Prior to its 2018 acquisition by Brookfield Property Partners, GGP was a self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust (REIT) that owned and operated shopping malls and urban retail properties in the U.S.
A company creates wealth for its long-term shareholders in 2 main ways - through dividend payments and through the accumulation of retained earnings. This graph shows the accumulation of per-share equity of long-term shareholders (green bars), which consists of the retained earnings plus all capital invested in the company, and the cumulative dividends the company has paid over time per share of its stock (blue bars).
In the words of Warren Buffett: "We're looking for... businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt."
Return on equity is a key metric of financial performance, indicating a company's ability to generate earnings using shareholder capital. Over time, ROE is one of the major determinants of the rate at which a company creates shareholder wealth. The average ROE for large U.S. companies is 12%, and many investors use it as a threshold for attractive investments.
Companies can boost ROE by increasing leverage, which reduces the safety of the investment. Therefore, it is useful to look at the return on assets (ROA), which measures a company's earning power regardless of its capital structure. A widening gap between ROE and ROA may be a warning sign that should be thoroughly investigated.
Earnings per share is a popular metric used to value a company (using P/E ratio); growth in EPS is often used to judge company growth potential. However, many investors believe that EPS is an inferior metric to ROE, because it ignores the amount of capital the company used to generate earnings.
Free cash flow shows how much cash a company generates from operations, above and beyond what is required to maintain or expand its productive assets. This cash can be returned to investors, or spent by management on growing the company or paying back its debts.
Balance sheets of many companies contain intangible assets such as goodwill, trademarks, patents, etc. Many investors consider intangibles more difficult to value than physical assets. If intangible assets had been valued incorrectly, they must be impaired, resulting in a loss charged against shareholder equity. This chart demonstrates the potential loss to shareholder equity from such impairments.
Companies often use debt financing to increase their return on equity. However, as the amount of debt financing increases relative to the amount of equity financing, the company becomes more sensitive to down turns and other negative events. As a result, many investors use the ratio of debt to equity as a measure of a company's financial risk, and avoid companies that have this ratio above 1.
This chart shows shareholder equity as a percentage of total assets, allowing investors to judge the overall leverage. Companies with a higher proportion of equity can be viewed as safer investments. This metric is particularly important for highly leveraged institutions, such as banks, where it must be at least 4% according to government regulations.
This chart shows the cumulative dilution of investor ownership in a company over time. Dilution reduces an investor's participation in the future earnings. Dilution increases when a company issues new shares, and decreases when a company buys its shares back. Many investors avoid companies with large chronic dilution.
analysis provides insight into factors affecting the Return On Equity of a company.
The DuPont equation decomposes ROE as follows:
ROE = (Net margin) * (Asset turnover) * (Asset to equity ratio)
Net margin indicates operating efficiency, Asset turnover measures the total asset use efficiency, and the Asset to equity ratio is a measure of financial leverage.
The dividend payout ratio tells investors what percentage of earnings a company returns to shareholders, and what percentage it retains and reinvests. This ratio represents a major capital allocation decision by the company, and can be used to judge management rationality. Rational management should pay out all earnings that cannot be productively reinvested. Therefore, a low dividend payout ratio for a profitable company with a low growth potential may be a warning sign.
Many investors use the P/B ratio as a quick way of judging company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - specifically seek out companies with low P/B ratios. However, investors should be careful not to make investment decisions on this metric alone, without considering a company's earning and growth potential, since a low P/B ratio can be a sign of a bleak future for the business.
P/E ratio is a popular way of making a quick judgment of a company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - often seek solid companies with low P/E ratios as investment opportunities. However, P/E ratio represents an oversimplified approach to business valuation, and can often lead to incorrect investment decisions.
On March 26, 2018, GGP and Brookfield Property Partners L.P. (BPY) entered into an agreement and plan of merger (as amended by the amendment thereto dated June 25, 2018, the Merger Agreement) pursuant to which BPY would acquire all of the shares of GGP common stock, par value $0.01 per share, that BPY and its affiliates did not already own through a series of transactions (collectively, the BPY Transaction), including, among other things, the exchange of all shares of GGP common stock owned by certain affiliates of BPY and any subsidiary of GGP for a newly authorized series of preferred stock of GGP designated Series B Preferred Stock (the Class B Exchange) and the payment of a special dividend payable to certain holders of record of GGP common stock pursuant to the terms of the Merger Agreement (the Pre-Closing Dividend). On July 26, 2018, GGP obtained the requisite stockholder approval for the BPY Transaction at a special meeting of GGP stockholders. Therefore, on July 27, 2018, GGP effected the Class B Exchange by exchanging shares of GGP common stock owned by certain affiliates of BPY and any subsidiary of GGP into Series B Preferred Stock. On August 27, 2018, pursuant to the Merger Agreement, the Pre-Closing Dividend and consideration was paid to all holders of record of GGP common stock (not including holders of GGP restricted stock, but including certain holders of GGP options who are deemed stockholders) on July 27, 2018 following the Class B Exchange. The Pre-Closing Dividend and consideration provided for the distribution of up to $23.50 in cash or a choice of either one BPY limited partnership unit ("BPY unit") or one share of newly authorized Class A Stock of BPR, par value $0.01 per share ("Class A Stock"), subject to proration in each case, based on an aggregate cash consideration amount of $9.25 billion. Although the BPY Transaction resulted in a change of control of the Company, BPR remains a reporting entity. Accordingly, the Company accounted for the BPY Transaction as an equity recapitalization transaction.