AvalonBay is a real estate investment trust (REIT) that develops, owns and operates multifamily housing primarily in New England, the New York/New Jersey metro area, the Mid-Atlantic and the West coast of the U.S.
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|Book value of equity per share||$77||3%||3%||7.3%|
|BV including aggregate dividends||10.9%||9.4%||12.5%|
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|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
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A company creates wealth for its long-term shareholders in 2 main ways - through dividend payments and through the accumulation of retained earnings. This graph shows the accumulation of per-share equity of long-term shareholders (green bars), which consists of the retained earnings plus all capital invested in the company, and the cumulative dividends the company has paid over time per share of its stock (blue bars).
In the words of Warren Buffett: "We're looking for... businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt."
Return on equity is a key metric of financial performance, indicating a company's ability to generate earnings using shareholder capital. Over time, ROE is one of the major determinants of the rate at which a company creates shareholder wealth. The average ROE for large U.S. companies is 12%, and many investors use it as a threshold for attractive investments.
Companies can boost ROE by increasing leverage, which reduces the safety of the investment. Therefore, it is useful to look at the return on assets (ROA), which measures a company's earning power regardless of its capital structure. A widening gap between ROE and ROA may be a warning sign that should be thoroughly investigated.
Earnings per share is a popular metric used to value a company (using P/E ratio); growth in EPS is often used to judge company growth potential. However, many investors believe that EPS is an inferior metric to ROE, because it ignores the amount of capital the company used to generate earnings.
Free cash flow shows how much cash a company generates from operations, above and beyond what is required to maintain or expand its productive assets. This cash can be returned to investors, or spent by management on growing the company or paying back its debts.
Balance sheets of many companies contain intangible assets such as goodwill, trademarks, patents, etc. Many investors consider intangibles more difficult to value than physical assets. If intangible assets had been valued incorrectly, they must be impaired, resulting in a loss charged against shareholder equity. This chart demonstrates the potential loss to shareholder equity from such impairments.
Companies often use debt financing to increase their return on equity. However, as the amount of debt financing increases relative to the amount of equity financing, the company becomes more sensitive to down turns and other negative events. As a result, many investors use the ratio of debt to equity as a measure of a company's financial risk, and avoid companies that have this ratio above 1.
This chart shows shareholder equity as a percentage of total assets, allowing investors to judge the overall leverage. Companies with a higher proportion of equity can be viewed as safer investments. This metric is particularly important for highly leveraged institutions, such as banks, where it must be at least 4% according to government regulations.
This chart shows the cumulative dilution of investor ownership in a company over time. Dilution reduces an investor's participation in the future earnings. Dilution increases when a company issues new shares, and decreases when a company buys its shares back. Many investors avoid companies with large chronic dilution.
analysis provides insight into factors affecting the Return On Equity of a company.
The DuPont equation decomposes ROE as follows:
ROE = (Net margin) * (Asset turnover) * (Asset to equity ratio)
Net margin indicates operating efficiency, Asset turnover measures the total asset use efficiency, and the Asset to equity ratio is a measure of financial leverage.
The dividend payout ratio tells investors what percentage of earnings a company returns to shareholders, and what percentage it retains and reinvests. This ratio represents a major capital allocation decision by the company, and can be used to judge management rationality. Rational management should pay out all earnings that cannot be productively reinvested. Therefore, a low dividend payout ratio for a profitable company with a low growth potential may be a warning sign.
Many investors use the P/B ratio as a quick way of judging company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - specifically seek out companies with low P/B ratios. However, investors should be careful not to make investment decisions on this metric alone, without considering a company's earning and growth potential, since a low P/B ratio can be a sign of a bleak future for the business.
P/E ratio is a popular way of making a quick judgment of a company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - often seek solid companies with low P/E ratios as investment opportunities. However, P/E ratio represents an oversimplified approach to business valuation, and can often lead to incorrect investment decisions.
In June 1997, the Company sold in an underwritten public offering 2,300,000 shares of 8.5 percent, five year non-call Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock at a price of $25 per share. The net proceeds to the Company, of approximately $55,500, were used to reduce borrowings under the Company's unsecured line of credit, which were used to fund the acquisition and development of additional apartment communities, including the Villa Serena, Amador Oaks and Mission Woods (formerly Genesee Gardens) communities and one land site in San Francisco, California.
In April 1998, the Company sold in a public offering 1,244,147 shares of common stock at a gross price of $37.375 per share. The net proceeds to the Company, after all anticipated issuance costs, were approximately $44,000. The net proceeds were used to reduce borrowings under the Unsecured Line of Credit.
On April 27, 1998, the owner of the Company's Series A Preferred Stock and Series B Preferred Stock (the "Preferred Holder") converted 1,358,736 shares of Series A Preferred Stock into an equal number of shares of the Company's common stock .
In June 1998, the Company completed its merger with Avalon. The Merger and related transactions were accounted for using the purchase method of accounting. In connection with the Merger, the following related transactions occurred: The Company issued .7683 of a share of common stock for each outstanding share of Avalon common stock; The Company issued one share of Series F and G Preferred Stock for each outstanding share of Avalon Series A and B Preferred Stock;
We sold 5,865,000 shares of our common stock at a net price of $128.25 per share before offering costs, in a public offering for net proceeds of approximately $725,850,000.
In November 2012, we entered into agreements with (i) Equity Residential and its operating partnership, ERP Operating Partnership LP ("Equity Residential"), (ii) Lehman Brothers Holdings, Inc., ("Lehman"), and (iii) Archstone Enterprise LP ("Archstone"), pursuant to which AvalonBay and Equity Residential will acquire, directly or indirectly, all of the assets, liabilities and ownership interests in joint ventures or other entities owned by Archstone. Under the terms of the agreements, we will acquire approximately 40% of Archstone's assets and liabilities and Equity Residential will acquire approximately 60% of Archstone's assets and liabilities ("Archstone Acquisition"). The transaction is expected to close during the first quarter of 2013. As disclosed in November 2012, we expect to purchase the following as part of the Archstone Acquisition, which is subject to adjustment up until the transaction closes: * 66 apartment communities that are expected to be consolidated for financial reporting purposes, containing 22,222 apartment homes, of which six communities are under construction and are expected to contain 1,666 apartment homes upon completion; * Three parcels of land, which are expected to be wholly owned, and if developed as anticipated, are expected to contain a total of 968 apartment homes; * Interests in joint ventures the assets of which consist primarily of real estate, for which our ownership percentage is expected to be up to 40%, and that are not expected to be consolidated for financial reporting purposes. The Company expects to provide the following consideration for the Archstone Acquisition: * the issuance of 14,889,706 shares of its common stock to Lehman or its designees; * cash payment of $669,000,000 to Lehman or its designees; * the assumption of approximately $3,700,000,000 principal amount of consolidated indebtedness; * the acquisition with Equity Residential of interests in entities that have preferred units outstanding that may be presented for redemption from time to time. The Company's 40% share of the liquidation value of and accrued dividends on these outstanding Archstone preferred units as of January 31, 2013 was $132,200,000; and * the assumption with Equity Residential of all other liabilities, known or unknown, of Archstone, other than certain excluded liabilities. The Company will share in 40% of the cost of these liabilities. Equity Residential and we are jointly and severally liable for most obligations to Lehman related to the Archstone Acquisition. If we and Equity Residential fail to close Archstone Acquisition by March 26, 2013, then Equity Residential and we could be liable for payment of a termination fee of $800,000,000.
On February 27, 2013, pursuant to an asset purchase agreement (the "Purchase Agreement") dated November 26, 2012, by and among the Company, Equity Residential and its operating partnership, ERP Operating Limited Partnership (together, "Equity Residential"), Lehman Brothers Holdings, Inc. ("Lehman"), and Archstone Enterprise LP ("Archstone," which has since changed its name to Jupiter Enterprise LP), the Company, together with Equity Residential, acquired, directly or indirectly, all of Archstone's assets, including all of the ownership interests in joint ventures and other entities owned by Archstone, and assumed Archstone's liabilities, both known and unknown with certain limited exceptions. Under the terms of the Purchase Agreement, the Company acquired approximately 40% of Archstone's assets and liabilities and Equity Residential acquired approximately 60% of Archstone's assets and liabilities (the "Archstone Acquisition"). The Company accounted for the acquisition as a business combination and recorded the purchase price to acquired tangible assets consisting primarily of direct and indirect interests in land and related improvements, buildings and improvements, construction in progress and identified intangible assets and liabilities, consisting primarily of the value of above and below market leases, and the value of in-places leases, at their fair values. Pursuant to the Purchase Agreement and separate arrangements between the Company and Equity governing the allocation of liabilities assumed under the Purchase Agreement, the Company's portion of consideration under the Purchase Agreement, consisted of the following: (a) the issuance of 14,889,706 shares of the Company's common stock, valued at $1,875,210,000 as of the market's close on February 27, 2013; (b) a cash payment of approximately $749,000,000; (c) the assumption of consolidated indebtedness with a fair value of approximately $3,732,979,000, consisting of $3,512,202,000 principal amount of consolidated indebtedness and $220,777,000 representing the amount by which fair value of the aforementioned debt exceeds the principal face value, $70,479,000 of which related to debt the Company repaid concurrent with the Archstone Acquisition; (d) the acquisition with Equity Residential of interests in entities that have preferred units outstanding some of which may be presented for redemption from time to time. The Company's 40% share of the fair value of the collective obligation, including accrued dividends on these outstanding Archstone preferred units as of the closing date of the Archstone Acquisition is approximately $66,500,000; and (e) the assumption with Equity Residential of all other liabilities, known or unknown, of Archstone, other than certain excluded liabilities. The Company shares approximately 40% of the responsibility for these liabilities.