials for aviation tires,
provides automotive maintenance and repair services at Company-owned retail outlets, and
provides miscellaneous other products and services.
In 2018, Asia Pacific released two new consumer tires under the Goodyear brand, the Goodyear Assurance TripleMax 2 for all markets and the Goodyear EfficientGrip Comfort for the Japanese market.  In addition, Asia Pacific began importing the Eagle F1 Asymmetric 3 SUV and Assurance Weather Ready in SUV sizes into the Japanese all-season market. Asia Pacific also launched two commercial tires, the Goodyear S800 RFID for urban fleets and the Goodyear S206 Fuel Max targeting logistics fleets.
Markets and Other Information
Tire unit sales to replacement and OE customers served by Asia Pacific during the periods indicated were:
ASIA PACIFIC UNIT SALES — REPLACEMENT AND OE
 
Year Ended December 31,
(In millions of tires)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Replacement tire units
18.4

 
18.6

 
18.5

OE tire units
12.1

 
12.6

 
12.4

Total tire units
30.5

 
31.2

 
30.9


Asia Pacific’s major competitors are Bridgestone and Michelin along with many other global brands present in different parts of the region, including Continental, Dunlop, Hankook and a large number of regional and local tire producers.
Asia Pacific sells primarily Goodyear brand tires throughout the region and also sells the Dunlop brand in Australia and New Zealand. Other brands of tires, such as Blue Streak, Remington, Kelly and Diamondback, are sold in smaller quantities. Tires are sold through a network of licensed and franchised retail stores and multi-brand retailers through a network of wholesale dealers. In Australia, we also operate a network of approximately 200 retail stores under the Beaurepaires brand.

GENERAL BUSINESS INFORMATION
Sources and Availability of Raw Materials
The principal raw materials used by Goodyear are synthetic and natural rubber. Synthetic rubber accounts for approximately 55% of all rubber consumed by us on an annual basis. Our plants located in Beaumont and Houston, Texas supply a major portion of our global synthetic rubber requirements. We purchase all of our requirements for natural rubber in the world market.
Other important raw materials and components we use are carbon black, steel cord, fabrics and petrochemical-based commodities. Substantially all of these raw materials and components are purchased from independent suppliers, except for certain chemicals we manufacture. We purchase most raw materials and components in significant quantities from several suppliers, except in those instances where only one or a few qualified sources are available. We anticipate the continued availability of all raw materials and components we will require during 2019, subject to spot shortages and unexpected disruptions caused by natural disasters such as hurricanes and other events.
Substantial quantities of fuel and other petrochemical-based commodities are used in the production of tires, synthetic rubber and other products. Supplies of such fuels and commodities have been and are expected to continue to be available to us in quantities sufficient to satisfy our anticipated requirements, subject to spot shortages.

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Patents and Trademarks
We own approximately 1,800 product, process and equipment patents issued by the United States Patent Office and approximately 3,400 patents issued or granted in other countries around the world. We have approximately 400 applications for United States patents pending and approximately 1,200 patent applications on file in other countries around the world. While such patents and patent applications as a group are important, we do not consider any patent or patent application to be of such importance that the loss or expiration thereof would materially affect Goodyear or any business segment.
We own, control or use approximately 1,500 different trademarks, including several using the word “Goodyear” or the word “Dunlop.” Approximately 8,400 registrations and 400 pending applications worldwide protect these trademarks. While such trademarks as a group are important, the only trademarks we consider material to our business, or to the business of any of our segments, are those using the word “Goodyear,” and with respect to certain of our international business segments, those using the word “Dunlop.” We believe our trademarks are valid and most are of unlimited duration as long as they are adequately protected and appropriately used.
Backlog
Our backlog of orders is not considered material to, or a significant factor in, evaluating and understanding any of our business segments or our businesses considered as a whole.
Employees
At December 31, 2018, we employed approximately 64,000 full-time and temporary people throughout the world, including approximately 38,000 people covered under collective bargaining agreements. Approximately 7,000 of our employees in the United States are covered by a master collective bargaining agreement with the United Steelworkers ("USW"), which expires in July 2022. In addition, approximately 1,000 of our employees in the United States are covered by other contracts with the USW and various other unions. Approximately 15,000 of our employees outside of the United States are covered by union contracts that currently have expired or that will expire in 2019, primarily in Luxembourg, China, South Africa, France and Turkey. Unions represent a major portion of our employees in the United States and Europe.
Compliance with Environmental Regulations
We are subject to extensive regulation under environmental and occupational health and safety laws and regulations. These laws and regulations relate to, among other things, air emissions, discharges to surface and underground waters and the generation, handling, storage, transportation and disposal of waste materials and hazardous substances. We have several continuing programs designed to ensure compliance with federal, state and local environmental and occupational safety and health laws and regulations. We expect capital expenditures for pollution control facilities and occupational safety and health projects to be $40 million annually in 2019 and 2020.
We also incur ongoing expenses to maintain and operate our pollution control facilities and conduct our other environmental activities, including the control and disposal of hazardous substances. These expenditures are expected to be sufficient to comply with existing environmental laws and regulations and are not expected to have a material adverse effect on our competitive position.
In the future, we may incur increased costs and additional charges associated with environmental compliance and cleanup projects necessitated by the identification of new waste sites, the impact of new environmental laws and regulatory standards, or the availability of new technologies. Compliance with federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations in the future may require a material increase in our capital expenditures and could adversely affect our earnings and competitive position.



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EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT
Set forth below are: (1) the names and ages of all executive officers of the Company at February 8, 2019, (2) all positions with the Company presently held by each such person, and (3) the positions held by, and principal areas of responsibility of, each such person during the last five years.
Name
 
Position(s) Held
 
Age
Richard J. Kramer
 
Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer
and President
 
55

 
Mr. Kramer was elected Chief Executive Officer and President in April 2010 and Chairman in October 2010. He is the principal executive officer of the Company. Mr. Kramer joined Goodyear in March 2000 and has served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (June 2004 to August 2007), President, North America (March 2007 to February 2010) and Chief Operating Officer (June 2009 to April 2010).
 
 
 
 
 
Darren R. Wells
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
 
53

 
Mr. Wells was named Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer on September 19, 2018. He is Goodyear’s principal financial officer. Mr. Wells previously served as Goodyear’s Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer from October 2008 to November 2013. He first joined Goodyear in August 2002 and has also served as President, Europe, Middle East and Africa (December 2013 to December 2015). Prior to rejoining Goodyear, Mr. Wells was an Executive in Residence and MBA Coach at the University of South Florida’s Muma College of Business from January 2018 to September 2018.
 
 
 
 
 
Stephen R. McClellan
 
President, Americas
 
53

 
Mr. McClellan was named President, Americas in January 2016. He is the executive officer responsible for Goodyear's operations in North, Central and South America. Mr. McClellan joined Goodyear in 1988 and has served as President, North America (August 2011 to December 2015).
 
 
 
 
 
Christopher R. Delaney
 
President, Europe, Middle East and Africa
 
57

 
Mr. Delaney was named President, Europe, Middle East and Africa in September 2017. He is the executive officer responsible for Goodyear’s operations in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Mr. Delaney joined Goodyear as President-Elect, Asia Pacific in August 2015, and has served as President, Asia Pacific (January 2016 to September 2017). Prior to joining Goodyear, Mr. Delaney was Chief Executive Officer and Managing Director of Goodman Fielder Ltd., a food products company in Australia, New Zealand and the Asia Pacific region, from July 2011 until March 2015.

 
 
 
 
 
Ryan G. Patterson
 
President, Asia Pacific
 
45

 
Mr. Patterson was named President, Asia Pacific in September 2017. He is the executive officer responsible for Goodyear’s operations in Asia, Australia, New Zealand and the Western Pacific. Mr. Patterson joined Goodyear in 2002 and has served as Vice President, North America Consumer Operations and Customer Development (January 2012 to August 2014) and President, North America Consumer (September 2014 to September 2017).

 
 
 
 
 
 
Jonathan Bellissimo
 
Senior Vice President, Global Operations and Technology
 
63

 
Mr. Bellissimo was named Senior Vice President, Global Operations and Technology effective January 1, 2019. He is the executive officer responsible for Goodyear’s global manufacturing, supply chain, sales and operations planning, engineering and product quality activities. Mr. Bellissimo joined Goodyear in June 1977 and has served as General Director of the Goodyear Innovation Center in Akron, Ohio (January 2010 to August 2016) and Vice President, Americas Product Development & Chemical (September 2016 to December 31, 2018).

 
 
 
 
 
 
David L. Bialosky
 
Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
 
61

 
Mr. Bialosky joined Goodyear as Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary in September 2009. He is Goodyear's chief legal officer.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Laura P. Duda
 
Senior Vice President, Global Communications
 
49

 
Ms. Duda was named Senior Vice President, Global Communications effective January 1, 2019. She is the executive officer responsible for Goodyear’s communications activities worldwide. Ms. Duda joined Goodyear as Vice President, Corporate Communications in February 2016, and has served as Vice President, Communications, Americas (July 2016 to December 31, 2018). Prior to joining Goodyear, Ms. Duda was Vice President, Communications at Exelon Corporation, a utility services holding company, from November 2008 to January 2016.



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Name
 
Position(s) Held
 
Age
 
 
 
 
 
Gary S. VanderLind
 
Senior Vice President, Global Human Resources
 
56

 
Mr. VanderLind was named Senior Vice President, Global Human Resources effective February 1, 2019. He is Goodyear’s chief human resources officer. Mr. VanderLind joined Goodyear in October 1985 and has served as Vice President, Human Resources - North America (September 2007 to August 2016) and Vice President, Human Resources - Americas (September 2016 to January 31, 2019).

 
 
 
 
 
Christopher P. Helsel
 
Vice President and Chief Technology Officer
 
53

 
Mr. Helsel was named Vice President and Chief Technology Officer in September 2017 and became an executive officer of Goodyear effective January 1, 2019. He is the executive officer responsible for Goodyear’s global research and development activities. Mr. Helsel joined Goodyear in June 1996 and has served as Director, Retread (January 2013 to February 2017) and Director, North America Commercial and Global Off-Highway Technology (March 2017 to August 2017).

 
 
 
 
 
Evan M. Scocos
 
Vice President and Controller
 
47

 
Mr. Scocos was named Vice President and Controller in June 2016. He is Goodyear's principal accounting officer. Mr. Scocos joined Goodyear in 2004 and has served as Vice President and Assistant Controller (May 2013 to March 2014) and Vice President and General Auditor (March 2014 to May 2016).

No family relationship exists between any of the above executive officers or between the executive officers and any director of the Company.
Each executive officer is elected by the Board of Directors of the Company at its annual meeting to a term of one year or until his or her successor is duly elected. In those instances where the person is elected at other than an annual meeting, such person’s term will expire at the next annual meeting.

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ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS.
You should carefully consider the risks described below and other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K when considering an investment decision with respect to our securities. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us, or that we currently deem immaterial, may also impair our business operations. Any of the events discussed in the risk factors below may occur. If they do, our business, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity could be materially adversely affected. In such an instance, the trading price of our securities could decline, and you might lose all or part of your investment.
If we do not successfully implement our strategic initiatives, our operating results, financial condition and liquidity may be materially adversely affected.
We continued to experience challenging global industry conditions in 2018, and our business was impacted by trends that negatively affected the tire industry in general. These negative trends include higher raw material costs, foreign currency headwinds due to a strong U.S. dollar, and volatility in emerging markets, including softening industry conditions in China.  Global tire industry demand continues to be difficult to predict. If these overall trends continue or worsen, then our operational and financial condition could be adversely affected.
In order to reduce the impact of these trends, we are pursuing important strategic initiatives, such as our operational excellence, sales and marketing excellence and innovation excellence initiatives. For example, in 2018, we formed TireHub, a new national tire distributor in the United States, which is expected to provide a superior, fully integrated distribution, warehousing, sales and delivery solution for our dealers. We are also undertaking significant capital investments in building, expanding and modernizing manufacturing facilities around the world, including a new manufacturing facility in San Luis Potosi, Mexico that is expected to be fully operational by the end of 2019. The failure to implement successfully our important strategic initiatives may materially adversely affect our operating results, financial condition and liquidity.
Our operational excellence initiatives are aimed at improving our manufacturing efficiency and creating an advantaged supply chain focused on reducing our total delivered costs, optimizing working capital levels and delivering best in industry customer service. Our sales and marketing excellence initiatives are intended to build the value of our brand, help our customers win in their markets, and become consumers' preferred choice. Our innovation excellence initiatives are designed to develop great products and services that anticipate and respond to the needs of consumers. If we fail to execute these initiatives successfully, we may fail to achieve our financial goals.
Our performance is also dependent on our ability to improve the volume and mix of higher margin tires we sell in our targeted market segments. In order to do so, we must be successful in developing, producing, marketing and selling products that consumers' desire and that offer higher margins to us. Shifts in consumer demand away from higher margin tires could materially adversely affect our business. We have been capacity constrained from time to time with respect to the production of certain higher margin tires, particularly in the United States. We plan to alleviate these constraints by utilizing our global manufacturing footprint to meet the demand for our tires and by adding manufacturing capacity. However, in spite of these initiatives, we may not be able to meet all of the demand for certain of our higher margin tires, which could harm our competitive position and limit our growth.
We cannot assure you that our strategic initiatives will be successful. If not, we may not be able to achieve or sustain future profitability, which would impair our ability to meet our debt and other obligations and would otherwise negatively affect our operating results, financial condition and liquidity.
We face significant global competition and our market share could decline.
New tires are sold under highly competitive conditions throughout the world. We compete with other tire manufacturers on the basis of product design, performance, price and terms, reputation, warranty terms, customer service and consumer convenience. On a worldwide basis, we have two major competitors, Bridgestone (based in Japan) and Michelin (based in France), that have large shares of the markets of the countries in which they are based and are aggressively seeking to maintain or improve their worldwide market share. Other significant competitors include Continental, Cooper, Hankook, Kumho, Pirelli, Sumitomo, Toyo, Yokohama and various regional tire manufacturers. Our competitors produce significant numbers of tires in low-cost countries, and have announced plans to further increase their production capacity in those countries as well as the United States. These increases in production capacity may result in even greater competition in the United States and elsewhere.
Our ability to compete successfully will depend, in significant part, on our ability to continue to innovate and manufacture the types of tires demanded by consumers, and to reduce costs by such means as reducing excess and high-cost capacity, leveraging global purchasing, improving productivity, eliminating redundancies and increasing production at low-cost supply sources. If we are unable to compete successfully, our market share may decline, materially adversely affecting our results of operations and financial condition.
In addition, the automotive industry may experience significant changes due to the introduction of new technologies, such as electric and autonomous vehicles, or new services, business models or methods of travel, such as ride sharing. As the automotive industry evolves, we may need to provide a wider range of products and services to remain competitive, including products that

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we do not currently have the capability to manufacture or services that we do not currently offer. The demand for our products may also decline if automotive production declines and/or total vehicle miles traveled declines. If we do not accurately predict, prepare for and respond to market developments, technological innovations and changing customer and consumer needs and preferences, our results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
Raw material and energy costs may materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
Raw material costs have historically been volatile, and we may experience increases in the prices of natural and synthetic rubber, carbon black and petrochemical-based commodities. Market conditions, including actions by competitors, or contractual obligations may prevent us from passing any such increased costs on to our customers through timely price increases. Additionally, higher raw material and energy costs around the world may offset our efforts to reduce our cost structure. As a result, higher raw material and energy costs could result in declining margins and operating results and adversely affect our financial condition. The volatility of raw material costs may cause our margins, operating results and liquidity to fluctuate. In addition, lower raw material costs may put downward pressure on the price of tires, which could ultimately reduce our margins and adversely affect our results of operations.
If we fail to extend or renegotiate significant collective bargaining contracts with our labor unions as they expire from time to time, or if our unionized employees were to engage in a strike or other work stoppage or interruption, our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity could be materially adversely affected.
We are a party to collective bargaining contracts with our labor unions, which represent a significant number of our employees. Our master collective bargaining agreement with the USW covers approximately 7,000 employees in the United States at December 31, 2018, and expires in July 2022. In addition, approximately 15,000 of our employees outside of the United States are covered by union contracts that have expired or are expiring in 2019, primarily in Luxembourg, China, South Africa, France and Turkey. Although we believe that our relations with our employees are satisfactory, no assurance can be given that we will be able to successfully extend or renegotiate our collective bargaining agreements as they expire from time to time. If we fail to extend or renegotiate our collective bargaining agreements, if disputes with our unions arise, or if our unionized workers engage in a strike or other work stoppage or interruption, we could experience a significant disruption of, or inefficiencies in, our operations or incur higher labor costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
We could be negatively impacted by the imposition of tariffs on imported tires and other goods.
The imposition of tariffs on certain tires imported from China or other countries may reduce our flexibility to utilize our global manufacturing footprint to meet demand for our tires around the world. In addition, the imposition of tariffs in the United States may result in the tires subject to such tariffs being diverted to other regions of the world, such as Europe, Latin America or Asia, or in retaliatory tariffs or other actions by affected countries. Broad-based tariffs and other trade restrictions could also increase costs for our suppliers who may increase prices to us. Finally, tariffs and other trade restrictions may weaken the economies of key markets for us, such as China, resulting in lower economic growth rates and weakened demand for our products and services. These factors, individually or together, could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
Our international operations have certain risks that may materially adversely affect our operating results, financial condition and liquidity.
We have manufacturing and distribution facilities throughout the world. Our international operations are subject to certain inherent risks, including:
exposure to local economic conditions;
adverse foreign currency fluctuations;
adverse currency exchange controls;
withholding taxes and restrictions on the withdrawal of foreign investment and earnings;
tax policies and regulations;
labor regulations;
tariffs;
government price and profit margin controls;
expropriations of property;
adverse changes in the diplomatic relations of foreign countries with the United States;
the potential instability of foreign governments;

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hostility from local populations and insurrections;
risks of renegotiation or modification of existing agreements with governmental authorities;
export and import restrictions; and
other changes in laws or government policies.
The likelihood of such occurrences and their potential effect on us vary from country to country and are unpredictable. Certain regions, including Latin America, Asia, Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Africa, are inherently more economically and politically volatile and, as a result, our business units that operate in these regions could be subject to significant fluctuations in sales and operating income from quarter to quarter. Because a significant percentage of our operating income in recent years has come from these regions, adverse fluctuations in the operating results in these regions could have a significant impact on our results of operations in future periods.
In addition, compliance with complex foreign and U.S. laws and regulations that apply to our international operations increases our cost of doing business in international jurisdictions. These numerous and sometimes conflicting laws and regulations include import and export laws, anti-competition laws, anti-corruption laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.K. Bribery Act, and other local laws prohibiting corrupt payments to governmental officials, data privacy laws such as the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation, tax laws, and accounting, internal control and disclosure requirements. Violations of these laws and regulations could result in civil and criminal fines, penalties and sanctions against us, our officers or our employees, prohibitions on the conduct of our business and on our ability to offer our products and services in one or more countries, and could also materially affect our reputation, business and results of operations. In certain foreign jurisdictions, there is a higher risk of fraud or corruption and greater difficulty in maintaining effective internal controls and compliance programs. Although we have implemented policies and procedures designed to promote compliance with applicable laws and regulations, there can be no assurance that our employees, contractors or agents will not violate our policies or applicable laws and regulations.
We have foreign currency translation and transaction risks that may materially adversely affect our operating results, financial condition and liquidity.
The financial position and results of operations of many of our international subsidiaries are initially recorded in various foreign currencies and then translated into U.S. dollars at the applicable exchange rate for inclusion in our financial statements. The strengthening of the U.S. dollar against these foreign currencies ordinarily has a negative impact on our reported sales and operating margin (and conversely, the weakening of the U.S. dollar against these foreign currencies has a positive impact). For the year ended December 31, 2018, foreign currency translation unfavorably affected sales by $139 million and unfavorably affected segment operating income by $31 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2017. The volatility of currency exchange rates may materially adversely affect our operating results.
Our long term ability to meet our obligations, to repay maturing indebtedness or to implement strategic initiatives may be dependent on our ability to access capital markets in the future and to improve our operating results.
The adequacy of our liquidity depends on our ability to achieve an appropriate combination of operating improvements, financing from third parties and access to capital markets. We may need to undertake additional financing actions in the capital markets in order to ensure that our future liquidity requirements are addressed or to implement strategic initiatives. These actions may include the issuance of additional debt or equity, or the factoring of our accounts receivable.
Our access to the capital markets cannot be assured and is dependent on, among other things, the ability and willingness of financial institutions to extend credit on terms that are acceptable to us or our suppliers, or to honor future draws on our existing lines of credit, and the degree of success we have in implementing our strategic initiatives. We have continued our use of supplier financing programs and the factoring of our accounts receivable in order to improve our working capital efficiency and reduce our costs. If these programs become unavailable or less attractive to us or our suppliers, our liquidity could be adversely affected.
Future liquidity requirements, or our inability to access cash deposits or make draws on our lines of credit, also may make it necessary for us to incur additional debt. A substantial portion of our assets is subject to liens securing our indebtedness. As a result, we are limited in our ability to pledge our remaining assets as security for additional secured indebtedness.
Our inability to access the capital markets or incur additional debt in the future could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and operations, and could require us to consider further measures, including deferring planned capital expenditures, reducing discretionary spending, selling additional assets and restructuring existing debt.
Financial difficulties, work stoppages, supply disruptions or economic conditions affecting our major customers, dealers or suppliers could harm our business.
We experienced challenging global industry conditions in 2018, particularly in Americas and Asia Pacific. As a result of these industry conditions, automotive vehicle production and global tire industry demand continues to be difficult to predict.

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Although sales to our OE customers accounted for approximately 20% of our net sales in 2018, demand for our products by OE customers and production levels at our facilities are impacted by automotive vehicle production. We may experience future declines in sales volume due to declines in new vehicle sales, the performance, discontinuation or sale of certain OE brands, platforms or programs, increased competition, or weakness in the demand for replacement tires, which could result in us incurring under-absorbed fixed costs at our production facilities or slowing the rate at which we are able to recover those costs.
Automotive production can also be affected by labor relation issues, financial difficulties or supply disruptions. Our OE customers could experience production disruptions resulting from their own or supplier labor, financial or supply difficulties. Such events may cause an OE customer to reduce or suspend vehicle production. As a result, an OE customer could halt or significantly reduce purchases of our products, which would harm our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
Our suppliers could also experience production disruptions due to labor, financial or supply difficulties, or new environmental laws or stricter enforcement of existing environmental laws. Any such production disruptions may result in the unexpected closure of our suppliers' facilities or increases in the cost of our raw materials, which would adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
In addition, the bankruptcy, restructuring or consolidation of one or more of our major customers, dealers or suppliers could result in the write-off of accounts receivable, a reduction in purchases of our products or a supply disruption to our facilities, which could negatively affect our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
Our capital expenditures may not be adequate to maintain our competitive position and may not be implemented in a timely or cost-effective manner.
Our capital expenditures are limited by our liquidity and capital resources and the amount we have available for capital spending is limited by the need to pay our other expenses and to maintain adequate cash reserves and borrowing capacity to meet unexpected demands that may arise. We believe that our ratio of capital expenditures to sales is lower than the comparable ratio for our principal competitors.
Productivity improvements and manufacturing cost improvements may be required to offset potential increases in labor and raw material costs and competitive price pressures. In addition, as part of our strategy to reduce high-cost and excess manufacturing capacity and to increase our capacity to produce higher margin tires, we may need to modernize or expand our facilities. We are currently undertaking significant construction, expansion and modernization projects in China, India, Luxembourg, Slovenia and Thailand.
We may not have sufficient resources to implement planned capital expenditures with minimal disruption to our existing manufacturing operations, or within desired time frames and budgets. Any disruption to our operations, delay in implementing capital improvements or unexpected costs may materially adversely affect our business and results of operations.
If we are unable to make sufficient capital expenditures, or to maximize the efficiency of the capital expenditures we do make, we may be unable to achieve productivity improvements, which may harm our competitive position, or to manufacture the products necessary to compete successfully in our targeted market segments. In addition, plant construction and modernization may temporarily disrupt our manufacturing operations and lead to temporary increases in our costs.
We have a substantial amount of debt, which could restrict our growth, place us at a competitive disadvantage or otherwise materially adversely affect our financial health.
We have a substantial amount of debt. As of December 31, 2018, our debt (including capital leases) on a consolidated basis was approximately $5.8 billion. Our substantial amount of debt and other obligations could have important consequences. For example, it could:
make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations;
impair our ability to obtain financing in the future for working capital, capital expenditures, research and development, acquisitions or general corporate requirements;
increase our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions;
limit our ability to use cash flows from operating activities in other areas of our business or to return cash to shareholders because we would need to dedicate a substantial portion of these funds for payments on our indebtedness;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate; and
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors.
The agreements governing our debt, including our credit agreements, limit, but do not prohibit, us from incurring additional debt and we may incur a significant amount of additional debt in the future, including additional secured debt. If new debt is added to our current debt levels, our ability to satisfy our debt obligations may become more limited.

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Our ability to make scheduled payments on, or to refinance, our debt and other obligations will depend on our financial and operating performance, which, in turn, is subject to our ability to implement our strategic initiatives, prevailing economic conditions and certain financial, business and other factors beyond our control. If our cash flow and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service and other obligations, we may be forced to reduce or eliminate our share repurchase program and the dividend on our common stock, reduce or delay expansion plans and capital expenditures, sell material assets or operations, obtain additional capital or restructure our debt. We cannot assure you that our operating performance, cash flow and capital resources will be sufficient to pay our debt obligations when they become due. We cannot assure you that we would be able to dispose of material assets or operations, obtain additional capital or restructure our debt or other obligations if necessary or, even if we were able to take such actions, that we could do so on terms that are acceptable to us.
Any failure to be in compliance with any material provision or covenant of our debt instruments, or a material reduction in the borrowing base under our revolving credit facility, could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and operations.
The agreements governing our secured credit facilities, senior unsecured notes and our other outstanding indebtedness impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us. These restrictions may affect our ability to operate our business and may limit our ability to take advantage of potential business opportunities as they arise. These restrictions limit our ability to, among other things:
incur additional debt or issue redeemable preferred stock;
pay dividends, repurchase shares or make certain other restricted payments or investments;
incur liens;
sell assets;
incur restrictions on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends or to make other payments to us;
enter into affiliate transactions;
engage in sale/leaseback transactions; and
engage in certain mergers or consolidations or transfers of substantially all of our assets.
Availability under our first lien revolving credit facility is subject to a borrowing base, which is based on eligible accounts receivable and inventory, the value of our principal trademarks, and certain cash in an amount not to exceed $200 million. To the extent that our eligible accounts receivable and inventory and other components of the borrowing base decline in value, our borrowing base will decrease and the availability under that facility may decrease below its stated amount. In addition, if at any time the amount of outstanding borrowings and letters of credit under that facility exceeds the borrowing base, we are required to prepay borrowings and/or cash collateralize letters of credit sufficient to eliminate the excess.
Our ability to comply with these covenants or to maintain our borrowing base may be affected by events beyond our control, including deteriorating economic conditions, and these events could require us to seek waivers or amendments of covenants or alternative sources of financing or to reduce expenditures. We cannot assure you that such waivers, amendments or alternative financing could be obtained, or if obtained, would be on terms acceptable to us.
A breach of any of the covenants or restrictions contained in any of our existing or future financing agreements, including the financial covenants in our secured credit facilities, could result in an event of default under those agreements. Such a default could allow the lenders under our financing agreements, if the agreements so provide, to discontinue lending, to accelerate the related debt as well as any other debt to which a cross-acceleration or cross-default provision applies, and/or to declare all borrowings outstanding thereunder to be due and payable. In addition, the lenders could terminate any commitments they have to provide us with further funds. If any of these events occur, we cannot assure you that we will have sufficient funds available to pay in full the total amount of obligations that become due as a result of any such acceleration, or that we will be able to find additional or alternative financing to refinance any such accelerated obligations. Even if we obtain additional or alternative financing, we cannot assure you that it would be on terms that would be acceptable to us.
We cannot assure you that we will be able to remain in compliance with the covenants to which we are subject in the future and, if we fail to do so, that we will be able to obtain waivers from our lenders or amend the covenants.

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Our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly.
Certain of our borrowings are at variable rates of interest and expose us to interest rate risk. If interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness would increase even though the amount borrowed remained the same, which would require us to use more of our available cash to service our indebtedness. There can also be no assurance that we will be able to enter into swap agreements or other hedging arrangements in the future if we desire to do so, or that any existing or future hedging arrangements will offset increases in interest rates. As of December 31, 2018, we had $1,887 million of variable rate debt outstanding.
We have substantial fixed costs and, as a result, our operating income fluctuates disproportionately with changes in our net sales.
We operate with significant operating and financial leverage. Significant portions of our manufacturing, selling, administrative and general expenses are fixed costs that neither increase nor decrease proportionately with sales. In addition, a significant portion of our interest expense is fixed. There can be no assurance that we would be able to reduce our fixed costs proportionately in response to a decline in our net sales and therefore our competitiveness could be significantly impacted. As a result, a decline in our net sales could result in a higher percentage decline in our income from operations and net income.
We may incur significant costs in connection with our contingent liabilities and tax matters.
We have significant reserves for contingent liabilities and tax matters. The major categories of our contingent liabilities include workers' compensation and other employment-related claims, product liability and other tort claims, including asbestos claims, and environmental matters. Our recorded liabilities and estimates of reasonably possible losses for our contingent liabilities are based on our assessment of potential liability using the information available to us at the time and, where applicable, any past experience and recent and current trends with respect to similar matters. Our contingent liabilities are subject to inherent uncertainties, and unfavorable judicial or administrative decisions could occur that we did not anticipate. Such an unfavorable decision could include monetary damages, fines or other penalties or an injunction prohibiting us from taking certain actions or selling certain products. If such an unfavorable decision were to occur, it could result in a material adverse impact on our financial position and results of operations in the period in which the decision occurs, or in future periods.
The calculation of our tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax regulations, including with respect to transfer pricing. While we apply consistent transfer pricing policies and practices globally, support transfer prices through economic studies, seek advance pricing agreements and joint audits to the extent possible and believe our transfer prices to be appropriate, such transfer prices, and related interpretations of tax laws, are occasionally challenged by various taxing authorities globally. We have received various tax assessments challenging our interpretations of applicable tax laws in various jurisdictions. Although we believe we have complied with applicable tax laws, have strong positions and defenses and have historically been successful in defending such claims, our results of operations could be materially adversely affected in the case we are unsuccessful in the defense of existing or future claims.
If we wish to appeal any future adverse judgment in any of these proceedings, we may be required to post an appeal bond with the relevant court. If we were subject to a significant adverse judgment or experienced an interruption or reduction in the availability of bonding capacity, we may be required to provide letters of credit or post cash collateral, which may have a material adverse effect on our liquidity.
We have significant deferred tax assets, including foreign tax credits. We must generate sufficient earnings of the appropriate character in order to utilize our deferred tax assets prior to any applicable expiration dates. If our earnings remain flat or decline over an extended period of time, we may not be able to utilize certain of our deferred tax assets prior to their expiration and we may need to record a valuation allowance against them that could materially adversely affect our results of operations in the period in which the valuation allowance is recorded.
For further information regarding our contingent liabilities and tax matters, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements, No. 19, Commitments and Contingent Liabilities. For further information regarding our accounting policies with respect to certain of our contingent liabilities and uncertain income tax positions, refer to “Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Critical Accounting Policies.”
We are subject to extensive government regulations that may materially adversely affect our operating results.
We are subject to regulation by the Department of Transportation through the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, or NHTSA, which has established various standards and regulations applicable to tires sold in the United States and tires sold in a foreign country that are identical or substantially similar to tires sold in the United States. NHTSA has the authority to order the recall of automotive products, including tires, having safety-related defects or that do not comply with a motor vehicle safety standard.

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The Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act, or TREAD Act, imposes numerous requirements with respect to the early warning reporting of warranty claims, property damage claims, and bodily injury and fatality claims and also requires tire manufacturers, among other things, to comply with revised and more rigorous tire testing standards. Compliance with the TREAD Act regulations has increased the cost of producing and distributing tires in the United States. In addition, while we believe that our tires are free from design and manufacturing defects, it is possible that a recall of our tires, including under the TREAD Act or in other countries under similar regulations, could occur in the future. A substantial recall could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, operating results and financial condition.
In addition, as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, NHTSA will establish a national tire fuel efficiency consumer information program. When the related rule-making process is completed, certain tires sold in the United States will be required to be rated for rolling resistance, traction and tread wear. While the federal law will preempt state tire fuel efficiency laws adopted after January 1, 2006, we may become subject to additional tire fuel efficiency legislation, either in the United States or other countries.
Our European operations are subject to regulation by the European Union. In 2009, two regulations, the Tire Safety Regulation and the Tire Labeling Regulation, applicable to tires sold in the European Union were adopted. The Tire Safety Regulation sets performance standards that tires for cars and light and commercial trucks need to meet for rolling resistance, wet grip braking (passenger car tires only) and noise in order to be sold in the European Union, and became effective beginning in 2012, with continuing phases that will become effective through 2020. The Tire Labeling Regulation applies to all passenger car, light truck and commercial truck tires and requires that consumers be informed about the tire's fuel efficiency, wet grip and noise characteristics. Other countries, such as Brazil, have also adopted tire labeling regulations, and additional countries may also introduce similar regulations in the future.
Tires produced or sold in Europe also have to comply with various other standards, including environmental laws such as REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical Substances), which regulates the use of chemicals in the European Union. For example, REACH prohibits the use of highly aromatic oils in tires, which were used as compounding components to improve certain performance characteristics.
These U.S. and European regulations, rules adopted to implement these regulations, or other similar regulations that may be adopted in the United States, Europe or elsewhere in the future may require us to alter or increase our capital spending and research and development plans or cease the production of certain tires, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results.
Laws and regulations governing environmental and occupational safety and health are complicated, change frequently and have tended to become stricter over time. As a manufacturing company, we are subject to these laws and regulations both inside and outside the United States. We may not be in complete compliance with such laws and regulations at all times. Our costs or liabilities relating to them may be more than the amount we have reserved, and that difference may be material.
In addition, our manufacturing facilities may become subject to further limitations on the emission of “greenhouse gases” due to public policy concerns regarding climate change issues or other environmental or health and safety concerns. While the form of any additional regulations cannot be predicted, a “cap-and-trade” system similar to the one adopted in the European Union could be adopted in the United States. Any such “cap-and-trade” system (including the system currently in place in the European Union) or other limitations imposed on the emission of “greenhouse gases” could require us to increase our capital expenditures, use our cash to acquire emission credits or restructure our manufacturing operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, financial condition and liquidity.
Compliance with the laws and regulations described above or any of the myriad of applicable foreign, federal, state and local laws and regulations currently in effect or that may be adopted in the future could materially adversely affect our competitive position, operating results, financial condition and liquidity.
We may be adversely affected by any disruption in, or failure of, our information technology systems.
We rely upon the capacity, reliability and security of our information technology, or IT, systems across all of our major business functions, including our research and development, manufacturing, retail, financial and administrative functions. We also face the challenge of supporting our older systems and implementing upgrades when necessary. Our security measures are focused on the prevention, detection and remediation of damage from computer viruses, unauthorized access, cyber-attack, natural disasters and other similar disruptions. We may incur significant costs in order to implement the security measures that we feel are necessary to protect our IT systems. However, our IT systems may remain vulnerable to damage despite our implementation of security measures that we deem to be appropriate.
Any system failure, accident or security breach involving our IT systems could result in disruptions to our operations. A breach in the security of our IT systems could include the theft of our intellectual property or trade secrets, negatively impact our manufacturing or retail operations, or result in the compromise of personal information of our employees, customers or suppliers. While we have, from time to time, experienced system failures, accidents and security breaches involving our IT systems, these incidents have not had a material impact on our operations, and we are not aware of any resulting theft, loss or disclosure of, or

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damage to, material data or confidential information. To the extent that any system failure, accident or security breach results in material disruptions to our operations or the theft, loss or disclosure of, or damage to, material data or confidential information, our reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
If we are unable to attract and retain key personnel our business could be materially adversely affected.
Our business substantially depends on the continued service of key members of our management. The loss of the services of a significant number of members of our management could have a material adverse effect on our business. Our future success will also depend on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled personnel, such as engineering, marketing and senior management professionals. Competition for these employees is intense, and we could experience difficulty from time to time in hiring and retaining the personnel necessary to support our business. If we do not succeed in retaining our current employees and attracting new high quality employees, our business could be materially adversely affected.
We may be impacted by economic and supply disruptions associated with events beyond our control, such as war, acts of terror, political unrest, public health concerns, labor disputes or natural disasters.
We manage businesses and facilities worldwide. Our facilities and operations, and the facilities and operations of our suppliers and customers, could be disrupted by events beyond our control, such as war, acts of terror, political unrest, public health concerns, labor disputes or natural disasters. Any such disruption could cause delays in the production and distribution of our products and the loss of sales and customers. We may not be insured against all such potential losses and, if insured, the insurance proceeds that we receive may not adequately compensate us for all of our losses.
ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.
None.
ITEM 2.
PROPERTIES.
We manufacture our products in 47 manufacturing facilities located around the world including 14 plants in the United States.
AMERICAS MANUFACTURING FACILITIES.  Americas owns or leases and operates 24 manufacturing facilities in 7 countries, including:
•    13 tire plants,
4 chemical plants,
1 tire mold plant,
2 tire retread plants,
3 aviation retread plants, and
1 mix plant.
EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA MANUFACTURING FACILITIES.  EMEA owns or leases and operates 15 manufacturing facilities in 8 countries, including:
13 tire plants,
1 tire mold and tire manufacturing machine facility, and
1 aviation retread plant.
ASIA PACIFIC MANUFACTURING FACILITIES.  Asia Pacific owns and operates 8 manufacturing facilities in 6 countries, including 7 tire plants and 1 aviation retread plant.
PLANT UTILIZATION.  Our worldwide tire capacity utilization rate was approximately 87% during 2018 compared to approximately 84% in 2017 and 85% in 2016. The reported capacity utilization is an overall average for the Company. Our utilization rate can vary significantly between product lines, depending on the complexity of the tires, and between consumer and commercial tires, and can also vary between business segments.
OTHER FACILITIES.  We also own and operate two research and development facilities and technical centers, and seven tire proving grounds. We lease our Corporate and Americas headquarters and our research and development facility and technical center in Akron, Ohio. We operate approximately 1,000 retail outlets for the sale of our tires to consumer and commercial customers, approximately 50 tire retreading facilities and approximately 180 warehouse distribution facilities. Substantially all of these facilities are leased. We do not consider any one of these leased properties to be material to our operations. For additional information regarding leased properties, refer to the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 13, Property, Plant and Equipment and No. 14, Leased Assets. Certain of our manufacturing facilities are mortgaged as collateral for our secured credit facilities. Refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 15, Financing Arrangements and Derivative Financial Instruments.

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ITEM 3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.
Asbestos Litigation
We are currently one of numerous defendants in legal proceedings in certain state and federal courts involving approximately 43,100 claimants at December 31, 2018 relating to their alleged exposure to materials containing asbestos in products allegedly manufactured by us or asbestos materials present at our facilities. We manufactured, among other things, rubber coated asbestos sheet gasket materials from 1914 through 1973 and aircraft brake assemblies containing asbestos materials prior to 1987. Some of the claimants are independent contractors or their employees who allege exposure to asbestos while working at certain of our facilities. It is expected that in a substantial portion of these cases there will be no evidence of exposure to a Goodyear manufactured product containing asbestos or asbestos in our facilities. The amount expended by us and our insurers on defense and claim resolution was approximately $13 million during 2018. The plaintiffs in the pending cases allege that they were exposed to asbestos and, as a result of such exposure, suffer from various respiratory diseases, including in some cases mesothelioma and lung cancer. The plaintiffs are seeking unspecified actual and punitive damages and other relief. For additional information on asbestos litigation, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 19, Commitments and Contingent Liabilities.
Amiens Labor Claims
Approximately 850 former employees of the closed Amiens, France manufacturing facility have asserted wrongful termination or other claims totaling €120 million ($137 million) against Goodyear Dunlop Tires France. We intend to vigorously defend ourselves against these claims, and any additional claims that may be asserted against us, and cannot estimate the amounts, if any, that we may ultimately pay in respect of such claims.
Shareholder Derivative Litigation
On October 24, 2018, a purported shareholder of the Company filed a derivative action on behalf of the Company in the Court of Common Pleas for Summit County, Ohio against our current directors, our current chief executive officer, and certain former officers and directors.  The complaint also names the Company as a nominal defendant.  The lawsuit alleges, among other things, breach of fiduciary duties, waste of corporate assets and fraudulent concealment in connection with certain G159 tires manufactured by us from 1996 until 2003.  The lawsuit seeks unspecified monetary damages, an award of attorney’s fees and expenses, and other legal and equitable relief.
Other Matters
In addition to the legal proceedings described above, various other legal actions, indirect tax assessments, claims and governmental investigations and proceedings covering a wide range of matters are pending against us, including claims and proceedings relating to several waste disposal sites that have been identified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and similar agencies of various states for remedial investigation and cleanup, which sites were allegedly used by us in the past for the disposal of industrial waste materials. Based on available information, we do not consider any such action, assessment, claim, investigation or proceeding to be material, within the meaning of that term as used in Item 103 of Regulation S-K and the instructions thereto. For additional information regarding our legal proceedings, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 19, Commitments and Contingent Liabilities.

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PART II.

ITEM 5.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.
The principal market for our common stock is the Nasdaq Global Select Market (Stock Exchange Symbol: GT). At December 31, 2018, there were 12,969 holders of record of the 232,171,043 shares of our common stock then outstanding.
On October 9, 2018, we increased the quarterly cash dividend on our common stock by $0.02 per share, from $0.14 per share to $0.16 per share, beginning with the December 3, 2018 payment date.
The following table presents information with respect to repurchases of common stock made by us during the three months ended December 31, 2018.
Period
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased (1)
 
Average Price Paid Per Share
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
 
Approximate Dollar Value
of Shares that May
Yet Be Purchased
Under the Plans or Programs (2)
10/1/18-10/31/18
 

 
$

 

 
$
586,495,842

11/1/18-11/30/18
 
561,737

 
22.29

 
561,737

 
573,973,355

12/1/18-12/31/18
 
334,981

 
22.32

 
334,981

 
566,495,842

Total
 
896,718

 
$
22.30

 
896,718

 
566,495,842

(1)
Total number of shares purchased as part of our common stock repurchase program and delivered to us by employees as payment for the exercise price of stock options and the withholding taxes due upon the exercise of stock options or the vesting or payment of stock awards.
(2)
On September 18, 2013, the Board of Directors approved our common stock repurchase program. From time to time, the Board of Directors has approved increases in the amount authorized to be purchased under that program. On February 2, 2017, the Board of Directors approved a further increase in that authorization to $2.1 billion. This program expires on December 31, 2019, and is intended to be used, subject to our cash flow, to repurchase shares of common stock in open market transactions in order to offset new shares issued under equity compensation programs and to provide for additional shareholder returns. During the three month period ended December 31, 2018, we repurchased 896,718 shares at an average price, including commissions, of $22.30 per share, or $20 million in the aggregate. Since 2013, we repurchased 52,905,959 shares at an average price, including commissions, of $28.99 per share, or $1,534 million in the aggregate.
Set forth in the table below is certain information regarding the number of shares of our common stock that were subject to outstanding stock options or other compensation plan awards at December 31, 2018.
EQUITY COMPENSATION PLAN INFORMATION
Plan Category
 
Number of Shares to be
Issued upon Exercise of
Outstanding Options, Warrants and Rights
 
Weighted Average
Exercise Price of
Outstanding Options, Warrants and Rights
 
Number of Shares
Remaining Available for
Future Issuance under
Equity Compensation
Plans (Excluding Shares Reflected in Column (a))
 
 
 
(a)
 
 
 
 
 
Equity compensation plans approved by shareholders
 
5,580,452

 
$
20.14

 
16,211,852

(1) 
Equity compensation plans not approved by shareholders
 

 

 

 
Total
 
5,580,452

 
$
20.14

 
16,211,852

 
(1)
Under our equity-based compensation plans, up to a maximum of 987,566 performance shares in respect of performance periods ending on or subsequent to December 31, 2018, 103,492 shares of time-vested restricted stock and 1,388,433 restricted stock units have been awarded. In addition, up to 6,787 shares of common stock may be issued in respect of the deferred payout of awards made under our equity compensation plans. The number of performance shares indicated assumes the maximum possible payout that may be earned during the relevant performance periods.


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ITEM 6.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA.
 
Year Ended December 31,(1)
(In millions, except per share amounts)
2018(2)
 
2017(3)
 
2016(4)
 
2015(5)
 
2014(6)
Net Sales
$
15,475

 
$
15,377

 
$
15,158

 
$
16,443

 
$
18,138

Net Income
708

 
365

 
1,284

 
376

 
2,521

Less: Minority Shareholders’ Net Income
15

 
19

 
20

 
69

 
69

Goodyear Net Income
$
693

 
$
346

 
$
1,264

 
$
307

 
$
2,452

  Less: Preferred Stock Dividends

 

 

 

 
7

Goodyear Net Income available to Common Shareholders
$
693

 
$
346

 
$
1,264

 
$
307

 
$
2,445

Goodyear Net Income available to Common Shareholders — Per Share of Common Stock:
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

  Basic
$
2.92

 
$
1.39

 
$
4.81

 
$
1.14

 
$
9.13

 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

  Diluted
$
2.89

 
$
1.37

 
$
4.74

 
$
1.12

 
$
8.78

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash Dividends Declared per Common Share
$
0.58

 
$
0.44

 
$
0.31

 
$
0.25

 
$
0.22

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total Assets
$
16,872

 
$
17,064

 
$
16,511

 
$
16,391

 
$
18,000

Long Term Debt and Capital Leases Due Within One Year
243

 
391

 
436

 
585

 
148

Long Term Debt and Capital Leases
5,110

 
5,076

 
4,798

 
5,074

 
6,172

Goodyear Shareholders’ Equity
4,864

 
4,603

 
4,507

 
3,920

 
3,610

Total Shareholders’ Equity
5,070

 
4,850

 
4,725

 
4,142

 
3,845


(1)
Refer to “Basis of Presentation” and “Principles of Consolidation” in the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 1, Accounting Policies.
(2)
Goodyear net income in 2018 included net gains after-tax and minority of $283 million resulting from the TireHub transaction, net of transaction costs; net favorable indirect tax settlements; insurance recoveries for claims related to discontinued operations; and net gains on asset sales. Goodyear net income in 2018 also included net charges after-tax and minority of $145 million resulting from net discrete income tax items; rationalization charges, including accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs; settlement charges related to pension plans; negative impacts related to hurricanes in the U.S.; the impacts of the adoption of new accounting standards; impacts of the national transportation strike in Brazil; and legal claims related to discontinued operations.
(3)
Goodyear net income in 2017 included net charges after-tax and minority of $460 million resulting from net discrete income tax items; rationalization charges, including accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs; charges related to the early repayment of debt; negative impacts related to hurricanes in the U.S.; and settlement charges related to pension plans. Goodyear net income in 2017 also included net gains after-tax and minority of $16 million resulting from net gains on asset sales; and insurance recoveries for claims related to discontinued products.
(4)
Goodyear net income in 2016 included net gains after-tax and minority of $499 million resulting from net discrete income tax items; net gains on asset sales; and insurance recoveries for claims related to discontinued products. Goodyear net income in 2016 also included net charges after-tax and minority of $301 million due to rationalization charges, including accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs; charges related to the early repayment of debt; settlement charges related to pension plans in EMEA; an out of period adjustment in Americas related to the elimination of intracompany profit; and legal claims unrelated to operations.
(5)
Goodyear net income in 2015 included net charges after-tax and minority of $794 million due to the loss on the deconsolidation of our Venezuelan subsidiary; rationalization charges, including accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs; settlement charges related to pension plans in Americas; charges related to the early repayment of debt; and charges related to labor claims with respect to a previously closed facility in Greece. Goodyear net income in 2015 also included net gains after-tax and minority of $195 million resulting from royalty income related to the termination of a licensing agreement; the net gain on the dissolution of the global alliance with Sumitomo Rubber Industries, Ltd. ("SRI"); the net gain on the sale of our investment in SRI's shares; net discrete income tax items; insurance recoveries for claims related to discontinued products; and the net settlement of certain indirect tax claims in Americas.

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(6)
Goodyear net income in 2014 included net gains after-tax and minority of $1,985 million resulting from net discrete income tax items, including the release of substantially all of the valuation allowance on our net deferred U.S. tax assets; and net gains on asset sales. Goodyear net income in 2014 also included net charges after-tax and minority of $323 million due to changes in the exchange rate of the Venezuelan bolivar fuerte against the U.S. dollar; rationalization charges, including accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs; curtailment and settlement losses related to pension plans in the U.S. and the U.K.; charges related to labor claims with respect to a previously closed facility in Greece; charges related to a government investigation in Africa; and the settlement of certain indirect tax claims in Americas.



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ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.
OVERVIEW
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of tires, with one of the most recognizable brand names in the world and operations in most regions of the world. We have a broad global footprint with 47 manufacturing facilities in 21 countries, including the United States. We operate our business through three operating segments representing our regional tire businesses: Americas; Europe, Middle East and Africa; and Asia Pacific.
During the third quarter of 2018, we formed a 50/50 joint venture with Bridgestone that combined our company-owned wholesale distribution business and Bridgestone’s tire wholesale warehouse business to create TireHub, a national tire distributor in the United States. TireHub provides U.S. tire dealers and retailers with a comprehensive range of passenger and light truck tires from two of the world’s leading tire companies, with an emphasis on satisfying the rapidly growing demand for larger rim diameter premium tires. TireHub is now our sole authorized national tire distributor in the United States.
TireHub has distribution and warehouse locations throughout the United States and is expected to have the scale to reach the vast majority of retail locations in the U.S. daily. TireHub is also expected to provide a superior, fully integrated distribution, warehousing, sales and delivery solution that is expected to provide enhanced fill rates and turnaround times — enabling dealers to quickly access the products they need and manage the growing complexity in the tire business driven by SKU proliferation.
Results of Operations
In 2018, we experienced challenging global industry conditions, including higher raw material costs, foreign currency headwinds due to a strong U.S. dollar, and volatility in emerging markets, including softening industry conditions in China. We experienced a recovery in demand for consumer replacement tires in the United States and Europe, driven by our sales of 17-inch and above rim size tires that outperformed the industry.
In order to continue to drive growth in our business and address the challenging economic environment, we remain focused on our key strategies by:
Developing great products and services that anticipate and respond to the needs of consumers;
Building the value of our brand, helping our customers win in their markets, and becoming consumers’ preferred choice; and
Improving our manufacturing efficiency and creating an advantaged supply chain focused on reducing our total delivered costs, optimizing working capital levels and delivering best in industry customer service.
We also announced an increase in the quarterly cash dividend on our common stock, from $0.14 per share to $0.16 per share, beginning with the December 3, 2018 payment date.
Our tire unit shipments in 2018 were consistent with 2017. In 2018, we realized approximately $301 million of cost savings, including raw material cost saving measures of approximately $80 million, which exceeded the impact of general inflation. Our raw material costs, including cost saving measures, increased by approximately 4% in 2018 compared to 2017.
Net sales were $15,475 million in 2018, compared to $15,377 million in 2017. Net sales increased in 2018 primarily due to an increase in price and product mix, partially offset by unfavorable foreign currency translation, primarily in Americas.
Goodyear net income in 2018 was $693 million, or $2.89 per diluted share, compared to $346 million, or $1.37 per diluted share, in 2017. The increase in Goodyear net income in 2018 was driven by the net gain recognized in relation to the TireHub transaction, a decrease in income tax expense, primarily due to the recognition of discrete tax charges in 2017 in connection with changes in U.S. income tax law, and lower rationalization charges. These increases were partially offset by lower segment operating income, primarily in Americas and Asia Pacific.
Our total segment operating income for 2018 was $1,274 million, compared to $1,556 million in 2017. The $282 million, or 18.1%, decrease in segment operating income was primarily due to the impact of higher raw material costs, lower income in other tire-related businesses, higher selling, administrative and general expense ("SAG"), unfavorable foreign currency translation, primarily in Americas, and decreases in price and product mix, primarily in Americas. These impacts were partially offset by lower conversion costs. Refer to "Results of Operations — Segment Information” for additional information.

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Liquidity
At December 31, 2018, we had $801 million in Cash and cash equivalents as well as $3,151 million of unused availability under our various credit agreements, compared to $1,043 million and $3,196 million, respectively, at December 31, 2017. Cash flows from operating activities of $916 million, which are driven by the profitability of our SBUs, together with net borrowings of $135 million were used to fund capital expenditures of $811 million, common stock repurchases of $220 million and dividends paid on our common stock of $138 million. Refer to "Liquidity and Capital Resources" for additional information.
Outlook
We expect to continue to experience challenging global industry conditions, including higher raw material costs, foreign currency headwinds and volatility in emerging markets, in 2019. We expect to see benefits from the ramp-up of our new Americas manufacturing facility and TireHub, pricing actions that we implemented in 2018, and continued strong performance in our sales of 17-inch and above consumer replacement tires.
For the full year of 2019, we expect our raw material costs will be up approximately $300 million compared to 2018, excluding raw material cost saving measures. Natural and synthetic rubber prices and other commodity prices historically have experienced significant volatility, and this estimate could change significantly based on fluctuations in the cost of these and other key raw materials. We are continuing to focus on price and product mix, to substitute lower cost materials where possible, to work to identify additional substitution opportunities, to reduce the amount of material required in each tire, and to pursue alternative raw materials.
Refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors” for a discussion of the factors that may impact our business, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity and “Forward-Looking Information — Safe Harbor Statement” for a discussion of our use of forward-looking statements.

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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS — CONSOLIDATED
All per share amounts are diluted and refer to Goodyear net income (loss).
2018 Compared to 2017
Goodyear net income in 2018 was $693 million, or $2.89 per share, compared to $346 million, or $1.37 per share, in 2017. The increase in Goodyear net income in 2018 was driven by the net gain recognized in relation to the TireHub transaction, a decrease in income tax expense, primarily due to the recognition of discrete tax charges in 2017 in connection with changes in U.S. income tax law, and lower rationalization charges. These increases were partially offset by lower segment operating income, primarily in Americas and Asia Pacific.
Net Sales
Net sales in 2018 of $15,475 million increased $98 million, or 0.6%, compared to $15,377 million in 2017, primarily due to an increase in price and product mix of $217 million, partially offset by unfavorable foreign currency translation of $139 million, primarily in Americas. Goodyear worldwide tire unit net sales were $13,197 million and $12,958 million in 2018 and 2017, respectively. Consumer and commercial net sales were $9,167 million and $3,002 million, respectively, in 2018. Consumer and commercial net sales were $9,285 million and $2,928 million, respectively, in 2017.
The following table presents our tire unit sales for the periods indicated:
 
Year Ended December 31,
(In millions of tires)
2018
 
2017
 
% Change
Replacement Units
 

 
 

 
 

United States
38.9

 
38.3

 
1.6
 %
International
76.2

 
75.2

 
1.3
 %
Total
115.1

 
113.5

 
1.5
 %
OE Units
 

 
 

 
 

United States
13.2

 
13.7

 
(3.6
)%
International
30.9

 
32.0

 
(3.4
)%
Total
44.1

 
45.7

 
(3.6
)%
Goodyear worldwide tire units
159.2

 
159.2

 
 %
Worldwide tire unit sales in 2018 were consistent with 2017 at 159.2 million units. Replacement tire units increased 1.6 million units, or 1.5%, primarily in EMEA. OE tire units decreased 1.6 million units, or 3.6%, in EMEA, Asia Pacific and Americas. Consumer and commercial unit sales in 2018 were 145.5 million and 11.8 million, respectively. Consumer and commercial unit sales in 2017 were 145.9 million and 11.5 million, respectively.
Cost of Goods Sold
Cost of goods sold (“CGS”) was $11,961 million in 2018, increasing $281 million, or 2.4%, from $11,680 million in 2017. CGS was 77.3% of sales in 2018 compared to 76.0% of sales in 2017. CGS in 2018 increased due to higher costs related to product mix of $238 million, higher raw material costs of $186 million, higher costs in other tire-related businesses of $50 million, driven by an increase in raw material prices related to third-party chemical sales in Americas, higher transportation costs of $18 million, and higher research and development costs of $14 million. These increases were partially offset by foreign currency translation of $104 million, primarily in Americas, favorable indirect tax settlements in Brazil of $53 million, of which $51 million ($39 million after-tax and minority) is related to prior years, and lower conversion costs of $42 million, primarily in EMEA and Americas. CGS in 2018 included pension expense of $15 million compared to $16 million in 2017. CGS in 2018 and 2017 also included incremental savings from rationalization plans of $41 million and $49 million, respectively.
CGS in 2018 included accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs of $4 million ($3 million after-tax and minority). CGS in 2017 included accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs of $40 million ($28 million after-tax and minority), primarily related to the closure of our manufacturing facility in Philippsburg, Germany.

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Selling, Administrative and General Expense
SAG was $2,312 million in 2018, increasing $33 million, or 1.4%, from $2,279 million in 2017. SAG was 14.9% of sales in 2018 compared to 14.8% of sales in 2017. The increase in SAG was primarily due to inflation, higher advertising costs of $19 million, and higher product liability costs of $14 million. These increases were partially offset by lower wages and benefits of $48 million, primarily related to lower incentive compensation and savings from rationalization plans. SAG in 2018 included pension expense of $17 million compared to $19 million in 2017. SAG in 2018 and 2017 also included incremental savings from rationalization plans of $34 million and $42 million, respectively.
Rationalizations
We recorded net rationalization charges of $44 million ($32 million after-tax and minority) in 2018. Net rationalization charges include charges of $31 million related to global plans to reduce SAG headcount, $13 million related to plans to reduce manufacturing headcount and improve operating efficiency in EMEA, and $15 million related to the closure of our tire manufacturing facility in Philippsburg, Germany. Net rationalization charges in 2018 included reversals of $19 million for actions no longer needed for their originally intended purposes.
We recorded net rationalization charges of $135 million ($93 million after-tax and minority) in 2017. Net rationalization charges include charges of $46 million related to plans to reduce manufacturing headcount in EMEA, $35 million related to the closure of our tire manufacturing facility in Philippsburg, Germany, $32 million related to global plans to reduce SAG headcount, and $20 million related to a separate plan to reduce SAG headcount in EMEA.
Upon completion of the 2018 plans, we estimate that annual segment operating income will improve by approximately $38 million ($28 million SAG and $10 million CGS), primarily related to our global plans to reduce SAG headcount. The savings realized in 2018 from rationalization plans totaled $75 million ($41 million CGS and $34 million SAG).
For further information, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 3, Costs Associated with Rationalization Programs.
Interest Expense
Interest expense was $321 million in 2018, decreasing $14 million from $335 million in 2017. The decrease was due primarily to a decrease in the average interest rate to 5.16% in 2018 compared to 5.58% in 2017. This decrease was partially offset by higher average debt balances of $6,218 million in 2018 compared to $6,001 million in 2017. Interest expense in 2017 included $6 million ($4 million after-tax and minority) of expense related to the write-off of deferred financing fees and unamortized discounts related to the redemption of our $700 million 7% senior notes due 2022.
Other (Income) Expense
Other (Income) Expense in 2018 was income of $174 million, compared to expense of $70 million in 2017. The $244 million change in Other (Income) Expense was primarily due to the net gain recognized on the TireHub transaction, net of transaction costs, of $272 million ($206 million after-tax and minority) and interest income on favorable indirect tax settlements in Brazil of $38 million ($29 million after-tax and minority). These gains were partially offset by an increase in non-service related pension and other postretirement benefits expense of $59 million, driven by lower expected returns on pension plan assets of $32 million.
Non-service related pension and other postretirement benefits expense of $121 million in 2018 includes pension settlement charges of $22 million ($17 million after-tax and minority) and a one-time charge of $9 million ($7 million after-tax and minority) related to the adoption of the new accounting standards update which no longer allows non-service related pension and other postretirement benefits cost to be capitalized in inventory. Non-service related pension and other postretirement benefits expense of $62 million in 2017 includes pension settlement charges of $19 million ($13 million after-tax and minority).
Financing fees and financial instruments expense in 2017 includes a premium of $25 million ($15 million after-tax and minority) related to the redemption of our $700 million 7% senior notes due 2022.
General and product liability (income) expense - discontinued products in 2018 includes a benefit of $3 million ($3 million after-tax and minority) as compared to a benefit in 2017 of $5 million ($3 million after-tax and minority) for the recovery of past costs from certain asbestos insurers.
Net (gains) losses on asset sales were a gain of $1 million ($1 million after-tax and minority) in 2018 as compared to a gain of $14 million ($13 million after-tax and minority) in 2017. Net gains (losses) on asset sales in 2017 included a gain of $6 million related to the sale of a former wire plant site in Luxembourg.
Other (Income) Expense in 2018 included charges of $12 million ($12 million after-tax and minority), compared to charges of $14 million ($11 million after-tax and minority) in 2017, for hurricane related expenses. Other (Income) Expense in 2018 also included $4 million ($3 million after-tax and minority) for legal claims related to discontinued operations.
For further information, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 5, Other (Income) Expense.

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Table of Contents

Income Taxes
Income tax expense in 2018 was $303 million on income before income taxes of $1,011 million. In 2018, income tax expense was unfavorably impacted by net discrete adjustments of $65 million ($65 million after minority interest). Discrete adjustments were primarily due to charges totaling $135 million related to deferred tax assets for foreign tax credits, partially offset by a tax benefit of $88 million related to a worthless stock deduction created by permanently ceasing operations of our Venezuelan subsidiary during the fourth quarter of 2018. Income tax expense in 2018 also included net charges of $18 million for various other discrete tax adjustments, including those related to finalizing our accounting for certain provisional items related to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act that was enacted on December 22, 2017 (the "Tax Act") as discussed below.
During the fourth quarter of 2018, we wrote off $37 million in deferred tax assets for foreign tax credits that expired during the year and established a valuation allowance of $98 million against foreign tax credits expiring primarily in 2021, as we have now concluded that it is not more likely than not that we will be able to utilize these credits prior to their expiration. These charges reflect the recognition of the $88 million discrete tax benefit related to our Venezuelan subsidiary that reduced taxable income that otherwise would have utilized foreign tax credits. We also considered our forecasts of future profitability in assessing our ability to realize our foreign tax credits. These forecasts were prepared in connection with our annual budgeting process and include the impact of recent trends, including various macroeconomic factors such as rising raw material prices, on our profitability, as well as the impact of tax planning strategies. Macroeconomic factors, including raw material prices, possess a high degree of volatility and can significantly impact our profitability. As such, there is a risk that future foreign source income will not be sufficient to fully utilize these foreign tax credits. However, we believe our forecasts of future profitability along with three significant sources of foreign income provide us sufficient positive evidence to conclude that it is more likely than not that the remaining foreign tax credits of $637 million will be fully utilized, despite the negative evidence of their limited carryforward periods. For further information regarding our foreign source income, refer to Critical Accounting Policies.
The Tax Act established a corporate income tax rate of 21%, replacing the former 35% rate, and created a territorial tax system rather than a worldwide system, which generally eliminated the U.S. federal income tax on dividends from foreign subsidiaries. The transition to the territorial system included a one-time transition tax on certain of our foreign earnings previously untaxed in the United States (the "transition tax"). The Securities and Exchange Commission provided up to a one-year measurement period for companies to finalize the accounting for the impacts of this new legislation. As required, we finalized our accounting for items previously considered provisional during 2018. At December 31, 2017, we recorded an initial non-cash net charge to tax expense of $299 million related to the enactment of the Tax Act. Our final accounting has adjusted this non-cash net charge to $298 million. This net charge includes a deferred tax charge of $384 million primarily from revaluing our net U.S. deferred tax assets to reflect the new U.S. corporate tax rate. No measurement period adjustment was necessary and this calculation is complete. The net charge also originally included a provisional deferred tax benefit of $162 million to reverse reserves maintained for the taxation of undistributed foreign earnings under prior law, net of reserves established for foreign withholding taxes consistent with our revised indefinite reinvestment assertion. In the fourth quarter of 2018, we finalized our accounting and increased the provisional amount by $9 million to $171 million to reflect U.S. tax guidance issued during the year and to reflect our final indefinite reinvestment assertion. We were able to reasonably estimate the transition tax and recorded an initial provisional tax obligation of $77 million at December 31, 2017. In general, the transition tax imposed by the Tax Act results in the taxation of our accumulated foreign earnings and profits (“E&P”) at a 15.5% rate on liquid assets and 8% on the remaining unremitted foreign E&P, both net of foreign tax credits. Adjusted for U.S. tax guidance issued during 2018 and the impact of changes to E&P of our subsidiaries resulting from the filing of our 2017 corporate income tax return during the fourth quarter of 2018, we have now finalized our accounting and recognized an additional measurement period adjustment of $8 million, resulting in a total transition tax obligation of $85 million.
On January 15, 2019, the IRS finalized regulations that govern the transition tax. We are in the process of analyzing these regulations. We do not expect any material impact to our financial statements as a consequence of the final regulations.
Income tax expense in 2017 was $513 million on income before income taxes of $878 million. In 2017, tax expense was unfavorably impacted by net discrete adjustments of $294 million due primarily to the net non-cash tax charge of $299 million related to the enactment of the Tax Act as described above.
At December 31, 2018, our valuation allowance on certain of our U.S. federal, state and local deferred tax assets was $113 million, primarily related to deferred tax assets for foreign tax credits as described above, and our valuation allowance on our foreign deferred tax assets was $204 million.
Our losses in various foreign taxing jurisdictions in recent periods represented sufficient negative evidence to require us to maintain a full valuation allowance against certain of our net deferred tax assets. Each reporting period we assess available positive and negative evidence and estimate if sufficient future taxable income will be generated to utilize these existing deferred tax assets. We do not believe that sufficient positive evidence required to release all or a significant portion of these valuation allowances will exist within the next twelve months.
For further information, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 6, Income Taxes.

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Table of Contents

Minority Shareholders’ Net Income
Minority shareholders’ net income was $15 million in 2018, compared to $19 million in 2017.
2017 Compared to 2016
Goodyear net income in 2017 was $346 million, or $1.37 per share, compared to $1,264 million, or $4.74 per share, in 2016. The decrease in Goodyear net income in 2017 was driven by an increase in income tax expense, primarily due to recognition of discrete tax charges in 2017 in connection with changes in U.S. income tax law compared to the recognition of discrete tax benefits in 2016, primarily due to the release of certain valuation allowances, and lower segment operating income, primarily in Americas and EMEA. These items were partially offset by a decrease in rationalization charges and lower corporate SAG, primarily due to lower incentive compensation.
Net Sales
Net sales in 2017 of $15,377 million increased $219 million, or 1.4%, compared to $15,158 million in 2016 due to an increase in price and product mix of $521 million, primarily driven by the impact of higher raw material costs on pricing, favorable foreign currency translation of $178 million, primarily in EMEA and Americas, and higher sales in other tire-related businesses of $89 million, driven by higher prices for third-party chemical sales in Americas. These increases were partially offset by lower tire unit volume of $569 million, primarily in EMEA and Americas. Goodyear worldwide tire unit net sales were $12,958 million and $12,832 million in 2017 and 2016, respectively. Consumer and commercial net sales were $9,285 million and $2,928 million, respectively, in 2017. Consumer and commercial net sales were $9,414 million and $2,806 million, respectively, in 2016.
The following table presents our tire unit sales for the periods indicated:
 
Year Ended December 31,
(In millions of tires)
2017
 
2016
 
% Change
Replacement Units
 

 
 

 
 

United States
38.3

 
39.2

 
(2.3
)%
International
75.2

 
78.1

 
(3.7
)%
Total
113.5

 
117.3

 
(3.3
)%
OE Units
 

 
 

 
 

United States
13.7

 
15.7

 
(12.7
)%
International
32.0

 
33.1

 
(3.3
)%
Total
45.7

 
48.8

 
(6.4
)%
Goodyear worldwide tire units
159.2

 
166.1

 
(4.2
)%
The decrease in worldwide tire unit sales of 6.9 million units, or 4.2%, compared to 2016, included a decrease of 3.8 million replacement tire units, or 3.3%, comprised primarily of decreases in EMEA and Americas. OE tire units decreased 3.1 million units, or 6.4%, comprised primarily of decreases in Americas and EMEA. The overall volume decreases in EMEA and Americas were primarily related to lower consumer tire sales, driven by increased competition and changes in OEM production. Consumer and commercial unit sales in 2017 were 145.9 million and 11.5 million, respectively. Consumer and commercial unit sales in 2016 were 153.0 million and 11.6 million, respectively.
Cost of Goods Sold
CGS was $11,680 million in 2017, increasing $745 million, or 6.8%, from $10,935 million in 2016. CGS was 76.0% of sales in 2017 compared to 72.1% of sales in 2016. CGS in 2017 increased due to higher raw material costs of $618 million, foreign currency translation of $141 million, primarily in EMEA and Americas, higher conversion costs of $129 million, primarily due to increased under-absorbed overhead resulting from lower production volumes in Americas and EMEA, higher costs in other tire-related businesses of $107 million, driven by an increase in raw material prices related to third-party chemical sales in Americas, and higher costs related to product mix of $101 million. These increases were partially offset by lower volume of $403 million, primarily in EMEA and Americas. CGS in 2017 included pension expense of $16 million compared to $15 million in 2016.
CGS in 2017 included accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs of $40 million ($28 million after-tax and minority), primarily related to our plan to close our manufacturing facility in Philippsburg, Germany. Accelerated depreciation was $20 million ($20 million after-tax and minority) in 2016, primarily related to our plan to close our manufacturing facility in Philippsburg, Germany and our plan to close our Wolverhampton, U.K. mixing and retreading facility.

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Selling, Administrative and General Expense
SAG was $2,279 million in 2017, decreasing $130 million, or 5.4%, from $2,409 million in 2016. SAG was 14.8% of sales in 2017 compared to 15.9% of sales in 2016. The decrease in SAG was due to lower wages and benefits of $105 million, primarily related to lower incentive compensation and savings from rationalization plans, and lower advertising costs of $49 million. These decreases were partially offset by foreign currency translation of $27 million, primarily in EMEA, and increases due to general inflation. SAG in 2017 and 2016 included pension expense of $19 million for each year.
Rationalizations
We recorded net rationalization charges of $135 million ($93 million after-tax and minority) in 2017. Net rationalization charges include charges of $46 million related to plans to reduce manufacturing headcount in EMEA, $35 million related to the closure of our tire manufacturing facility in Philippsburg, Germany, $32 million related to global plans to reduce SAG headcount, and $20 million related to SAG headcount reductions in EMEA.
We recorded net rationalization charges of $210 million ($198 million after-tax and minority) in 2016. Net rationalization charges included charges of $116 million related to the plan to close our tire manufacturing facility in Philippsburg, Germany, $34 million related to a global plan to reduce SAG headcount, and $25 million related to manufacturing headcount reductions in EMEA.
For further information, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 2, Costs Associated with Rationalization Programs.
Interest Expense
Interest expense was $335 million in 2017, decreasing $37 million from $372 million in 2016. The decrease was due primarily to a decrease in the average interest rate to 5.58% in 2017 compared to 6.23% in 2016. This decrease was partially offset by higher average debt balances of $6,001 million in 2017 compared to $5,972 million in 2016. Interest expense in 2017 and 2016 included $6 million ($4 million after-tax and minority) and $12 million ($8 million after-tax and minority), respectively, of expense related to the write-off of deferred financing fees and unamortized discounts related to the redemption of various debt instruments.
Other (Income) Expense
Other (Income) Expense in 2017 was expense of $70 million, compared to expense of $25 million in 2016. The $45 million change in Other (Income) Expense was primarily due to lower gains on general and product liability (income) expense - discontinued products of $27 million, higher non-service related pension and other postretirement benefits expense of $27 million, and lower gains on asset sales of $17 million. These increases were partially offset by lower financing fees and financial instruments expense of $28 million.
Non-service related pension and other postretirement benefits expense was $62 million in 2017, including pension settlement charges of $19 million ($13 million after-tax and minority), compared to $35 million in 2016, including pension settlement charges of $17 million ($14 million after-tax and minority). The increase in 2017 compared to 2016 was due primarily to lower expected returns on pension plan assets of $22 million and lower amortization of other postretirement benefits prior service credits of $16 million, which was partially offset by lower pension interest cost of $13 million.
General and product liability (income) expense - discontinued products in 2017 included a benefit of $5 million ($3 million after-tax and minority) for the recovery of past costs from certain asbestos insurers, as compared to a benefit in 2016 of $24 million ($15 million after-tax and minority) for the recovery of past costs from certain asbestos insurers and a benefit of $10 million related to changes in assumptions for probable insurance recoveries for asbestos claims in future periods.
Net (gains) losses on asset sales were a gain of $14 million ($13 million after-tax and minority) in 2017 as compared to a gain of $31 million ($26 million after-tax and minority) in 2016. Net (gains) losses on asset sales in 2017 included a gain of $6 million related to the sale of a former wire plant site in Luxembourg. Net (gains) losses on asset sales in 2016 included a gain of $16 million related to the sale of the former wire plant site and a gain of $9 million related to the sale of our interest in a supply chain logistics company.
Financing fees and financial instruments expense in 2017 included a premium of $25 million ($15 million after-tax and minority) related to the redemption of our $700 million 7% senior notes due 2022, as compared to premiums of $53 million ($37 million after-tax and minority) in 2016 related to the redemption of our $900 million 6.5% senior notes due 2021 and our €250 million 6.75% senior notes due 2019.
Other (Income) Expense in 2017 included charges of $14 million ($11 million after-tax and minority) for hurricane related expenses.
For further information, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 5, Other (Income) Expense.

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Income Taxes
Income tax expense in 2017 was $513 million on income before income taxes of $878 million. In 2017, tax expense was unfavorably impacted by net discrete adjustments of $294 million due primarily to the net tax charge of $299 million related to the enactment of the Tax Act.
For 2016, the income tax benefit was $77 million on income before income taxes of $1,207 million. The net tax benefit in 2016 was driven by net discrete adjustments of $458 million ($459 million after minority interest), due primarily to a tax benefit of $331 million from the December 31, 2016 release of the valuation allowances on certain subsidiaries in England, France, Luxembourg and New Zealand. The release of the valuation allowances on these subsidiaries is net of 2016 tax law changes that reduced deferred tax assets by $23 million. The 2016 income tax benefit also included a $163 million tax benefit resulting from changing our election for our 2009, 2010 and 2012 U.S. tax years from deducting foreign taxes to crediting foreign taxes. The 2016 income tax benefit was net of a $39 million tax charge to establish a valuation allowance in the U.S. on deferred tax assets related to receivables from our deconsolidated Venezuelan subsidiary.
For further information, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 6, Income Taxes.
Minority Shareholders’ Net Income
Minority shareholders’ net income was $19 million in 2017, compared to $20 million in 2016.


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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS — SEGMENT INFORMATION
Segment information reflects our strategic business units (“SBUs”), which are organized to meet customer requirements and global competition and are segmented on a regional basis.
Results of operations are measured based on net sales to unaffiliated customers and segment operating income. Each segment exports tires to other segments. The financial results of each segment exclude sales of tires exported to other segments, but include operating income derived from such transactions. Segment operating income is computed as follows: Net Sales less CGS (excluding asset write-off and accelerated depreciation charges) and SAG (including certain allocated corporate administrative expenses). Segment operating income also includes certain royalties and equity in earnings of most affiliates. Segment operating income does not include net rationalization charges (credits), asset sales and certain other items.
Total segment operating income was $1,274 million in 2018, $1,556 million in 2017 and $1,996 million in 2016. Total segment operating margin (segment operating income divided by segment sales) in 2018 was 8.2%, compared to 10.1% in 2017 and 13.2% in 2016.
Management believes that total segment operating income is useful because it represents the aggregate value of income created by our SBUs and excludes items not directly related to the SBUs for performance evaluation purposes. Total segment operating income is the sum of the individual SBUs’ segment operating income. Refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 8, Business Segments, for further information and for a reconciliation of total segment operating income to Income before Income Taxes.
Americas
 
Year Ended December 31,
(In millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Tire Units
70.9

 
70.9

 
74.1

Net Sales
$
8,168

 
$
8,212

 
$
8,172

Operating Income
654

 
847

 
1,151

Operating Margin
8.0
%
 
10.3
%
 
14.1
%

2018 Compared to 2017
Americas unit sales in 2018 remained consistent with 2017. Replacement tire volume increased 0.3 million units, or 0.6%, primarily in our consumer business in the United States driven by growth in the wholesale distribution channel as well as growth in retail, supported by increased sell out. These increases were partially offset by the impacts of the TireHub transition and the national transportation strike in Brazil in May. OE tire volume decreased 0.3 million units, or 1.7%, primarily in our consumer business in the United States driven by increased competition, partially offset by an increase in our consumer business in Brazil, despite the impact of the national transportation strike.
Net sales in 2018 were $8,168 million, decreasing $44 million, or 0.5%, compared to $8,212 million in 2017. The decrease in net sales was driven by unfavorable foreign currency translation of $144 million, primarily related to the Brazilian real. This decrease was partially offset by higher sales in other tire-related businesses of $61 million, primarily driven by an increase in third-party sales of chemical products, and improvements in price and product mix of $36 million, driven by increased customer demand for our 17-inch and above rim size tires.
Operating income in 2018 was $654 million, decreasing $193 million, or 22.8%, from $847 million in 2017. The decrease in operating income was due to increased raw material costs of $113 million, lower price and product mix of $72 million, higher SAG of $36 million, primarily driven by higher product liability costs and advertising expense, unfavorable foreign currency translation of $25 million, and lower income in other tire-related businesses of $10 million, primarily in the race tire business. These decreases were partially offset by favorable indirect tax settlements in Brazil totaling $53 million, of which $51 million related to prior years, and favorable conversion costs of $14 million. SAG included incremental savings from rationalization plans of $15 million. During 2018, Americas operating income was negatively impacted by about $7 million ($5 million after-tax and minority) as a result of the national transportation strike in Brazil.
Operating income in 2018 excluded the net gain recognized on the TireHub transaction of $272 million, rationalization charges of $3 million and net gains on asset sales of $3 million. Operating income in 2017 excluded rationalization charges of $6 million and net gains on asset sales of $4 million.
Americas' results are highly dependent upon the United States, which accounted for approximately 81% of Americas' net sales in both 2018 and 2017. Results of operations in the United States are expected to continue to have a significant impact on Americas' future performance.

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2017 Compared to 2016
Americas unit sales in 2017 decreased 3.2 million units, or 4.4%, to 70.9 million units. OE tire volume decreased 1.7 million units, or 9.0%, primarily in consumer OE in the United States, driven by changes in OEM production. Replacement tire volume decreased 1.5 million units, or 2.8%, primarily in consumer replacement in the United States, Mexico and Canada. Declines in consumer replacement volumes in the United States were primarily driven by increased competition and lower volumes in 16-inch and below rim size tires.
Net sales in 2017 were $8,212 million, increasing $40 million, or 0.5%, compared to $8,172 million in 2016. The increase in net sales was driven by improvements in price and product mix of $168 million, primarily due to the impact of higher raw material costs on pricing, higher sales in other tire-related businesses of $104 million, primarily driven by an increase in price for third-party sales of chemical products, and favorable foreign currency translation of $49 million, primarily in Brazil. These increases in net sales were partially offset by lower tire volume of $281 million.
Operating income in 2017 was $847 million, decreasing $304 million, or 26.4%, from $1,151 million in 2016. The decrease in operating income was due to increased raw material costs of $266 million, which more than offset improvements in price and product mix of $131 million, unfavorable conversion costs of $98 million, primarily due to increased under-absorbed overhead resulting from lower production volumes, lower tire unit volume of $79 million, and incremental start-up costs of $28 million associated with our new plant in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. These decreases in operating income were partially offset by the impact of an out of period adjustment in 2016 of $24 million of expense related to the elimination of intracompany profit, primarily related to the years 2012 to 2015, with the majority attributable to 2012, and lower SAG of $16 million, primarily related to lower incentive compensation and lower advertising expense. SAG included incremental savings from rationalization plans of $23 million. During the third quarter of 2017, several Company facilities were directly impacted by Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, which negatively impacted Americas operating income by about $6 million in 2017.
Operating income in 2017 excluded rationalization charges of $6 million and net gains on asset sales of $4 million. Operating income in 2016 excluded rationalization charges of $15 million, net gains on asset sales of $4 million and accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs of $1 million.
Europe, Middle East and Africa
 
Year Ended December 31,
(In millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Tire Units
57.8

 
57.1

 
61.1

Net Sales
$
5,090

 
$
4,928

 
$
4,880

Operating Income
363

 
367

 
472

Operating Margin
7.1
%
 
7.4
%
 
9.7
%

2018 Compared to 2017
Europe, Middle East and Africa unit sales in 2018 increased 0.7 million units, or 1.3%, to 57.8 million units. Replacement tire volume increased 1.5 million units, or 3.7%, primarily in our consumer business driven by increased industry demand in the 17-inch and above rim size segment. OE tire volume decreased 0.8 million units, or 4.9%, primarily in our consumer business, driven by declines in the 16-inch and below rim size segment as a result of the continuation of our OE selectivity strategy and changes in market demand.
Net sales in 2018 were $5,090 million, increasing $162 million, or 3.3%, compared to $4,928 million in 2017. Net sales increased due to improvements in price and product mix of $125 million, mainly due to increased customer demand for our 17-inch and above rim size tires, higher tire unit volume of $65 million, and favorable foreign currency translation of $22 million, primarily related to the strengthening of the euro, partially offset by the weakening of the Turkish lira. These increases were partially offset by lower sales in other tire-related businesses of $53 million mainly due to retread and race tire sales.
Operating income in 2018 was $363 million, decreasing $4 million, or 1.1%, compared to $367 million in 2017. Operating income decreased due to lower income in other tire-related businesses of $35 million, primarily due to lower intercompany sales, higher costs of $22 million, primarily related to transportation and research and development, and foreign currency translation of $6 million. These decreases were partially offset by improvements in price and product mix of $59 million, which more than offset the impact of higher raw material costs of $50 million, lower conversion costs of $23 million, primarily related to better plant utilization following the closure of our manufacturing facility in Philippsburg, Germany, higher volume of $19 million, and lower SAG of $8 million. SAG and conversion costs included savings from rationalization plans of $19 million and $41 million, respectively.

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Operating income in 2018 excluded net rationalization charges of $36 million, accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs of $4 million, and net losses on asset sales of $2 million. Operating income in 2017 excluded net rationalization charges of $111 million, accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs of $40 million, and net gains on asset sales of $10 million.
EMEA’s results are highly dependent upon Germany, which accounted for approximately 37% and 38% of EMEA’s net sales in 2018 and 2017, respectively. Results of operations in Germany are expected to continue to have a significant impact on EMEA’s future performance.
2017 Compared to 2016
Europe, Middle East and Africa unit sales in 2017 decreased 4.0 million units, or 6.5%, to 57.1 million units. Replacement tire volume decreased 2.4 million units, or 5.5%, primarily in our consumer business caused by decreased industry demand for 16- inch and below rim size tires and increased competition. OE tire volume decreased 1.6 million units, or 9.0%, primarily in our consumer business, driven by 16-inch and below rim size tires, as a result of the continuation of our OE selectivity strategy, increased competition and reduced OEM production due to certain customers managing inventory levels.
Net sales in 2017 were $4,928 million, increasing $48 million, or 1.0%, compared to $4,880 million in 2016. Net sales increased due to improvements in price and product mix of $244 million, due to our increased focus on 17-inch and above rim size tires and the impact of higher raw material costs on pricing, and favorable foreign currency translation of $112 million, primarily related to the strengthening of the euro. These increases were partially offset by the impact of lower tire unit volume of $303 million.
Operating income in 2017 was $367 million, decreasing $105 million, or 22.2%, compared to $472 million in 2016. Operating income decreased due to higher raw material costs of $229 million, which more than offset improvements in price and product mix of $176 million, lower sales volume of $91 million and higher conversion costs of $31 million, primarily related to under-absorbed overhead due to lower production levels. These decreases were partially offset by lower SAG of $59 million, primarily driven by lower advertising costs, lower wages and benefits due to restructuring savings and lower incentive compensation, and favorable foreign currency translation of $9 million, primarily related to the strengthening of the euro. SAG and conversion costs included savings from rationalization plans of $19 million and $49 million, respectively.
Operating income in 2017 excluded net rationalization charges of $111 million, accelerated depreciation and asset write-offs of $40 million, and net gains on asset sales of $10 million. Operating income in 2016 excluded net rationalization charges of $184 million, accelerated depreciation of $19 million, and net gains on asset sales of $17 million.
Asia Pacific
 
Year Ended December 31,
(In millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Tire Units
30.5

 
31.2

 
30.9

Net Sales
$
2,217

 
$
2,237

 
$
2,106

Operating Income
257

 
342

 
373

Operating Margin
11.6
%
 
15.3
%
 
17.7
%

2018 Compared to 2017
Asia Pacific unit sales in 2018 decreased 0.7 million units, or 2.3%, to 30.5 million units. OE tire volume decreased 0.5 million units, or 4.5%, primarily in our consumer business in China as a result of reduced OEM production. Replacement tire volume decreased 0.2 million units, or 0.8%, primarily in our consumer business in China.
Net sales in 2018 were $2,217 million, decreasing $20 million, or 0.9%, from $2,237 million in 2017. Net sales decreased due to lower tire unit volume of $48 million, unfavorable foreign currency translation of $17 million, primarily related to the weakening of the Indian rupee, and lower sales in other tire-related businesses of $11 million, primarily in the retail business. These decreases were partially offset by improvements in price and product mix of $56 million.
Operating income in 2018 was $257 million, decreasing $85 million, or 24.9%, from $342 million in 2017. Operating income decreased due to higher raw material costs of $23 million, lower volume of $15 million, higher SAG of $12 million, higher research and development costs of $10 million, charges of $10 million related to a voluntary recall of consumer tires by an OE customer, lower price and product mix of $8 million, and lower income in other tire-related businesses of $8 million, primarily in the retail business.

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Operating income in 2018 excluded net rationalization charges of $3 million. Operating income in 2017 excluded net rationalization charges of $2 million.
Asia Pacific’s results are highly dependent upon China and Australia. China accounted for approximately 27% and 28% of Asia Pacific's net sales in 2018 and 2017, respectively. Australia accounted for approximately 27% of Asia Pacific’s net sales in both 2018 and 2017. Results of operations in China and Australia are expected to continue to have a significant impact on Asia Pacific's future performance.
2017 Compared to 2016
Asia Pacific unit sales in 2017 increased 0.3 million units, or 0.7%, to 31.2 million units. Replacement tire volume increased 0.1 million units, or 0.5%, primarily due to growth in the consumer business, partially offset by lower volumes in the commercial business. OE tire volume increased 0.2 million units, or 1.1%, primarily due to growth in India, partially offset by lower volumes in China.
Net sales in 2017 were $2,237 million, increasing $131 million, or 6.2%, from $2,106 million in 2016. Net sales increased by $109 million due to improvements in price and product mix, primarily due to the impact of higher raw material costs on pricing, $17 million due to favorable foreign currency translation, and $15 million due to higher tire volume. These increases were partially offset by lower sales in other tire-related businesses of $11 million, primarily in retail.
Operating income in 2017 was $342 million, decreasing $31 million, or 8.3%, from $373 million in 2016. Operating income decreased due to higher raw material costs of $123 million, which more than offset improvements in price and product mix of $113 million, a decrease in incentives recognized for the expansion of our factory in China of $13 million, and lower income in other tire-related businesses of $9 million, primarily in retail. These decreases were partially offset by higher volume of $4 million.
Operating income in 2017 excluded net rationalization charges of $2 million. Operating income in 2016 excluded net gains on asset sales of $1 million and net rationalization charges of $1 million.



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CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and related notes to the financial statements. On an ongoing basis, management reviews its estimates, based on currently available information. Changes in facts and circumstances may alter such estimates and affect our results of operations and financial position in future periods. Our critical accounting policies relate to:
general and product liability and other litigation,
workers’ compensation,
recoverability of goodwill,
deferred tax asset valuation allowances and uncertain income tax positions, and
pensions and other postretirement benefits.
General and Product Liability and Other Litigation.  We have recorded liabilities totaling $322 million, including related legal fees expected to be incurred, for potential product liability and other tort claims, including asbestos claims, at December 31, 2018. General and product liability and other litigation liabilities are recorded based on management’s assessment that a loss arising from these matters is probable. If the loss can be reasonably estimated, we record the amount of the estimated loss. If the loss is estimated within a range and no point within the range is more probable than another, we record the minimum amount in the range. As additional information becomes available, any potential liability related to these matters is assessed and the estimates are revised, if necessary. Loss ranges are based upon the specific facts of each claim or class of claims and are determined after review by counsel. Court rulings on our cases or similar cases may impact our assessment of the probability and our estimate of the loss, which may have an impact on our reported results of operations, financial position and liquidity. We record receivables for insurance recoveries related to our litigation claims when it is probable that we will receive reimbursement from the insurer. Specifically, we are a defendant in numerous lawsuits alleging various asbestos-related personal injuries purported to result from alleged exposure to asbestos in certain products previously manufactured by us or present in certain of our facilities. Typically, these lawsuits have been brought against multiple defendants in federal and state courts.
We periodically, and at least annually, update, using actuarial analyses, our existing reserves for pending claims, including a reasonable estimate of the liability associated with unasserted asbestos claims, and estimate our receivables from probable insurance recoveries. In determining the estimate of our asbestos liability, we evaluated claims over the next ten-year period. Due to the difficulties in making these estimates, analysis based on new data and/or changed circumstances arising in the future may result in an increase in the recorded obligation, and that increase may be significant. We had recorded gross liabilities for both asserted and unasserted asbestos claims, inclusive of defense costs, totaling $166 million at December 31, 2018.
We maintain certain primary and excess insurance coverage under coverage-in-place agreements, and also have additional excess liability insurance with respect to asbestos liabilities. We record a receivable with respect to such policies when we determine that recovery is probable and we can reasonably estimate the amount of a particular recovery. This determination is based on consultation with our outside legal counsel and taking into consideration agreements with certain of our insurance carriers, the financial viability and legal obligations of our insurance carriers and other relevant factors.
As of December 31, 2018, we recorded a receivable related to asbestos claims of $108 million, and we expect that approximately 65% of asbestos claim related losses would be recoverable through insurance through the period covered by the estimated liability. Of this amount, $13 million was included in Current Assets as part of Accounts Receivable at December 31, 2018. The recorded receivable consists of an amount we expect to collect under coverage-in-place agreements with certain primary and excess insurance carriers as well as an amount we believe is probable of recovery from certain of our other excess insurance carriers. Although we believe these amounts are collectible under primary and certain excess policies today, future disputes with insurers could result in significant charges to operations.
Workers’ Compensation.  We had recorded liabilities, on a discounted basis, of $224 million for anticipated costs related to U.S. workers’ compensation claims at December 31, 2018. The costs include an estimate of expected settlements on pending claims, defense costs and a provision for claims incurred but not reported. These estimates are based on our assessment of potential liability using an analysis of available information with respect to pending claims, historical experience and current cost trends. The amount of our ultimate liability in respect of these matters may differ from these estimates. We periodically, and at least annually, update our loss development factors based on actuarial analyses. The liability is discounted using the risk-free rate of return.
For further information on general and product liability and other litigation, and workers’ compensation, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 19, Commitments and Contingent Liabilities.
Recoverability of Goodwill.  Goodwill is tested for impairment annually or more frequently if an indicator of impairment is present. Goodwill totaled $569 million at December 31, 2018.

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We test goodwill for impairment on at least an annual basis, with the option to perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether further impairment testing is necessary or to perform a quantitative assessment by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying amount, including goodwill. Under the qualitative assessment, an entity is not required to calculate the fair value of a reporting unit unless the entity determines that it is more likely than not (defined as a likelihood of more than 50%) that its fair value is less than its carrying amount. If under the quantitative assessment the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then the amount of the impairment loss, if any, must be measured.
At October 31, 2018, after considering changes to assumptions used in our most recent quantitative annual testing for each reporting unit, including the capital markets environment, economic conditions, tire industry competition and trends, changes in our results of operations, the magnitude of the excess of fair value over the carrying amount of each reporting unit as determined in our most recent quantitative annual testing, and other factors, we concluded that it was not more likely than not that the fair values of our reporting units were less than their respective carrying values and, therefore, did not perform a quantitative analysis.
Deferred Tax Asset Valuation Allowances and Uncertain Income Tax Positions.  At December 31, 2018, we had valuation allowances aggregating $317 million against certain of our U.S. federal, state and local and foreign net deferred tax assets.
We record a reduction to the carrying amounts of deferred tax assets by recording a valuation allowance if, based on the available evidence, it is more likely than not such assets will not be realized. The valuation of deferred tax assets requires judgment in assessing future profitability and the tax consequences of events that have been recognized in either our financial statements or tax returns.
We consider both positive and negative evidence when measuring the need for a valuation allowance. The weight given to the evidence is commensurate with the extent to which it may be objectively verified. Current and cumulative financial reporting results are a source of objectively verifiable evidence. We give operating results during the most recent three-year period a significant weight in our analysis. We typically only consider forecasts of future profitability when positive cumulative operating results exist in the most recent three-year period. We perform scheduling exercises to determine if sufficient taxable income of the appropriate character exists in the periods required in order to realize our deferred tax assets with limited lives (tax loss carryforwards and tax credits) prior to their expiration. We consider tax planning strategies available to accelerate taxable amounts if required to utilize expiring deferred tax assets. A valuation allowance is not required to the extent that, in our judgment, positive evidence exists with a magnitude and duration sufficient to result in a conclusion that it is more likely than not that our deferred tax assets will be realized.
Our net deferred tax assets include approximately $637 million of foreign tax credits, net of valuation allowances of $103 million, generated primarily from the receipt of foreign dividends. Our earnings and forecasts of future profitability along with three significant sources of foreign income provide us sufficient positive evidence to utilize these credits, despite the negative evidence of their limited carryforward periods. Those sources of foreign income are (1) 100% of our domestic profitability can be re-characterized as foreign source income under current U.S. tax law to the extent domestic losses have offset foreign source income in prior years, (2) annual net foreign source income, exclusive of dividends, primarily from royalties and (3) if necessary, we can enact tax planning strategies, including the ability to capitalize research and development costs annually, accelerate income on cross border sales of inventory or raw materials to our subsidiaries and reduce U.S. interest expense by, for example, reducing intercompany loans through repatriating current year earnings of foreign subsidiaries, all of which would increase our domestic profitability.
We considered our forecasts of future profitability in assessing our ability to realize our foreign tax credits. These forecasts were prepared in connection with our annual budgeting process and include the impact of recent trends, including various macroeconomic factors such as rising raw material prices, on our profitability, as well as the impact of tax planning strategies. Macroeconomic factors, including raw material prices, possess a high degree of volatility and can significantly impact our profitability. As such, there is a risk that future foreign source income will not be sufficient to fully utilize these foreign tax credits. However, we believe our forecasts of future profitability along with the three significant sources of foreign income described above provide us sufficient positive evidence to conclude that it is more likely than not that the remaining foreign tax credits will be fully utilized prior to their various expiration dates.
We recognize the effects of changes in tax rates and laws on deferred tax balances in the period in which legislation is enacted. We remeasure existing deferred tax assets and liabilities considering the tax rates at which they will be realized. We also consider the effects of enacted tax laws in our analysis of the need for valuation allowances.
Effective January 1, 2018, the Tax Act subjects a U.S. parent to current tax on its "global intangible low-taxed income" ("GILTI"). We do not anticipate incurring a GILTI liability, however, to the extent that we incur expense under the GILTI provisions we will treat it as a component of income tax expense in the period incurred.
The calculation of our tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax regulations, including those for transfer pricing. We recognize liabilities for anticipated tax audit issues based on our estimate of whether, and the extent to which, additional taxes will be due. If we ultimately determine that payment of these amounts is unnecessary, we reverse the

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liability and recognize a tax benefit during the period in which we determine that the liability is no longer necessary. We also recognize income tax benefits to the extent that it is more likely than not that our positions will be sustained when challenged by the taxing authorities. We derecognize income tax benefits when, based on new information, we determine that it is no longer more likely than not that our position will be sustained. To the extent we prevail in matters for which liabilities have been established, or determine we need to derecognize tax benefits recorded in prior periods, our results of operations and effective tax rate in a given period could be materially affected. An unfavorable tax settlement would require use of our cash, and lead to recognition of expense to the extent the settlement amount exceeds recorded liabilities, resulting in an increase in our effective tax rate in the period of resolution. To reduce our risk of an unfavorable transfer price settlement, the Company applies consistent transfer pricing policies and practices globally, supports pricing with economic studies and seeks advance pricing agreements and joint audits to the extent possible. A favorable tax settlement would be recognized as a reduction of expense to the extent the settlement amount is lower than recorded liabilities and, in the case of an income tax settlement, would result in a reduction in our effective tax rate in the period of resolution. We report interest and penalties related to uncertain income tax positions as income taxes.
For additional information regarding uncertain income tax positions, valuation allowances and the impact of the Tax Act, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 6, Income Taxes.
Pensions and Other Postretirement Benefits.  We have recorded liabilities for pension and other postretirement benefits of $599 million and $231 million, respectively, at December 31, 2018. Our recorded liabilities and net periodic costs for pensions and other postretirement benefits are based on a number of assumptions, including:
life expectancies,
retirement rates,
discount rates,
long term rates of return on plan assets,
inflation rates,
future compensation levels,
future health care costs, and
maximum company-covered benefit costs.
Certain of these assumptions are determined with the assistance of independent actuaries. Assumptions about life expectancies, retirement rates, future compensation levels and future health care costs are based on past experience and anticipated future trends. The discount rate for our U.S. plans is based on a yield curve derived from a portfolio of corporate bonds from issuers rated AA or higher as of December 31 and is reviewed annually. Our expected benefit payment cash flows are discounted based on spot rates developed from the yield curve. The mortality assumption for our U.S. plans is based on actual historical experience, an assumed long term rate of future improvement based on published actuarial tables, and current government regulations related to lump sum payment factors. The long term rate of return on U.S. plan assets is based on estimates of future long term rates of return similar to the target allocation of substantially all fixed income securities. Actual U.S. pension fund asset allocations are reviewed on a monthly basis and the pension fund is rebalanced to target ranges on an as-needed basis. These assumptions are reviewed regularly and revised when appropriate. Changes in one or more of them may affect the amount of our recorded liabilities and net periodic costs for these benefits. Other assumptions involving demographic factors such as retirement age and turnover are evaluated periodically and are updated to reflect our experience and expectations for the future. If the actual experience differs from expectations, our financial position, results of operations and liquidity in future periods may be affected.
The weighted average discount rate used in estimating the total liability for our U.S. pension and other postretirement benefit plans was 4.24% and 4.16%, respectively, at December 31, 2018, compared to 3.56% and 3.44%, respectively, at December 31, 2017. The increase in the discount rate at December 31, 2018 was due primarily to higher yields on highly rated corporate bonds. Interest cost included in our U.S. net periodic pension cost was $157 million in 2018, compared to $160 million in 2017 and $164 million in 2016. Interest cost included in our worldwide net periodic other postretirement benefits cost was $12 million in 2018, compared to $13 million in 2017 and $12 million in 2016.

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The following table presents the sensitivity of our U.S. projected pension benefit obligation, accumulated other postretirement benefits obligation, and annual expense to the indicated increase/decrease in key assumptions:
 
 
 
+ / − Change at December 31, 2018
(Dollars in millions)
Change
 
PBO/ABO
 
Annual Expense
Pensions:
 
 
 
 
 
Assumption:
 
 
 
 
 
Discount rate
+/- 0.5%
 
$
240

 
$
3

 
 
 
 
 
 
Other Postretirement Benefits:
 
 
 
 
 
Assumption:
 
 
 
 
 
Discount rate
+/- 0.5%
 
$
4

 
$

Health care cost trends — total cost
+/- 1.0%
 
1

 

Changes in general interest rates and corporate (AA or better) credit spreads impact our discount rate and thereby our U.S. pension benefit obligation. Our U.S. pension plans are invested in a portfolio of substantially all fixed income securities designed to offset the impact of future discount rate movements on liabilities for these plans. If corporate (AA or better) interest rates increase or decrease in parallel (i.e., across all maturities), the investment portfolio described above is designed to mitigate a substantial portion of the expected change in our U.S. pension benefit obligation. For example, if corporate (AA or better) interest rates increased or decreased by 0.50%, the investment portfolio described above would be expected to mitigate more than 85% of the expected change in our U.S. pension benefit obligation.
At December 31, 2018, our net actuarial loss included in Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss ("AOCL") related to global pension plans was $3,104 million, $2,493 million of which related to our U.S. pension plans. The net actuarial loss included in AOCL related to our U.S. pension plans is a result of declines in U.S. discount rates and plan asset losses that occurred prior to 2015, plus the impact of prior increases in estimated life expectancies. For purposes of determining our 2018 U.S. pension total benefits cost, we recognized $120 million of the net actuarial losses in 2018. We will recognize approximately $114 million of net actuarial losses in 2019 U.S. net periodic pension cost. If our future experience is consistent with our assumptions as of December 31, 2018, actuarial loss recognition over the next few years will remain at an amount near that to be recognized in 2019 before it begins to gradually decline. In addition, if annual lump sum payments from a pension plan exceed annual service and interest cost for that plan, accelerated recognition of net actuarial losses will be required through a settlement in total benefits cost.
The actual rate of return on our U.S. pension fund was (1.9%), 8.7% and 6.9% in 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, as compared to the expected rate of 4.58%, 5.08% and 5.33% in 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. We use the fair value of our pension assets in the calculation of pension expense for all of our U.S. pension plans.
The weighted average amortization period for our U.S. pension plans is approximately 18 years.
Service cost of pension plans was recorded in CGS, as part of the cost of inventory sold during the period, or SAG in our Consolidated Statements of Operations, based on the specific roles (i.e., manufacturing vs. non-manufacturing) of employee groups covered by each of our pension plans.  In 2018, 2017 and 2016, approximately 45% and 55% of service cost was included in CGS and SAG, respectively.  Non-service related net periodic pension costs were recorded in Other (Income) Expense in line with the accounting standards update issued by the FASB to improve the financial statement presentation of pension and postretirement benefits cost.  Refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 1, Accounting Policies.
Globally we expect our 2019 net periodic pension cost to be approximately $125 million to $150 million, including approximately $30 million of service cost, compared to $110 million in 2018, which included $32 million of service cost. The increase in expected net periodic pension cost is primarily due to higher interest cost for our U.S. pension plans from increases in interest rates and lower expected returns on plan assets for our non-U.S. pension plans due to an increase in investments allocated to fixed income securities.
We experienced an increase in our U.S. discount rate at the end of 2018 but a large portion of the net actuarial loss included in AOCL of $25 million for our worldwide other postretirement benefit plans as of December 31, 2018 is a result of the overall decline in U.S. discount rates over time. For purposes of determining 2018 worldwide net periodic other postretirement benefits cost, we recognized $4 million of net actuarial losses in 2018. We will recognize approximately $4 million of net actuarial losses in 2019. If our future experience is consistent with our assumptions as of December 31, 2018, actuarial loss recognition over the next few years will remain at an amount near that to be recognized in 2019 before it begins to gradually decline.
For further information on pensions and other postretirement benefits, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 17, Pension, Other Postretirement Benefits and Savings Plans.

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LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
OVERVIEW
Our primary sources of liquidity are cash generated from our operating and financing activities. Our cash flows from operating activities are driven primarily by our operating results and changes in our working capital requirements and our cash flows from financing activities are dependent upon our ability to access credit or other capital.
On March 7, 2018, we amended and restated our $400 million second lien term loan facility. As a result of the amendment, the term loan now matures on March 7, 2025 and continues to bear interest at 200 basis points over LIBOR.
On September 28, 2018, certain of our European subsidiaries amended and restated the definitive agreements for our pan-European accounts receivable securitization facility, extending the term through 2023.
On October 9, 2018, we announced an increase in the quarterly cash dividend on our common stock, from $0.14 per share to $0.16 per share, beginning with the December 3, 2018 payment date.
For further information on the other strategic initiatives we pursued in 2018, refer to “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Overview.”
At December 31, 2018, we had $801 million of Cash and Cash Equivalents, compared to $1,043 million at December 31, 2017. The decrease in cash and cash equivalents of $242 million was primarily due to cash used for investing activities of $867 million, primarily related to capital expenditures of $811 million; and cash used for financing activities of $243 million, primarily related to common stock repurchases of $220 million and common stock dividends of $138 million, partially offset by net borrowings of $135 million. These uses of cash were partially offset by cash flows from operating activities of $916 million, driven by the profitability of our operating segments.
At December 31, 2018 and 2017 we had $3,151 million and $3,196 million, respectively, of unused availability under our various credit agreements. The table below provides unused availability by our significant credit facilities as of December 31:
(In millions)
2018
 
2017
First lien revolving credit facility
$
1,633

 
$
1,667

European revolving credit facility
629

 
659

Chinese credit facilities
199

 
217

Mexican credit facilities
140

 

Other domestic and international debt
221

 
298

Notes payable and overdrafts
329

 
355

 
$
3,151

 
$
3,196

We have deposited our cash and cash equivalents and entered into various credit agreements and derivative contracts with financial institutions that we considered to be substantial and creditworthy at the time of such transactions. We seek to control our exposure to these financial institutions by diversifying our deposits, credit agreements and derivative contracts across multiple financial institutions, by setting deposit and counterparty credit limits based on long term credit ratings and other indicators of credit risk such as credit default swap spreads, and by monitoring the financial strength of these financial institutions on a regular basis. We also enter into master netting agreements with counterparties when possible. By controlling and monitoring exposure to financial institutions in this manner, we believe that we effectively manage the risk of loss due to nonperformance by a financial institution. However, we cannot provide assurance that we will not experience losses or delays in accessing our deposits or lines of credit due to the nonperformance of a financial institution. Our inability to access our cash deposits or make draws on our lines of credit, or the inability of a counterparty to fulfill its contractual obligations to us, could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, financial condition or results of operations in the period in which it occurs.
We expect our 2019 cash flow needs to include capital expenditures of approximately $900 million. We also expect interest expense to range between $325 million and $350 million, restructuring payments to be approximately $50 million, dividends on our common stock to be approximately $150 million, and contributions to our funded non-U.S. pension plans to be approximately $25 million to $50 million. We expect working capital to be a use of cash of less than $100 million in 2019. We intend to operate the business in a way that allows us to address these needs with our existing cash and available credit if they cannot be funded by cash generated from operations.
We believe that our liquidity position is adequate to fund our operating and investing needs and debt maturities in 2019 and to provide us with flexibility to respond to further changes in the business environment.
Our ability to service debt and operational requirements is also dependent, in part, on the ability of our subsidiaries to make distributions of cash to various other entities in our consolidated group, whether in the form of dividends, loans or otherwise. In

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certain countries where we operate, such as China and South Africa, transfers of funds into or out of such countries by way of dividends, loans, advances or payments to third-party or affiliated suppliers are generally or periodically subject to certain requirements, such as obtaining approval from the foreign government and/or currency exchange board before net assets can be transferred out of the country. In addition, certain of our credit agreements and other debt instruments limit the ability of foreign subsidiaries to make distributions of cash. Thus, we would have to repay and/or amend these credit agreements and other debt instruments in order to use this cash to service our consolidated debt. Because of the inherent uncertainty of satisfactorily meeting these requirements or limitations, we do not consider the net assets of our subsidiaries, including our Chinese and South African subsidiaries, which are subject to such requirements or limitations, to be integral to our liquidity or our ability to service our debt and operational requirements. At December 31, 2018, approximately $697 million of net assets, including $98 million of cash and cash equivalents, were subject to such requirements. The requirements we must comply with to transfer funds out of China and South Africa have not adversely impacted our ability to make transfers out of those countries.
Cash Position
At December 31, 2018, significant concentrations of cash and cash equivalents held by our international subsidiaries included the following amounts:
$278 million or 35% in Asia Pacific, primarily India, China and Japan ($344 million or 33% at December 31, 2017),
$261 million or 33% in Europe, Middle East and Africa, primarily Belgium ($355 million or 34% at December 31, 2017), and
$134 million or 17% in Americas, primarily Chile, Canada and Brazil ($169 million or 16% at December 31, 2017).
Operating Activities
Net cash provided by operating activities was $916 million in 2018, compared to $1,158 million in 2017 and $1,557 million in 2016. Net cash provided by operating activities in 2018 decreased $242 million compared to 2017, primarily due to a $282 million decrease in segment operating income.
Cash used for working capital in 2018 was $120 million compared to $106 million in 2017. Cash used for inventory increased $127 million, while cash provided by accounts payable increased $138 million; both reflecting the impact of higher raw material costs, causing the balances of each remaining on our year-end balance sheet to be higher compared to the prior year.
Net cash provided by operating activities in 2017 decreased $399 million compared to 2016 primarily due to a $440 million decrease in segment operating income.
Cash used for working capital in 2017 was $106 million compared to $117 million in 2016. Cash used for working capital in 2017 reflects the impacts of higher raw materials on our costs and pricing, driving year-over-year increases in cash used for accounts receivable of $358 million and cash provided by accounts payable of $241 million. Cash used for inventory decreased $128 million during 2017 as the impacts of higher raw materials were more than offset by the impact of reduced production levels.
Investing Activities
Net cash used by investing activities was $867 million in 2018, compared to $879 million in 2017 and $979 million in 2016. Capital expenditures were $811 million in 2018, compared to $881 million in 2017 and $996 million in 2016. Beyond expenditures required to sustain our facilities, capital expenditures primarily related to the construction, expansion and modernization of manufacturing capacity in the United States, China, India and Thailand in 2018; the United States, Mexico, China and India in 2017; and the United States, Brazil, China and Mexico in 2016.
Financing Activities
Net cash used by financing activities was $243 million, $415 million and $876 million in 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Financing activities in 2018 and 2017 included net borrowings of $135 million and $129 million, respectively. Financing activities in 2016 included net debt repayments of $256 million. We repurchased $220 million, $400 million and $500 million of our common stock in 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. We paid dividends on our common stock of $138 million, $110 million and $82 million in 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. We do not expect to make a significant amount of share repurchases in 2019.
Credit Sources
In aggregate, we had total credit arrangements of $8,971 million available at December 31, 2018, of which $3,151 million were unused, compared to $8,963 million available at December 31, 2017, of which $3,196 million were unused. At December 31, 2018, we had long term credit arrangements totaling $8,212 million, of which $2,822 million were unused, compared to $8,346 million and $2,841 million, respectively, at December 31, 2017. At December 31, 2018, we had short term committed and uncommitted credit arrangements totaling $759 million, of which $329 million were unused, compared to $617 million and $355

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million, respectively, at December 31, 2017. The continued availability of the short term uncommitted arrangements is at the discretion of the relevant lender and may be terminated at any time.
Outstanding Notes
At December 31, 2018, we had $3,314 million of outstanding notes, compared to $3,325 million at December 31, 2017.
$2.0 Billion Amended and Restated First Lien Revolving Credit Facility due 2021
Our amended and restated first lien revolving credit facility is available in the form of loans or letters of credit, with letter of credit availability limited to $800 million. Availability under the facility is subject to a borrowing base, which is based primarily on (i) eligible accounts receivable and inventory of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company and certain of its U.S. and Canadian subsidiaries, (ii) the value of our principal trademarks, and (iii) certain cash in an amount not to exceed $200 million. To the extent that our eligible accounts receivable and inventory and other components of the borrowing base decline in value, our borrowing base will decrease and the availability under the facility may decrease below $2.0 billion. In addition, if the amount of outstanding borrowings and letters of credit under the facility exceeds the borrowing base, we are required to prepay borrowings and/or cash collateralize letters of credit sufficient to eliminate the excess. As of December 31, 2018, our borrowing base, and therefore our availability, under the facility was $330 million below the facility's stated amount of $2.0 billion. Based on our current liquidity, amounts drawn under this facility bear interest at LIBOR plus 125 basis points, and undrawn amounts under the facility will be subject to an annual commitment fee of 30 basis points.
At December 31, 2018 and 2017, we had no borrowings and $37 million of letters of credit issued under the revolving credit facility.
During 2016, we began entering into bilateral letter of credit agreements. At December 31, 2018, we had $343 million in letters of credit issued under these agreements.
Amended and Restated Second Lien Term Loan Facility due 2025
In March 2018, we amended and restated our second lien term loan facility. As a result of the amendment, the term loan, which previously matured on April 30, 2019, now matures on March 7, 2025. The term loan bears interest, at our option, at (i) 200 basis points over LIBOR or (ii) 100 basis points over an alternative base rate (the higher of (a) the prime rate, (b) the federal funds effective rate or the overnight bank funding rate plus 50 basis points or (c) LIBOR plus 100 basis points). In addition, if the Total Leverage Ratio is equal to or less than 1.25 to 1.00, we have the option to further reduce the spreads described above by 25 basis points. "Total Leverage Ratio" has the meaning given it in the facility.
At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the amounts outstanding under this facility were $400 million.
€550 Million Amended and Restated Senior Secured European Revolving Credit Facility due 2020
Our amended and restated €550 million European revolving credit facility consists of (i) a €125 million German tranche that is available only to Goodyear Dunlop Tires Germany GmbH (“GDTG”) and (ii) a €425 million all-borrower tranche that is available to Goodyear Dunlop Tires Europe B.V. ("GDTE"), GDTG and Goodyear Dunlop Tires Operations S.A. Up to €150 million of swingline loans and €50 million in letters of credit are available for issuance under the all-borrower tranche. Amounts drawn under the facility will bear interest at LIBOR plus 175 basis points for loans denominated in U.S. dollars or pounds sterling and EURIBOR plus 175 basis points for loans denominated in euros, and undrawn amounts under the facility will be subject to an annual commitment fee of 30 basis points.
At December 31, 2018 and 2017, we had no borrowings and no letters of credit issued under the European revolving credit facility.
Each of our first lien revolving credit facility and our European revolving credit facility have customary representations and warranties including, as a condition to borrowing, that all such representations and warranties are true and correct, in all material respects, on the date of the borrowing, including representations as to no material adverse change in our business or financial condition since December 31, 2015 under the first lien facility and December 31, 2014 under the European facility.
Accounts Receivable Securitization Facilities (On-Balance Sheet)
In September 2018, GDTE and certain other of our European subsidiaries amended and restated the definitive agreements for our pan-European accounts receivable securitization facility, extending the term through 2023. The terms of the facility provide the flexibility to designate annually the maximum amount of funding available under the facility in an amount of not less than €30 million and not more than €450 million. For the period from October 16, 2017 to October 17, 2018, the designated maximum amount of the facility was €275 million. Effective October 18, 2018, the designated maximum amount of the facility was increased to €320 million.
The facility involves the ongoing daily sale of substantially all of the trade accounts receivable of certain GDTE subsidiaries. These subsidiaries retain servicing responsibilities. Utilization under this facility is based on eligible receivable balances.

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The funding commitments under the facility will expire upon the earliest to occur of: (a) September 26, 2023, (b) the non-renewal and expiration (without substitution) of all of the back-up liquidity commitments, (c) the early termination of the facility according to its terms (generally upon an Early Amortisation Event (as defined in the facility), which includes, among other things, events similar to the events of default under our senior secured credit facilities; certain tax law changes; or certain changes to law, regulation or accounting standards), or (d) our request for early termination of the facility. The facility’s current back-up liquidity commitments will expire on October 17, 2019.
At December 31, 2018, the amounts available and utilized under this program totaled $335 million (€293 million). At December 31, 2017, the amounts available and utilized under this program totaled $224 million (€187 million). The program does not qualify for sale accounting, and accordingly, these amounts are included in Long Term Debt and Capital Leases.
Accounts Receivable Factoring Facilities (Off-Balance Sheet)
We have sold certain of our trade receivables under off-balance sheet programs. For these programs, we have concluded that there is generally no risk of loss to us from non-payment of the sold receivables. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the amount of receivables sold was $568 million and $572 million, respectively.
Supplier Financing
We have entered into payment processing agreements with several financial institutions. Under these agreements, the financial institution acts as our paying agent with respect to accounts payable due to our suppliers. These agreements also allow our suppliers to sell their receivables to the financial institutions at the sole discretion of both the supplier and the financial institution on terms that are negotiated between them. We are not always notified when our suppliers sell receivables under these programs. Our obligations to our suppliers, including the amounts due and scheduled payment dates, are not impacted by our suppliers' decisions to sell their receivables under the program. Agreements for such supplier financing programs totaled up to $500 million at December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Further Information
For a further description of the terms of our outstanding notes, first lien revolving credit facility, second lien term loan facility, European revolving credit facility and pan-European accounts receivable securitization facility, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 15, Financing Arrangements and Derivative Financial Instruments.
Covenant Compliance
Our first and second lien credit facilities and some of the indentures governing our notes contain certain covenants that, among other things, limit our ability to incur additional debt or issue redeemable preferred stock, pay dividends, repurchase shares or make certain other restricted payments or investments, incur liens, sell assets, incur restrictions on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends or to make other payments to us, enter into affiliate transactions, engage in sale and leaseback transactions, and consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets. These covenants are subject to significant exceptions and qualifications. Our first and second lien credit facilities and the indentures governing our notes also have customary defaults, including cross-defaults to material indebtedness of Goodyear and its subsidiaries.
We have additional financial covenants in our first and second lien credit facilities that are currently not applicable. We only become subject to these financial covenants when certain events occur. These financial covenants and related events are as follows:
We become subject to the financial covenant contained in our first lien revolving credit facility when the aggregate amount of our Parent Company (The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company) and guarantor subsidiaries cash and cash equivalents (“Available Cash”) plus our availability under our first lien revolving credit facility is less than $200 million. If this were to occur, our ratio of EBITDA to Consolidated Interest Expense may not be less than 2.0 to 1.0 for any period of four consecutive fiscal quarters. As of December 31, 2018, our availability under this facility of $1,633 million plus our Available Cash of $157 million totaled $1,790 million, which is in excess of $200 million.
We become subject to a covenant contained in our second lien credit facility upon certain asset sales. The covenant provides that, before we use cash proceeds from certain asset sales to repay any junior lien, senior unsecured or subordinated indebtedness, we must first offer to use such cash proceeds to prepay borrowings under the second lien credit facility unless our ratio of Consolidated Net Secured Indebtedness to EBITDA (Pro Forma Senior Secured Leverage Ratio) for any period of four consecutive fiscal quarters is equal to or less than 3.0 to 1.0.
In addition, our European revolving credit facility contains non-financial covenants similar to the non-financial covenants in our first and second lien credit facilities that are described above and a financial covenant applicable only to GDTE and its subsidiaries. This financial covenant provides that we are not permitted to allow GDTE’s ratio of Consolidated Net J.V. Indebtedness to Consolidated European J.V. EBITDA for a period of four consecutive fiscal quarters to be greater than 3.0 to 1.0 at the end of any fiscal quarter. Consolidated Net J.V. Indebtedness is determined net of the sum of cash and cash equivalents in excess of $100 million held by GDTE and its subsidiaries, cash and cash equivalents in excess of $150 million held by the Parent Company and its U.S.

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subsidiaries and availability under our first lien revolving credit facility if the ratio of EBITDA to Consolidated Interest Expense described above is not applicable and the conditions to borrowing under the first lien revolving credit facility are met. Consolidated Net J.V. Indebtedness also excludes loans from other consolidated Goodyear entities. This financial covenant is also included in our pan-European accounts receivable securitization facility. At December 31, 2018, we were in compliance with this financial covenant.
Our credit facilities also state that we may only incur additional debt or make restricted payments that are not otherwise expressly permitted if, after giving effect to the debt incurrence or the restricted payment, our ratio of EBITDA to Consolidated Interest Expense for the prior four fiscal quarters would exceed 2.0 to 1.0. Certain of our senior note indentures have substantially similar limitations on incurring debt and making restricted payments. Our credit facilities and indentures also permit the incurrence of additional debt through other provisions in those agreements without regard to our ability to satisfy the ratio-based incurrence test described above. We believe that these other provisions provide us with sufficient flexibility to incur additional debt necessary to meet our operating, investing and financing needs without regard to our ability to satisfy the ratio-based incurrence test.
Covenants could change based upon a refinancing or amendment of an existing facility, or additional covenants may be added in connection with the incurrence of new debt.
As of December 31, 2018, we were in compliance with the currently applicable material covenants imposed by our principal credit facilities and indentures.
The terms “Available Cash,” “EBITDA,” “Consolidated Interest Expense,” “Consolidated Net Secured Indebtedness,” “Pro Forma Senior Secured Leverage Ratio,” “Consolidated Net J.V. Indebtedness” and “Consolidated European J.V. EBITDA” have the meanings given them in the respective credit facilities.
Potential Future Financings
In addition to our previous financing activities, we may seek to undertake additional financing actions that could include restructuring bank debt or capital markets transactions, possibly including the issuance of additional debt or equity. Given the challenges that we face and the uncertainties of the market conditions, access to the capital markets cannot be assured.
Our future liquidity requirements may make it necessary for us to incur additional debt. However, a substantial portion of our assets are already subject to liens securing our indebtedness. As a result, we are limited in our ability to pledge our remaining assets as security for additional secured indebtedness. In addition, no assurance can be given as to our ability to raise additional unsecured debt.
Dividends and Common Stock Repurchase Program
Under our primary credit facilities and some of our note indentures, we are permitted to pay dividends on and repurchase our capital stock (which constitute restricted payments) as long as no default will have occurred and be continuing, additional indebtedness can be incurred under the credit facilities or indentures following the payment, and certain financial tests are satisfied.
During 2018, 2017 and 2016 we paid cash dividends of $138 million, $110 million and $82 million, respectively, on our common stock. On January 14, 2019, the Company’s Board of Directors (or a duly authorized committee thereof) declared cash dividends of $0.16 per share of our common stock, or approximately $37 million in the aggregate. The cash dividend will be paid on March 1, 2019 to stockholders of record as of the close of business on February 1, 2019. Future quarterly dividends are subject to Board approval.
On September 18, 2013, the Board of Directors approved our common stock repurchase program. From time to time, the Board of Directors has approved increases in the amount authorized to be purchased under that program. On February 2, 2017, the Board of Directors approved a further increase in that authorization to $2.1 billion. This program expires on December 31, 2019, and is intended to be used, subject to our cash flow, to repurchase shares of common stock in open market transactions in order to offset new shares issued under equity compensation programs and to provide for additional shareholder returns. During 2018, we repurchased 8,936,302 shares at an average price, including commissions, of $24.62 per share, or $220 million in the aggregate. Since 2013, we repurchased 52,905,959 shares at an average price, including commissions, of $28.99 per share, or $1,534 million in the aggregate. We do not expect to make a significant amount of share repurchases in 2019.
The restrictions imposed by our credit facilities and indentures did not affect our ability to pay the dividends on or repurchase our capital stock as described above, and are not expected to affect our ability to pay similar dividends or make similar repurchases in the future.
Asset Dispositions
The restrictions on asset sales imposed by our material indebtedness have not affected our strategy of divesting non-core businesses, and those divestitures have not affected our ability to comply with those restrictions.

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COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENT LIABILITIES
Contractual Obligations
The following table presents our contractual obligations and commitments to make future payments as of December 31, 2018:
 
 
(In millions)
Total
 
2019
 
2020
 
2021
 
2022
 
2023
 
Beyond 2023
Debt Obligations(1)
$
5,767

 
$
648

 
$
786

 
$
204

 
$
105

 
$
1,651

 
$
2,373

Capital Lease Obligations(2)
37

 
5

 
4

 
15

 
2

 
1

 
10

Interest Payments(3)
1,608

 
292

 
247

 
205

 
195

 
191

 
478

Operating Leases(4)
1,226

 
266

 
214

 
161

 
110

 
84

 
391

Pension Benefits(5)
275

 
75

 
50

 
50

 
50

 
50

 
N/A

Other Postretirement Benefits(6)
162

 
18

 
18

 
17

 
17

 
16

 
76

Workers’ Compensation(7)
292

 
42

 
29

 
22

 
18

 
15

 
166

Binding Commitments(8)
3,194

 
1,846

 
444

 
302

 
145

 
127

 
330

Uncertain Income Tax Positions(9)
8

 
4

 
4

 

 

 

 

 
$
12,569

 
$
3,196

 
$
1,796

 
$
976

 
$
642

 
$
2,135

 
$
3,824

(1)
Debt obligations include Notes Payable and Overdrafts, and excludes the impact of deferred financing fees and unamortized discounts.
(2)
The minimum lease payments for capital lease obligations are $61 million.
(3)
These amounts represent future interest payments related to our existing debt obligations and capital leases based on fixed and variable interest rates specified in the associated debt and lease agreements. The amounts provided relate only to existing debt obligations and do not assume the refinancing or replacement of such debt or future changes in variable interest rates.
(4)
Operating lease obligations have not been reduced by minimum sublease rentals of $15 million, $12 million, $8 million, $5 million, $3 million and $6 million in each of the periods above, respectively, for a total of $49 million. Payments, net of minimum sublease rentals, total $1,177 million. The present value of the net operating lease payments is $914 million. The operating leases relate to, among other things, real estate, vehicles, data processing equipment and miscellaneous other assets. No asset is leased from any related party.
(5)
The obligation related to pension benefits is actuarially determined and is reflective of obligations as of December 31, 2018. Although subject to change, the amounts set forth in the table represent the mid-point of the range of our expected contributions for funded U.S. and non-U.S. pension plans, plus expected cash funding of direct participant payments to our U.S. and non-U.S. pension plans.
We made significant contributions to fully fund our U.S. pension plans in 2013 and 2014. We have no minimum funding requirements for our funded U.S. pension plans under current ERISA law or the provisions of our USW collective bargaining agreement, which requires us to maintain an annual ERISA funded status for the hourly U.S. pension plan of at least 97%.
Future U.S. pension contributions will be affected by our ability to offset changes in future interest rates with asset returns from our fixed income portfolio and any changes to ERISA law. For further information on the U.S. pension investment strategy, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 17, Pension, Other Postretirement Benefits and Savings Plans.
Future non-U.S. contributions are affected by factors such as:
future interest rate levels,
the amount and timing of asset returns, and
how contributions in excess of the minimum requirements could impact the amount and timing of future contributions.
(6)
The payments presented above are expected payments for the next 10 years. The payments for other postretirement benefits reflect the estimated benefit payments of the plans using the provisions currently in effect. Under the relevant summary plan descriptions or plan documents we have the right to modify or terminate the plans. The obligation related to other postretirement benefits is actuarially determined on an annual basis.
(7)
The payments for workers’ compensation obligations are based upon recent historical payment patterns on claims. The present value of anticipated claims payments for workers’ compensation is $224 million.

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(8)
Binding commitments are for raw materials, capital expenditures, utilities, and various other types of contracts. The obligations to purchase raw materials include supply contracts at both fixed and variable prices. Those with variable prices are based on index rates for those commodities at December 31, 2018.
(9)
These amounts primarily represent expected payments with interest for uncertain income tax positions as of December 31, 2018. We have reflected them in the period in which we believe they will be ultimately settled based upon our experience with these matters.
Additional other long term liabilities include items such as general and product liabilities, environmental liabilities and miscellaneous other long term liabilities. These other liabilities are not contractual obligations by nature. We cannot, with any degree of reliability, determine the years in which these liabilities might ultimately be settled. Accordingly, these other long term liabilities are not included in the above table.
In addition, pursuant to certain long term agreements, we will purchase varying amounts of certain raw materials and finished goods at agreed upon base prices that may be subject to periodic adjustments for changes in raw material costs and market price adjustments, or in quantities that may be subject to periodic adjustments for changes in our or our suppliers' production levels. These contingent contractual obligations, the amounts of which cannot be estimated, are not included in the table above.
We do not engage in the trading of commodity contracts or any related derivative contracts. We generally purchase raw materials and energy through short term, intermediate and long term supply contracts at fixed prices or at formula prices related to market prices or negotiated prices. We may, however, from time to time, enter into contracts to hedge our energy costs.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
An off-balance sheet arrangement is any transaction, agreement or other contractual arrangement involving an unconsolidated entity under which a company has:
made guarantees,
retained or held a contingent interest in transferred assets,
undertaken an obligation under certain derivative instruments, or
undertaken any obligation arising out of a material variable interest in an unconsolidated entity that provides financing, liquidity, market risk or credit risk support to the company, or that engages in leasing, hedging or research and development arrangements with the company.
We have entered into certain arrangements under which we have provided guarantees that are off-balance sheet arrangements. Those guarantees totaled approximately $73 million at December 31, 2018. For further information about our guarantees, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 19, Commitments and Contingent Liabilities.


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FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION — SAFE HARBOR STATEMENT
Certain information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (other than historical data and information) may constitute forward-looking statements regarding events and trends that may affect our future operating results and financial position. The words “estimate,” “expect,” “intend” and “project,” as well as other words or expressions of similar meaning, are intended to identify forward-looking statements. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Such statements are based on current expectations and assumptions, are inherently uncertain, are subject to risks and should be viewed with caution. Actual results and experience may differ materially from the forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including:
if we do not successfully implement our strategic initiatives, our operating results, financial condition and liquidity may be materially adversely affected;
we face significant global competition and our market share could decline;
deteriorating economic conditions in any of our major markets, or an inability to access capital markets or third-party financing when necessary, may materially adversely affect our operating results, financial condition and liquidity;
raw material and energy costs may materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition;
if we experience a labor strike, work stoppage or other similar event our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity could be materially adversely affected;
our international operations have certain risks that may materially adversely affect our operating results, financial condition and liquidity;
we have foreign currency translation and transaction risks that may materially adversely affect our operating results, financial condition and liquidity;
our long term ability to meet our obligations, to repay maturing indebtedness or to implement strategic initiatives may be dependent on our ability to access capital markets in the future and to improve our operating results;
financial difficulties, work stoppages, supply disruptions or economic conditions affecting our major OE customers, dealers or suppliers could harm our business;
our capital expenditures may not be adequate to maintain our competitive position and may not be implemented in a timely or cost-effective manner;
we have a substantial amount of debt, which could restrict our growth, place us at a competitive disadvantage or otherwise materially adversely affect our financial health;
any failure to be in compliance with any material provision or covenant of our debt instruments, or a material reduction in the borrowing base under our revolving credit facility, could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and operations;
our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly;
we have substantial fixed costs and, as a result, our operating income fluctuates disproportionately with changes in our net sales;
we may incur significant costs in connection with our contingent liabilities and tax matters;
our reserves for contingent liabilities and our recorded insurance assets are subject to various uncertainties, the outcome of which may result in our actual costs being significantly higher than the amounts recorded;
we are subject to extensive government regulations that may materially adversely affect our operating results;
we may be adversely affected by any disruption in, or failure of, our information technology systems due to computer viruses, unauthorized access, cyber-attack, natural disasters or other similar disruptions;
if we are unable to attract and retain key personnel, our business could be materially adversely affected; and
we may be impacted by economic and supply disruptions associated with events beyond our control, such as war, acts of terror, political unrest, public health concerns, labor disputes or natural disasters.
It is not possible to foresee or identify all such factors. We will not revise or update any forward-looking statement or disclose any facts, events or circumstances that occur after the date hereof that may affect the accuracy of any forward-looking statement.

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ITEM 7A.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK.

We utilize derivative financial instrument contracts and nonderivative instruments to manage interest rate, foreign exchange and commodity price risks. We have established a control environment that includes policies and procedures for risk assessment and the approval, reporting and monitoring of derivative financial instrument activities. We do not hold or issue derivative financial instruments for trading purposes.
Commodity Price Risk
The raw materials costs to which our operations are principally exposed include the cost of natural rubber, synthetic rubber, carbon black, fabrics, steel cord and other petrochemical-based commodities. Approximately two-thirds of our raw materials are petroleum-based, the cost of which may be affected by fluctuations in the price of oil. We currently do not hedge commodity prices. We do, however, use various strategies to partially offset cost increases for raw materials, including centralizing purchases of raw materials through our global procurement organization in an effort to leverage our purchasing power, expanding our capabilities to substitute lower-cost raw materials, and reducing the amount of material required in each tire.
Interest Rate Risk
We carefully monitor our fixed and floating rate debt mix. Within defined limitations, we manage the mix using refinancing. At December 31, 2018, 33% of our debt was at variable interest rates averaging 4.92% compared to 34% at an average rate of 4.42% at December 31, 2017.
The following table presents information about long term fixed rate debt, excluding capital leases, at December 31:
(In millions)
2018
 
2017
Carrying amount — liability
$
3,609

 
$
3,616

Fair value — liability
3,443

 
3,786

Pro forma fair value — liability
3,583

 
3,908

The pro forma information assumes a 100 basis point decrease in market interest rates at December 31 of each year, and reflects the estimated fair value of fixed rate debt outstanding at that date under that assumption. The sensitivity of our fixed rate debt to changes in interest rates was determined using current market pricing models.
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk
We will enter into foreign currency contracts in order to manage the impact of changes in foreign exchange rates on our consolidated results of operations and future foreign currency-denominated cash flows. These contracts reduce exposure to currency movements affecting existing foreign currency-denominated assets, liabilities, firm commitments and forecasted transactions resulting primarily from trade purchases and sales, equipment acquisitions, intercompany loans and royalty agreements. Contracts hedging short term trade receivables and payables normally have no hedging designation.
The following table presents foreign currency derivative information at December 31:
(In millions)
2018
 
2017
Fair value — asset (liability)
$
11

 
$
(15
)
Pro forma decrease in fair value
(152
)
 
(166
)
Contract maturities
1/19-12/20

 
1/18-12/19

The pro forma decrease in fair value assumes a 10% adverse change in underlying foreign exchange rates at December 31 of each year, and reflects the estimated change in the fair value of positions outstanding at that date under that assumption. The sensitivity of our foreign currency positions to changes in exchange rates was determined using current market pricing models.

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Fair values are recognized on the Consolidated Balance Sheets at December 31 as follows:
(In millions)
2018
 
2017
Current asset (liability):
 
 
 
Accounts receivable
$
16

 
$
4

Other current liabilities
(7
)
 
(17
)
 
 
 
 
Long term asset (liability):
 
 
 
 Other assets
$
2

 
$

 Other long term liabilities

 
(2
)
For further information on foreign currency contracts, refer to the Note to the Consolidated Financial Statements No. 15, Financing Arrangements and Derivative Financial Instruments.
Refer to “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Liquidity and Capital Resources” for a discussion of our management of counterparty risk.

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ITEM 8.
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA.

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 
Page
 
 
Management's Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
Consolidated Financial Statements of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company:
 
Consolidated Balance Sheets at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017
Financial Statement Schedule:
 
The following consolidated financial statement schedule of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company is filed as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company:
 

Schedules not listed above have been omitted since they are not applicable or are not required, or the information required to be set forth therein is included in the Consolidated Financial Statements or Notes thereto.

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MANAGEMENT’S REPORT ON INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING
Management of the Company is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as such term is defined under Rule 13a-15(f) promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.
Internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit the preparation of the consolidated financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with appropriate authorizations of management and directors of the Company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on the consolidated financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
Management conducted an assessment of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018 using the framework specified in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013), published by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. Based on such assessment, management has concluded that the Company’s internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2018.
The effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018 has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which is presented in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company
Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We have audited the consolidated financial statements, including the related notes and financial statement schedule, of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company and its subsidiaries as listed in the accompanying index (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). We also have audited the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.
Basis for Opinions
The Company's management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management's Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.
Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
 
 
 
PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP

 
Cleveland, Ohio
 
February 8, 2019
 
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 1898.


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THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

 
Year Ended December 31,
(In millions, except per share amounts)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Net Sales (Note 2)
$
15,475

 
$
15,377

 
$
15,158

Cost of Goods Sold
11,961

 
11,680

 
10,935

Selling, Administrative and General Expense
2,312

 
2,279

 
2,409

Rationalizations (Note 3)
44

 
135

 
210

Interest Expense (Note 4)
321

 
335

 
372

Other (Income) Expense (Note 5)
(174
)
 
70

 
25

Income before Income Taxes
1,011

 
878

 
1,207

United States and Foreign Tax Expense (Benefit) (Note 6)
303

 
513

 
(77
)
Net Income
708

 
365

 
1,284

Less: Minority Shareholders’ Net Income
15

 
19

 
20

Goodyear Net Income
$
693

 
$
346

 
$
1,264

Goodyear Net Income — Per Share of Common Stock
 

 
 

 
 
Basic
$
2.92

 
$
1.39

 
$
4.81

Weighted Average Shares Outstanding (Note 7)
237

 
249

 
263

Diluted
$
2.89

 
$
1.37

 
$
4.74

Weighted Average Shares Outstanding (Note 7)
239

 
253

 
266

 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash Dividends Declared Per Common Share
$
0.58

 
$
0.44

 
$
0.31


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


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THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)

 
Year Ended December 31,
(In millions)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Net Income
$
708

 
$
365

 
$
1,284

Other Comprehensive Income (Loss):

 
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation net of tax of ($10) in 2018 ($39 in 2017, ($2) in 2016)
(264
)
 
257

 
(221
)
Defined benefit plans:
 
 
 
 
 
Amortization of prior service cost and unrecognized gains and losses included in total benefit cost net of tax of $34 in 2018 ($40 in 2017, $33 in 2016)
105

 
77

 
63

Decrease (increase) in net actuarial losses net of tax of $1 in 2018 (($37) in 2017, ($53) in 2016)
16

 
(100
)
 
(62
)
Immediate recognition of prior service cost and unrecognized gains and losses due to curtailments, settlements and divestitures net of tax of $5 in 2018 ($14 in 2017, $0 in 2016)
20

 
27

 
17

Prior service (cost) credit from plan amendments net of tax of ($3) in 2018 (($2) in 2017, $0 in 2016)
(12
)
 
(4
)
 

Deferred derivative gains (losses) net of tax of $3 in 2018 (($8) in 2017, $4 in 2016)
9

 
(20
)
 
8

Reclassification adjustment for amounts recognized in income net of tax $0 in 2018 ($1 in 2017, ($1) in 2016)
7

 
1

 
(5
)
Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
(119
)
 
238

 
(200
)
Comprehensive Income
589

 
603

 
1,084

Less: Comprehensive Income (Loss) Attributable to Minority Shareholders
(4
)
 
35

 
8

Goodyear Comprehensive Income
$
593

 
$
568

 
$
1,076

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


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THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
 
December 31,
(In millions, except share data)
2018
 
2017
Assets
 

 
 

Current Assets:
 

 
 

Cash and Cash Equivalents (Note 1)
$
801

 
$
1,043

Accounts Receivable (Note 9)
2,030

 
2,025

Inventories (Note 10)
2,856

 
2,787

Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets
238

 
224

Total Current Assets
5,925

 
6,079

Goodwill (Note 11)
569

 
595

Intangible Assets (Note 11)
136

 
139

Deferred Income Taxes (Note 6)
1,847

 
2,008

Other Assets (Note 12)
1,136

 
792

Property, Plant and Equipment (Note 13)
7,259

 
7,451

Total Assets
$
16,872

 
$
17,064

Liabilities
 

 
 

Current Liabilities:
 

 
 

Accounts Payable-Trade
$
2,920

 
$
2,807

Compensation and Benefits (Notes 17 and 18)
471

 
539

Other Current Liabilities
737

 
1,026

Notes Payable and Overdrafts (Note 15)
410

 
262

Long Term Debt and Capital Leases due Within One Year (Note 15)
243

 
391

Total Current Liabilities
4,781

 
5,025

Long Term Debt and Capital Leases (Note 15)
5,110

 
5,076

Compensation and Benefits (Notes 17 and 18)
1,345

 
1,515

Deferred Income Taxes (Note 6)
95

 
100

Other Long Term Liabilities
471

 
498

Total Liabilities
11,802

 
12,214

Commitments and Contingent Liabilities (Note 19)


 


Shareholders’ Equity
 

 
 

Goodyear Shareholders’ Equity
 

 
 

Common Stock, no par value:
 

 
 

Authorized, 450 million shares, Outstanding shares — 232 million (240 million in 2017)
232

 
240

Capital Surplus
2,111

 
2,295

Retained Earnings
6,597

 
6,044

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss (Note 21)
(4,076
)
 
(3,976
)
Goodyear Shareholders’ Equity
4,864

 
4,603

Minority Shareholders’ Equity — Nonredeemable
206

 
247

Total Shareholders’ Equity
5,070

 
4,850

Total Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity
$
16,872

 
$
17,064

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

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THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Accumulated
 
 
 
Minority
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other
 
Goodyear
 
Shareholders'
 
Total
 
Common Stock
 
Capital
 
Retained
 
Comprehensive
 
Shareholders'
 
Equity  Non-
 
Shareholders'
(Dollars in millions)
Shares
 
Amount
 
Surplus
 
Earnings
 
Loss
 
Equity
 
Redeemable
 
Equity
Balance at December 31, 2015
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

(after deducting 11,445,445 common treasury shares)
267,017,982

 
$
267

 
$
3,093

 
$
4,570

 
$
(4,010
)
 
$
3,920

 
$
222

 
$
4,142

Comprehensive income (loss):
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Net income
 

 
 

 
 

 
1,264

 
 

 
1,264

 
20

 
1,284

Foreign currency translation (net of tax of ($2))