Cisco designs and sells networking and communications products, including switches; routers; voice, video and data communication and collaboration applications; digital video and interactive set-top boxes, cable modems and service provider solutions; and data center software and hardware,
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Book value of equity per share||$9.75||-26.5%||-2.4%||5%|
|BV including aggregate dividends||-16.8%||5.9%||10.3%|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
A company creates wealth for its long-term shareholders in 2 main ways - through dividend payments and through the accumulation of retained earnings. This graph shows the accumulation of per-share equity of long-term shareholders (green bars), which consists of the retained earnings plus all capital invested in the company, and the cumulative dividends the company has paid over time per share of its stock (blue bars).
In the words of Warren Buffett: "We're looking for... businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt."
Return on equity is a key metric of financial performance, indicating a company's ability to generate earnings using shareholder capital. Over time, ROE is one of the major determinants of the rate at which a company creates shareholder wealth. The average ROE for large U.S. companies is 12%, and many investors use it as a threshold for attractive investments.
Companies can boost ROE by increasing leverage, which reduces the safety of the investment. Therefore, it is useful to look at the return on assets (ROA), which measures a company's earning power regardless of its capital structure. A widening gap between ROE and ROA may be a warning sign that should be thoroughly investigated.
Earnings per share is a popular metric used to value a company (using P/E ratio); growth in EPS is often used to judge company growth potential. However, many investors believe that EPS is an inferior metric to ROE, because it ignores the amount of capital the company used to generate earnings.
Free cash flow shows how much cash a company generates from operations, above and beyond what is required to maintain or expand its productive assets. This cash can be returned to investors, or spent by management on growing the company or paying back its debts.
Balance sheets of many companies contain intangible assets such as goodwill, trademarks, patents, etc. Many investors consider intangibles more difficult to value than physical assets. If intangible assets had been valued incorrectly, they must be impaired, resulting in a loss charged against shareholder equity. This chart demonstrates the potential loss to shareholder equity from such impairments.
Companies often use debt financing to increase their return on equity. However, as the amount of debt financing increases relative to the amount of equity financing, the company becomes more sensitive to down turns and other negative events. As a result, many investors use the ratio of debt to equity as a measure of a company's financial risk, and avoid companies that have this ratio above 1.
This chart shows shareholder equity as a percentage of total assets, allowing investors to judge the overall leverage. Companies with a higher proportion of equity can be viewed as safer investments. This metric is particularly important for highly leveraged institutions, such as banks, where it must be at least 4% according to government regulations.
The ratio of current assets to current liabilities is known as the current ratio. This metric is a quick measure of the company's ability to pay its short-term obligations. A current ratio below 1 is a warning sign that should be investigated, especially for companies that cannot count on adequate cash flow from operations.
This chart shows the cumulative dilution of investor ownership in a company over time. Dilution reduces an investor's participation in the future earnings. Dilution increases when a company issues new shares, and decreases when a company buys its shares back. Many investors avoid companies with large chronic dilution.
analysis provides insight into factors affecting the Return On Equity of a company.
The DuPont equation decomposes ROE as follows:
ROE = (Net margin) * (Asset turnover) * (Asset to equity ratio)
Net margin indicates operating efficiency, Asset turnover measures the total asset use efficiency, and the Asset to equity ratio is a measure of financial leverage.
The dividend payout ratio tells investors what percentage of earnings a company returns to shareholders, and what percentage it retains and reinvests. This ratio represents a major capital allocation decision by the company, and can be used to judge management rationality. Rational management should pay out all earnings that cannot be productively reinvested. Therefore, a low dividend payout ratio for a profitable company with a low growth potential may be a warning sign.
Many investors use the P/B ratio as a quick way of judging company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - specifically seek out companies with low P/B ratios. However, investors should be careful not to make investment decisions on this metric alone, without considering a company's earning and growth potential, since a low P/B ratio can be a sign of a bleak future for the business.
P/E ratio is a popular way of making a quick judgment of a company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - often seek solid companies with low P/E ratios as investment opportunities. However, P/E ratio represents an oversimplified approach to business valuation, and can often lead to incorrect investment decisions.
On July 9, 1996, the Company acquired StrataCom, Inc.("StrataCom"). Under the terms of the agreement, one share of Cisco common stock was exchanged for each outstanding share of StrataCom, Inc. Approximately 76.4 million shares of common stock were issued to acquire StrataCom. The Company also assumed options to purchase StrataCom stock that remain outstanding as options to purchase approximately 11.5 million shares of the Company's common stock. The transaction was accounted for as a pooling of interests;
On June 24, 1999, the Company acquired GeoTel Communications Corporation ("GeoTel"). Under the terms of the agreement, 1.0276 shares of the Company's common stock were exchanged for each outstanding share of GeoTel. Approximately 28 million shares of common stock were issued to acquire GeoTel.
During the three years ended July 28, 2001, the Company completed a number of purchase acquisitions. FISCAL 2001: IPmobile, NuSpeed, IPCell Technologies, PixStream Incorporated, Active Voice Corporation, Radiata. Total Consideration: $2,873 [MM], Total Goodwill and Purchased Intangible Assets: $1,595 [MM]. FISCAL 2000: Total Consideration: $4,969 [MM], Total Goodwill and Purchased Intangible Assets: $3,499 [MM].
On February 24, 2006, Cisco completed the acquisition of Scientific-Atlanta, Inc., a provider of set-top boxes, end-to-end video distribution networks, and video system integration. Cisco believes video is emerging as the key strategic application in the service provider "triple play" bundle of consumer entertainment, communications, and online services. Cisco believes the combined entity creates an end-to-end solution for carrier networks and the digital home and delivers large-scale video systems to extend Cisco's commitment to and leadership in the service provider market. Pursuant to the terms of the merger agreement, the Company paid a cash amount of $43.00 per share in exchange for each outstanding share of Scientific-Atlanta common stock and assumed each Scientific-Atlanta stock option which was outstanding immediately prior to the effective time of the merger. Each unvested Scientific-Atlanta stock option became fully vested immediately prior to the completion of the merger. The Scientific-Atlanta stock options assumed were converted into options to purchase an aggregate of approximately 32.1 million shares of Cisco common stock. The total purchase price was $7,087 (in millions).
The Company acquired WebEx Communications, Inc., a provider of on-demand collaboration applications. WebEx's network-based solution for delivering business-to-business collaboration extends the Company's unified communications portfolio, particularly within the small and medium-sized business (SMB) market. Purchase Consideration: $3,025 [MM]
The Company acquired Lightwire, Inc. in the third quarter of fiscal 2012 for $239 million. With its acquisition of Lightwire, a developer of advanced optical interconnect technology for high-speed networking applications, the Company aims to develop and deliver cost-effective, high-speed networks with the next generation of optical connectivity.
On July 30, 2012, the Company completed its acquisition of NDS Group Limited, a provider of video software and content security solutions that enable service providers and media companies to securely deliver and monetize new video entertainment experiences. The acquisition of NDS will be combined with the delivery of Cisco Videoscape, the Companys comprehensive content delivery platform that enables service providers and media companies to deliver next-generation entertainment experiences. The Company has included revenue from the NDS acquisition, subsequent to the acquisition date, in its Service Provider Video product category. Under the terms of the acquisition agreement, the Company paid total cash consideration of approximately $5.0 billion, which included the repayment of $993 million of pre-existing NDS debt to third party creditors at the closing of the acquisition.
The Company acquired privately held Meraki, Inc. in the second quarter of fiscal 2013 for $974 million. Meraki offers mid-market customers on-premise networking solutions centrally managed from the cloud. With its acquisition of Meraki, the Company intends to address the shift to cloud networking as a key part of the Companys overall strategy to accelerate the adoption of software-based business models that provide new consumption options for customers and revenue opportunities for partners. The Company has included revenue from the Meraki acquisition, subsequent to the acquisition date, in its Wireless product category.
The Company acquired privately held Intucell, Ltd. in the third quarter of fiscal 2013 for $360 million. Intucell provides advanced self-optimizing network software for mobile carriers. With its acquisition of Intucell, the Company intends to enhance its commitment to global service providers by adding a critical network intelligence layer to manage and optimize spectrum, coverage and capacity, and ultimately the quality of the mobile experience. The Company has included revenue from the Intucell acquisition, subsequent to the acquisition date, in its NGN Routing product category.
The Company acquired privately held Ubiquisys Limited in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2013 for $280 million. Ubiquisys offers service providers intelligent 3G and long-term evolution (LTE) small-cell technologies for seamless connectivity across mobile networks. With its acquisition of Ubiquisys, the Company intends to strengthen its commitment to global service providers by enabling a comprehensive small-cell solution that supports the transition to next-generation radio access networks. The Company has included revenue from the Ubiquisys acquisition, subsequent to the acquisition date, in its NGN Routing product category.
On August 1, 2016, the Company completed its acquisition of privately held CloudLock Inc., a provider of cloud security that specializes in cloud access security broker technology that provides enterprises with visibility and analytics around user behavior and sensitive data in cloud services, for $249 million. Revenue from the CloudLock acquisition has been included in the Company's Security product category.
On March 17, 2017, the Company completed its acquisition of privately held AppDynamics, Inc., an application intelligence software company, for $3,258 million. AppDynamics's cloud application and business monitoring platform is designed to enable companies to improve application and business performance. With the AppDynamics acquisition, the Company seeks to provide end-to-end visibility and intelligence from the customer's network through to the application. Product revenue from the AppDynamics acquisition has been included in the Company's Other product category.