Industry: health care
AmerisourceBergen distributes a broad selection of brand-name and generic pharmaceuticals, healthcare supplies and equipment to pharmacies, hospitals, physician practices and clinics, primarily in the U.S.
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
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|Book value of equity per share||$13.84||46.1%||6.5%||4.8%|
|BV including aggregate dividends||62.2%||15%||10%|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
A company creates wealth for its long-term shareholders in 2 main ways - through dividend payments and through the accumulation of retained earnings. This graph shows the accumulation of per-share equity of long-term shareholders (green bars), which consists of the retained earnings plus all capital invested in the company, and the cumulative dividends the company has paid over time per share of its stock (blue bars).
In the words of Warren Buffett: "We're looking for... businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt."
Return on equity is a key metric of financial performance, indicating a company's ability to generate earnings using shareholder capital. Over time, ROE is one of the major determinants of the rate at which a company creates shareholder wealth. The average ROE for large U.S. companies is 12%, and many investors use it as a threshold for attractive investments.
Companies can boost ROE by increasing leverage, which reduces the safety of the investment. Therefore, it is useful to look at the return on assets (ROA), which measures a company's earning power regardless of its capital structure. A widening gap between ROE and ROA may be a warning sign that should be thoroughly investigated.
Earnings per share is a popular metric used to value a company (using P/E ratio); growth in EPS is often used to judge company growth potential. However, many investors believe that EPS is an inferior metric to ROE, because it ignores the amount of capital the company used to generate earnings.
Free cash flow shows how much cash a company generates from operations, above and beyond what is required to maintain or expand its productive assets. This cash can be returned to investors, or spent by management on growing the company or paying back its debts.
Balance sheets of many companies contain intangible assets such as goodwill, trademarks, patents, etc. Many investors consider intangibles more difficult to value than physical assets. If intangible assets had been valued incorrectly, they must be impaired, resulting in a loss charged against shareholder equity. This chart demonstrates the potential loss to shareholder equity from such impairments.
Companies often use debt financing to increase their return on equity. However, as the amount of debt financing increases relative to the amount of equity financing, the company becomes more sensitive to down turns and other negative events. As a result, many investors use the ratio of debt to equity as a measure of a company's financial risk, and avoid companies that have this ratio above 1.
This chart shows shareholder equity as a percentage of total assets, allowing investors to judge the overall leverage. Companies with a higher proportion of equity can be viewed as safer investments. This metric is particularly important for highly leveraged institutions, such as banks, where it must be at least 4% according to government regulations.
The ratio of current assets to current liabilities is known as the current ratio. This metric is a quick measure of the company's ability to pay its short-term obligations. A current ratio below 1 is a warning sign that should be investigated, especially for companies that cannot count on adequate cash flow from operations.
This chart shows the cumulative dilution of investor ownership in a company over time. Dilution reduces an investor's participation in the future earnings. Dilution increases when a company issues new shares, and decreases when a company buys its shares back. Many investors avoid companies with large chronic dilution.
analysis provides insight into factors affecting the Return On Equity of a company.
The DuPont equation decomposes ROE as follows:
ROE = (Net margin) * (Asset turnover) * (Asset to equity ratio)
Net margin indicates operating efficiency, Asset turnover measures the total asset use efficiency, and the Asset to equity ratio is a measure of financial leverage.
The dividend payout ratio tells investors what percentage of earnings a company returns to shareholders, and what percentage it retains and reinvests. This ratio represents a major capital allocation decision by the company, and can be used to judge management rationality. Rational management should pay out all earnings that cannot be productively reinvested. Therefore, a low dividend payout ratio for a profitable company with a low growth potential may be a warning sign.
Many investors use the P/B ratio as a quick way of judging company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - specifically seek out companies with low P/B ratios. However, investors should be careful not to make investment decisions on this metric alone, without considering a company's earning and growth potential, since a low P/B ratio can be a sign of a bleak future for the business.
P/E ratio is a popular way of making a quick judgment of a company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - often seek solid companies with low P/E ratios as investment opportunities. However, P/E ratio represents an oversimplified approach to business valuation, and can often lead to incorrect investment decisions.
The merger of AmeriSource and Bergen into the Company was consummated on August 29, 2001, upon the affirmative vote of the AmeriSource and Bergen stockholders. The Merger occurred pursuant to a merger agreement between AmeriSource and Bergen dated March 16, 2001. In connection with the Merger, the AmeriSource stockholders received one share of the Company's common stock for each AmeriSource common share, while the Bergen stockholders received 0.37 of a share of Company common stock for each Bergen common share. As a result, AmeriSource and Bergen became wholly owned subsidiaries of the Company and the stockholders of AmeriSource and Bergen became the stockholders of the Company. The Merger was accounted for under the purchase method of accounting for business combinations pursuant to Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 141. Since the former AmeriSource stockholders owned approximately 51% of the Company immediately after the Merger (with the former Bergen stockholders owning the remaining 49%), the Company accounted for the Merger as an acquisition by AmeriSource of Bergen. In accordance with the purchase method, the Company included Bergen's financial results in the consolidated financial statements beginning with the consummation date of the Merger. Accordingly, the accompanying consolidated statements of operations and cash flows for the three months ended December 31, 2000 include only the amounts for AmeriSource.
In October 2005, the Company acquired Trent Drugs (Wholesale) Ltd (Trent), one of the largest pharmaceutical distributors in Canada, for a purchase price of $81.1 million, which included the payment of Trent debt of $41.3 million at closing. The purchase price is subject to a working capital adjustment. The acquisition of Trent provides the Company a solid foundation to expand its pharmaceutical distribution capability into the Canadian marketplace. In the twelve months ended September 30, 2005, Trents operating revenues were approximately $500 million. In January 2006, the Company changed the name of Trent to AmerisourceBergen Canada Corporation. The purchase price has been allocated to the underlying assets acquired and liabilities assumed based upon their fair values at the date of the acquisition. The purchase price exceeded the fair value of the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired by $32.3 million, which was allocated to goodwill. The significant tangible assets acquired were accounts receivable and merchandise inventories totaling $55.7 million and $36.5 million, respectively. Accounts payable and accrued liabilities assumed totaled $53.9 million. Intangible assets of $7.4 million consisting of customer relationships are being amortized over their weighted average life of 7 years.
In February 2006, the Company acquired Network for Medical Communications & Research, LLC (NMCR), a privately held provider of physician accredited continuing medical education (CME) and analytical research for the oncology market, for a purchase price of $86.6 million, net of a working capital adjustment. The acquisition of NMCR will expand ABSGs presence in its market-leading oncology distribution and services businesses. The CME business of NMCR will complement ABSGs Imedex accredited CME business. In the twelve months ended December 31, 2005, NMCRs operating revenues were approximately $38 million. The purchase price has been allocated to the underlying assets acquired and liabilities assumed based upon their fair values at the date of the acquisition. The purchase price exceeded the fair value of the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired by $69.0 million, which was allocated to goodwill. Intangible assets of $20.1 million primarily consist of trade names of $3.2 million and customer relationships of $16.1 million. Customer relationships are being amortized over their weighted average life of 8 years.
In March 2006, the Company acquired Brecon Pharmaceuticals Limited (Brecon), a United Kingdom-based provider of contract packaging and clinical trial materials (CTM) services for pharmaceutical manufacturers, for a purchase price of $50.2 million. The purchase price is subject to a working capital adjustment and a contingent payment of up to approximately $19 million based on Brecon achieving specific earnings targets in calendar year 2006. The acquisition of Brecon enhances the Companys packaging business and provides the added capability to offer pharmaceutical manufacturers contract packaging and CTM services in new geographies. In the twelve months ended December 31, 2005, Brecons operating revenues were approximately $22 million. The purchase price has been allocated to the underlying assets acquired and liabilities assumed based upon their fair values at the date of the acquisition. The purchase price exceeded the fair value of the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired by $29.0 million, which was allocated to goodwill. Intangible assets of $11.8 million primarily consist of trade names of $5.8 million and customer relationships of $6.0 million. Customer relationships are being amortized over their weighted average life of 7 years.
On February 24, 2015, the Company acquired MWI Veterinary Supply, Inc. for a purchase price of $2.6 billion. MWI is a leading animal health distribution company in the United States and in the United Kingdom. MWI's annual revenues are estimated to be approximately $3.0 billion. For reportable segment presentation, MWI's operating results are included within Other. The purchase price has been allocated to the underlying assets acquired and liabilities assumed based upon their estimated fair values at the date of the acquisition. The purchase price exceeded the fair value of the net tangible and intangible assets acquired by $1.2 billion, which was allocated to goodwill. The fair value of accounts receivable, inventory, and accounts payable acquired was $346.9 million, $440.0 million and $327.1 million, respectively. The fair value of the intangible assets acquired totaled $1.5 billion and consisted of customer relationships of $1.1 billion, trade name of $344.0 million, and software technology of $11.0 million. The Company established a deferred tax liability of $570.7 million primarily in connection with the intangible assets acquired. The Company is amortizing the fair values of the acquired customer relationships and software technology over the remaining useful lives of 20 years and 8 years, respectively. The trade name has been determined to have an indefinite life. Goodwill and intangibles resulting from the acquisition are not deductible for income tax purposes.
On November 6, 2015, we acquired PharMEDium Healthcare Holdings, Inc. ("PharMEDium"), a privately held leading national provider of outsourced compounded sterile preparations ("CSPs") to acute care hospitals in the United States, for $2.7 billion in cash, which included certain purchase price adjustments. We financed the transaction through a combination of cash and long-term debt. In November 2015, we entered into a $1.0 billion variable rate term loan, which matures in November 2020 and is subject to quarterly principal payments, as defined. PharMEDium is considered a component of ABDC within our Pharmaceutical Distribution reportable segment.