Industry: real estate
CBRE Group is a commercial real estate services and investment firm with operations in major metropolitan areas throughout the world. The Company offers a full range of services to occupiers, owners, lenders and investors in office, retail, industrial, multifamily and other types of commercial real estate.
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Book value of equity per share||$15.13||17.9%||20.4%||51.3%|
|BV including aggregate dividends||17.9%||20.4%||51.3%|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
A company creates wealth for its long-term shareholders in 2 main ways - through dividend payments and through the accumulation of retained earnings. This graph shows the accumulation of per-share equity of long-term shareholders (green bars), which consists of the retained earnings plus all capital invested in the company, and the cumulative dividends the company has paid over time per share of its stock (blue bars).
In the words of Warren Buffett: "We're looking for... businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt."
Return on equity is a key metric of financial performance, indicating a company's ability to generate earnings using shareholder capital. Over time, ROE is one of the major determinants of the rate at which a company creates shareholder wealth. The average ROE for large U.S. companies is 12%, and many investors use it as a threshold for attractive investments.
Companies can boost ROE by increasing leverage, which reduces the safety of the investment. Therefore, it is useful to look at the return on assets (ROA), which measures a company's earning power regardless of its capital structure. A widening gap between ROE and ROA may be a warning sign that should be thoroughly investigated.
Earnings per share is a popular metric used to value a company (using P/E ratio); growth in EPS is often used to judge company growth potential. However, many investors believe that EPS is an inferior metric to ROE, because it ignores the amount of capital the company used to generate earnings.
Free cash flow shows how much cash a company generates from operations, above and beyond what is required to maintain or expand its productive assets. This cash can be returned to investors, or spent by management on growing the company or paying back its debts.
Balance sheets of many companies contain intangible assets such as goodwill, trademarks, patents, etc. Many investors consider intangibles more difficult to value than physical assets. If intangible assets had been valued incorrectly, they must be impaired, resulting in a loss charged against shareholder equity. This chart demonstrates the potential loss to shareholder equity from such impairments.
Companies often use debt financing to increase their return on equity. However, as the amount of debt financing increases relative to the amount of equity financing, the company becomes more sensitive to down turns and other negative events. As a result, many investors use the ratio of debt to equity as a measure of a company's financial risk, and avoid companies that have this ratio above 1.
This chart shows shareholder equity as a percentage of total assets, allowing investors to judge the overall leverage. Companies with a higher proportion of equity can be viewed as safer investments. This metric is particularly important for highly leveraged institutions, such as banks, where it must be at least 4% according to government regulations.
The ratio of current assets to current liabilities is known as the current ratio. This metric is a quick measure of the company's ability to pay its short-term obligations. A current ratio below 1 is a warning sign that should be investigated, especially for companies that cannot count on adequate cash flow from operations.
This chart shows the cumulative dilution of investor ownership in a company over time. Dilution reduces an investor's participation in the future earnings. Dilution increases when a company issues new shares, and decreases when a company buys its shares back. Many investors avoid companies with large chronic dilution.
analysis provides insight into factors affecting the Return On Equity of a company.
The DuPont equation decomposes ROE as follows:
ROE = (Net margin) * (Asset turnover) * (Asset to equity ratio)
Net margin indicates operating efficiency, Asset turnover measures the total asset use efficiency, and the Asset to equity ratio is a measure of financial leverage.
The dividend payout ratio tells investors what percentage of earnings a company returns to shareholders, and what percentage it retains and reinvests. This ratio represents a major capital allocation decision by the company, and can be used to judge management rationality. Rational management should pay out all earnings that cannot be productively reinvested. Therefore, a low dividend payout ratio for a profitable company with a low growth potential may be a warning sign.
Many investors use the P/B ratio as a quick way of judging company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - specifically seek out companies with low P/B ratios. However, investors should be careful not to make investment decisions on this metric alone, without considering a company's earning and growth potential, since a low P/B ratio can be a sign of a bleak future for the business.
P/E ratio is a popular way of making a quick judgment of a company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - often seek solid companies with low P/E ratios as investment opportunities. However, P/E ratio represents an oversimplified approach to business valuation, and can often lead to incorrect investment decisions.
On July 20, 2001, the Company acquired CBRE. The aggregate purchase price paid by the Company for CBRE was approximately $375 million, which includes: (1) shares of the Company's Class B common stock, valued at $16.00 per share, and warrants to acquire shares of the Company's Class B common stock.
On July 23, 2003, pursuant to an Amended and Restated Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of May 28, 2003 (the Insignia Acquisition Agreement), by and among the Company, CBRE, Apple Acquisition Corp. (the Merger Sub), a Delaware corporation and wholly owned subsidiary of CBRE, and Insignia Financial Group, Inc. (Insignia), a Delaware corporation, the Merger Sub was merged with and into Insignia (the Insignia Acquisition). Insignia was the surviving corporation in the Insignia Acquisition and at the effective time of the Insignia Acquisition became a wholly owned subsidiary of CBRE. Pursuant to the terms of the Insignia Acquisition Agreement, as a result of the completion of the Insignia Acquisition, the sale pursuant to the Island Purchase Agreement prior to the Insignia Acquisition and the satisfaction of certain conditions set forth in the Insignia Acquisition Agreement, (i) each issued and outstanding share of Insignia Common Stock (other than treasury shares), par value $0.01 per share, was converted into the right to receive $11.156 in cash, without interest (the Insignia Common Stock Merger Consideration), (ii) each issued and outstanding share of Insignias Series A Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, and Series B Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, was converted into the right to receive $100.00 per share, plus accrued and unpaid dividends, (iii) all outstanding warrants and options other than as described below, whether vested or unvested, were canceled and represented the right to receive a cash payment, without interest, equal to the excess, if any, of the Insignia Common Stock Merger Consideration over the per share exercise price of the option or warrant, multiplied by the number of shares of Insignia Common Stock subject to the option or warrant less any applicable withholding taxes, and (iv) outstanding options to purchase Insignia Common Stock granted pursuant to Insignias 1998 Stock Investment Plan, whether vested or unvested, were canceled and represented the right to receive a cash payment, without interest, equal to the excess, if any, of the higher of (x) the Insignia Common Stock Merger Consideration, or (y) the highest final sale price per share of the Insignia Common Stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) at any time during the 60-day period preceding the closing of the Insignia Acquisition (which was $11.20), over the exercise price of the options, multiplied by the number of shares of Insignia Common Stock subject to the options, less any applicable withholding taxes. Following the Insignia Acquisition, the Insignia Common Stock was delisted from the NYSE and deregistered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
On June 15, 2004, we completed the initial public offering of shares of our Class A common stock (the IPO). In connection with the IPO, we issued and sold 7,726,764 shares of our Class A common stock and received aggregate net proceeds of approximately $135.0 million.
On December 20, 2006, pursuant to an Agreement and Plan of Merger dated October 30, 2006, we acquired Trammell Crow Company to expand our global leadership and to strengthen our ability to provide integrated account management and comprehensive real estate services for our clients. The funding to complete the Trammell Crow Company Acquisition, as well as the refinancing of substantially all of the outstanding indebtedness of Trammell Crow Company (other than notes payable on real estate), was obtained through senior secured term loan facilities for an aggregate principal amount of up to $2.2 billion. The aggregate preliminary purchase price for the Trammell Crow Company Acquisition was approximately $1.9 billion, which includes: (1) $1.8 billion in cash paid for shares of Trammell Crow Companys outstanding common stock, at $49.51 per share, including outstanding stock units held in the Trammell Crow Company Employee Stock Purchase Plan, (2) cash payments of $120.0 million to holders of Trammell Crow Companys vested options and (3) $18.0 million of direct costs incurred in connection with the acquisition, consisting mostly of legal and accounting fees ($11.4 million of which were paid as of December 31, 2006).
On November 7, 2007, we announced a share repurchase program of up to $500.0 million of our outstanding common stock, which was authorized by our board of directors. Subsequently, on November 28, 2007, we announced an expansion of our share repurchase program, in which our board of directors authorized the share repurchase of up to $635.0 million of our outstanding shares of common stock, which included the $500.0 million previously authorized. The share repurchase program was completed in December 2007 by acquiring 28.8 million shares at an average price of $22.03.
In November 2008, we raised approximately $208 million by selling 57,500,000 shares of our common stock in a public offering. This offering was significantly dilutive to our then-existing shareholders.
Our annual assessment of goodwill and other intangible assets deemed to have indefinite lives has historically been completed as of the beginning of the fourth quarter of each year. We performed the 2008 annual assessment as of October 1, 2008. However, we were required to re-perform this assessment as of December 31, 2008 because economic conditions worsened, the capital markets became distressed and our stock price dropped significantly in the fourth quarter of 2008. This was evidenced in our 2008 results by weak sales and leasing activity in our Americas and EMEA segments caused by the credit crunch and significant capital market turmoil adversely affecting incentive-based revenue within our Global Investment Management segment as well as reducing real estate sales volume and values in our Development Services segment. Based on our assessments of goodwill in 2008, we determined that we had impairment in several reporting units, which was driven by these adverse economic conditions causing a decline in the estimated future discounted cash flows expected for such units. The amount of the pre-tax goodwill impairment charges included in our statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2008 was $1.1 billion. We also determined that two of our intangible assets with indefinite useful lives, $84.0 million representing the Trammell Crow trade name identified in the Trammell Crow Company acquisition and $6.9 million representing the CBRE Melody trade mark identified as a result of the 2001 Merger were also fully impaired.
On June 10, 2009, we completed the sale of 13,440,860 shares of our Class A common stock through a direct placement to Paulson & Co. Inc., which raised approximately $97.6 million of net proceeds. On June 11, 2009, we completed the sale of 5,682,684 shares of our Class A common stock through an at-the-market offering program, which raised approximately $48.8 million of net proceeds. The net proceeds from these offerings were used for general corporate purposes, including the repayment of some of our outstanding indebtedness under our credit agreement.
In November 2009, we completed the sale of 28,289,960 shares of our Class A common stock pursuant to an at-the-market offering program, which raised approximately $293.8 million of net proceeds. We intend to use the proceeds from the offering for general corporate purposes, including the repayment of debt.
On December 23, 2013, we completed the Norland Acquisition by acquiring 100% of the outstanding stock of London-based Norland, which fortified our real estate outsourcing platform in Europe within our EMEA segment. The purchase price for the Norland Acquisition was approximately $474 million, with $433.9 million paid at closing and the remaining contingent consideration of $40.0 million paid in July 2014. The Norland Acquisition was financed with cash on hand and borrowings under our revolving credit facility. On December 23, 2013, we also issued an aggregate of 362,916 shares of non-vested Class A common stock to certain members of senior management of Norland in connection with this acquisition.
On September 1, 2015, CBRE, Inc., our wholly-owned subsidiary, closed on a Stock and Asset Purchase Agreement (the Purchase Agreement) with Johnson Controls, Inc. (JCI) to acquire JCIs Global Workplace Solutions (GWS) business (which we refer to as the GWS Acquisition). The acquired GWS business is a market-leading provider of integrated facilities management solutions for major occupiers of commercial real estate and has significant operations around the world. The purchase price was $1.475 billion, paid in cash, with adjustments for working capital and other items. We completed the GWS Acquisition in order to advance our strategy of delivering globally integrated services to major occupiers in our Americas, EMEA and Asia Pacific segments. We merged the acquired GWS business with our existing occupier outsourcing business line, and the new combined business adopted the Global Workplace Solutions name.