The company is a REIT that owns, operates and leases shared wireless infrastructure, such as towers and small cell networks supported by fiber.
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Book value of equity per share||$30.93||53.8%||25.2%||11.1%|
|BV including aggregate dividends||73.7%||34.8%||15.3%|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
A company creates wealth for its long-term shareholders in 2 main ways - through dividend payments and through the accumulation of retained earnings. This graph shows the accumulation of per-share equity of long-term shareholders (green bars), which consists of the retained earnings plus all capital invested in the company, and the cumulative dividends the company has paid over time per share of its stock (blue bars).
In the words of Warren Buffett: "We're looking for... businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt."
Return on equity is a key metric of financial performance, indicating a company's ability to generate earnings using shareholder capital. Over time, ROE is one of the major determinants of the rate at which a company creates shareholder wealth. The average ROE for large U.S. companies is 12%, and many investors use it as a threshold for attractive investments.
Companies can boost ROE by increasing leverage, which reduces the safety of the investment. Therefore, it is useful to look at the return on assets (ROA), which measures a company's earning power regardless of its capital structure. A widening gap between ROE and ROA may be a warning sign that should be thoroughly investigated.
Earnings per share is a popular metric used to value a company (using P/E ratio); growth in EPS is often used to judge company growth potential. However, many investors believe that EPS is an inferior metric to ROE, because it ignores the amount of capital the company used to generate earnings.
Free cash flow shows how much cash a company generates from operations, above and beyond what is required to maintain or expand its productive assets. This cash can be returned to investors, or spent by management on growing the company or paying back its debts.
Balance sheets of many companies contain intangible assets such as goodwill, trademarks, patents, etc. Many investors consider intangibles more difficult to value than physical assets. If intangible assets had been valued incorrectly, they must be impaired, resulting in a loss charged against shareholder equity. This chart demonstrates the potential loss to shareholder equity from such impairments.
Companies often use debt financing to increase their return on equity. However, as the amount of debt financing increases relative to the amount of equity financing, the company becomes more sensitive to down turns and other negative events. As a result, many investors use the ratio of debt to equity as a measure of a company's financial risk, and avoid companies that have this ratio above 1.
This chart shows shareholder equity as a percentage of total assets, allowing investors to judge the overall leverage. Companies with a higher proportion of equity can be viewed as safer investments. This metric is particularly important for highly leveraged institutions, such as banks, where it must be at least 4% according to government regulations.
The ratio of current assets to current liabilities is known as the current ratio. This metric is a quick measure of the company's ability to pay its short-term obligations. A current ratio below 1 is a warning sign that should be investigated, especially for companies that cannot count on adequate cash flow from operations.
This chart shows the cumulative dilution of investor ownership in a company over time. Dilution reduces an investor's participation in the future earnings. Dilution increases when a company issues new shares, and decreases when a company buys its shares back. Many investors avoid companies with large chronic dilution.
analysis provides insight into factors affecting the Return On Equity of a company.
The DuPont equation decomposes ROE as follows:
ROE = (Net margin) * (Asset turnover) * (Asset to equity ratio)
Net margin indicates operating efficiency, Asset turnover measures the total asset use efficiency, and the Asset to equity ratio is a measure of financial leverage.
The dividend payout ratio tells investors what percentage of earnings a company returns to shareholders, and what percentage it retains and reinvests. This ratio represents a major capital allocation decision by the company, and can be used to judge management rationality. Rational management should pay out all earnings that cannot be productively reinvested. Therefore, a low dividend payout ratio for a profitable company with a low growth potential may be a warning sign.
Many investors use the P/B ratio as a quick way of judging company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - specifically seek out companies with low P/B ratios. However, investors should be careful not to make investment decisions on this metric alone, without considering a company's earning and growth potential, since a low P/B ratio can be a sign of a bleak future for the business.
P/E ratio is a popular way of making a quick judgment of a company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - often seek solid companies with low P/E ratios as investment opportunities. However, P/E ratio represents an oversimplified approach to business valuation, and can often lead to incorrect investment decisions.
In July 1998, all of the holders of the Company's Senior Convertible Preferred Stock converted such shares into an aggregate of 9,629,200 shares of the Company's common stock.
On August 18, 1998, the Company consummated its initial public offering of common stock at a price to the public of $13 per share. The Company sold 12,320,000 shares of its common stock and received proceeds of $151,043,000 (after underwriting discounts of $9,117,000 but before other expenses of the Offering, which are expected to total approximately $3,800,000). The net proceeds from the Offering are currently invested in short-term investments. Upon consummation of the Offering, all of the holders of the Company's then-existing shares of Class A Common Stock, Class B Common Stock, Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, Series B Convertible Preferred Stock and Series C Convertible Preferred Stock converted such shares into an aggregate of 39,842,290 shares of the Company's common stock.
On April 24, 1998, the Company entered into a share exchange agreement with certain shareholders of Castle Transmission Services (Holdings) Ltd ("CTI") pursuant to which certain of CTI's shareholders agreed to exchange their shares of CTI for shares of the Company. On August 18, 1998, the exchange was consummated and the Company's ownership of CTI increased from approximately 34.3% to 80%. The Company issued 20,867,700 shares of its Common Stock and 11,340,000 shares of its Class A Common Stock, with such shares valued at an aggregate of $418,700,000 (based on the price per share to the public in the Company's initial public offering). The Company recognized goodwill of $343,898,000 in connection with this transaction, which was accounted for as an acquisition using the purchase method. CTI's results of operations and cash flows are included in the consolidated financial statements for the period subsequent to the date the exchange was consummated.
On December 8, 1998, the Company entered into an agreement with Bell Atlantic Mobile ("BAM") to form a joint venture ("Crown Atlantic") to own and operate a significant majority of BAM's towers. Upon formation of Crown Atlantic on March 31, 1999, (i) the Company contributed to Crown Atlantic $250,000,000 in cash and 15,597,783 shares of its Common Stock in exchange for a 61.5% ownership interest in Crown Atlantic; (ii) Crown Atlantic borrowed $180,000,000 under a committed $250,000,000 revolving credit facility; and (iii) BAM contributed to Crown Atlantic approximately 1,458 towers in exchange for a cash distribution of $380,000,000 from Crown Atlantic and a 38.5% ownership interest in Crown Atlantic.
In March 1999, the Company entered into an agreement with BellSouth to acquire the operating rights for approximately 1,850 of their towers. The transaction is structured as a lease agreement and will be treated as a sale of the towers for tax purposes. The Company will pay BellSouth total consideration of $610,000,000, consisting of $430,000,000 in cash and $180,000,000 in shares of its common stock. As of June 30, 1999, the Company has closed on 273 of the towers and has paid $71,979,000 in cash and issued 1,340,508 shares of its common stock. The Company is accounting for this transaction as a purchase of tower assets. The transaction is expected to close over a period of up to eight months beginning from the second quarter of 1999.
In March 1999, the Company entered into an agreement with Powertel to purchase approximately 650 of their towers and related assets. The total purchase price for these towers will be $275,000,000 in cash.
On May 12, 1999, the Company sold shares of its common stock and debt securities in concurrent underwritten public offerings. The Company sold 21,000,000 shares of its common stock at a price of $17.50 per share and received proceeds of $352,800,000 (after underwriting discounts of $14,700,000). The Company had granted the underwriters for the Offerings an over-allotment option to purchase an additional 3,150,000 shares of the Company's common stock. On May 13, 1999, the underwriters exercised this over-allotment option in full. As a result, the Company received additional proceeds of $52,920,000 (after underwriting discounts of $2,205,000). The proceeds from the Offerings will be used to pay the remaining purchase price for the BellSouth and Powertel transactions, to fund the initial interest payments on the 9% Notes and for general corporate purposes.
On June 15, 1999, the Company sold shares of its common stock to a subsidiary of TeleDiffusion de France International S.A. ("TDF") pursuant to TDF's preemptive rights related to two recent acquisitions. The Company sold 5,395,539 shares at $12.63 per share and 125,066 shares at $13.00 per share. The aggregate proceeds of approximately $69,772,000 will be used for general corporate purposes.
On July 1, 1999 and August 3, 1999, the Company closed on an additional 256 of the BellSouth towers. In connection with these closing, the Company paid $58,121,000 in cash and issued 1,257,032 shares of its common stock. In July 1999, the Company entered into an agreement with certain affiliates of BellSouth ("BellSouth DCS") to acquire the operating rights for approximately 773 of their towers. The transaction is structured as a lease agreement and will be treated as a sale of the towers for tax purposes. The Company will pay BellSouth DCS total consideration of $316,930,000 in cash. On August 3, 1999, the Company closed on 448 of these towers and paid $183,761,000 in cash. The Company is accounting for this transaction as a purchase of tower assets.
On August 31, 2004, the Company completed the sale of its UK subsidiary ("CCUK"). The proceeds for the transaction amounted to $2,027,973,000, after taking into account preliminary working capital type adjustments. In accordance with the terms of the Companys 2000 Credit Facility, the Company was required to use $1,275,385,000 of the proceeds from the transaction to fully repay the outstanding borrowings under the 2000 Credit Facility. The remaining proceeds from the transaction will be used for general corporate purposes, which could include the repayment of outstanding indebtedness and/or investments in new business opportunities. Under the terms of the indentures governing the Companys public debt securities, any proceeds from the sale of CCUK not invested in qualifying assets within one year must be offered to purchase such debt securities from the Companys bondholders at the outstanding principal amount plus accrued interest. On September 10, 2004, in order to satisfy these requirements under the indentures, the Company voluntarily commenced an offer to purchase certain of its outstanding public debt securities in advance of the one year time period. On October 12, 2004, the Company purchased $465,000 in outstanding principal amount of tendered notes.
On January 12, 2007, the Global Signal Merger was completed for a purchase price of approximately $4.0 billion, exclusive of debt of approximately $1.8 billion that remained outstanding as obligations of the Global Signal Entities the Company acquired. The Company entered into the Global Signal Merger primarily because of the growth opportunities it anticipates the tower portfolio will provide, including through leveraging the Companys management team and customer service across an enhanced national footprint. Secondarily, the Company believes there will be synergistic opportunities provided by the Global Signal Merger. The results of operations from the Global Signal Entities acquired have been included in the consolidated statements of operations from January 12, 2007. In connection with the Global Signal Merger, each outstanding share of common stock of Global Signal was converted into the right to receive, at the election of the holder thereof, either 1.61 shares of the Companys common stock or $55.95 in cash. In addition, in connection with the Global Signal Merger, the obligation pursuant to each warrant entitling the holder thereof to purchase shares of Global Signal common stock was assumed by the Company with appropriate adjustments made to the number of shares and exercise price per share. Accordingly, each such warrant entitles the holder thereof to purchase 3.22 shares of the Companys common stock. As a result of the Global Signal Merger, the Company issued approximately 98.1 million shares of common stock to the shareholders of Global Signal and paid the maximum $550.0 million in cash (Cash Consideration) and reserved for issuance approximately 0.6 million shares of common stock issuable pursuant to warrants described above. The Company primarily financed the Cash Consideration with cash obtained from the issuance of the 2006 Tower Revenue Notes in November 2006. At the closing of the Global Signal Merger, Global Signals subsidiaries had debt outstanding of approximately $1.8 billion that has a structure similar to the 2005 Tower Revenue Notes and the 2006 Tower Revenue Notes. The purchase price of approximately $4.0 billion includes the fair value of common stock issued, the Cash Consideration, the fair value of the GSI Warrants and restricted common stock assumed and estimated transaction costs.
In October 2013, we entered into a definitive agreement with AT&T to acquire, for approximately $4.827 billion in cash, exclusive rights to AT&T towers which, as of December 31, 2013, comprise approximately 24% of our towers. Pursuant to a prepaid lease agreement entered into in connection with the AT&T Acquisition, we have the exclusive right to lease or sublease or operate and manage, for a weighted-average term of approximately 28 years, towers which, as of December 31, 2013, comprise 22% of our towers. In addition, pursuant to the AT&T Transaction, we purchased towers from AT&T which, as of December 31, 2013, comprise approximately 2% of our towers. On December 16, 2013, we closed on the AT&T Acquisition. To finance the AT&T Acquisition, we utilized proceeds from the October Equity Financings and borrowings under the 2012 Revolver, as well as cash on hand. The October Equity Financings consisted of the issuance of (1) 41.4 million shares of our common stock, which generated net proceeds of $3.0 billion and (2) approximately 9.8 million shares of our 4.50% Mandatory Convertible Preferred Stock, which generated net proceeds of $950.9 million. In December 2013, we borrowed $865.0 million from our 2012 Revolver. Subsequent to the borrowing from our 2012 Revolver, we (1) issued $500.0 million of Incremental Tranche B-2 Term Loans and (2) issued $200.0 million of Incremental Tranche A Term Loans to repay a portion of the then outstanding 2012 Revolver. See notes 7 and 12 to our consolidated financial statements for a further discussion of the financing of the AT&T Acquisition.