Arconic (formerly Alcoa Inc.) makes sheet and plate aluminum, and forged and machined aluminum and titanium components for the aerospace, automotive, power and propulsion, transportation, and industrial markets.
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Book value of equity per share||$11.39||5.5%||-17.1%||-11.4%|
|BV including aggregate dividends||7.9%||-6.6%||-5.2%|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|Most recent||Growth rate (CAGR)|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
|1 year||5 years||10 years|
A company creates wealth for its long-term shareholders in 2 main ways - through dividend payments and through the accumulation of retained earnings. This graph shows the accumulation of per-share equity of long-term shareholders (green bars), which consists of the retained earnings plus all capital invested in the company, and the cumulative dividends the company has paid over time per share of its stock (blue bars).
In the words of Warren Buffett: "We're looking for... businesses earning good returns on equity while employing little or no debt."
Return on equity is a key metric of financial performance, indicating a company's ability to generate earnings using shareholder capital. Over time, ROE is one of the major determinants of the rate at which a company creates shareholder wealth. The average ROE for large U.S. companies is 12%, and many investors use it as a threshold for attractive investments.
Companies can boost ROE by increasing leverage, which reduces the safety of the investment. Therefore, it is useful to look at the return on assets (ROA), which measures a company's earning power regardless of its capital structure. A widening gap between ROE and ROA may be a warning sign that should be thoroughly investigated.
Earnings per share is a popular metric used to value a company (using P/E ratio); growth in EPS is often used to judge company growth potential. However, many investors believe that EPS is an inferior metric to ROE, because it ignores the amount of capital the company used to generate earnings.
Free cash flow shows how much cash a company generates from operations, above and beyond what is required to maintain or expand its productive assets. This cash can be returned to investors, or spent by management on growing the company or paying back its debts.
Balance sheets of many companies contain intangible assets such as goodwill, trademarks, patents, etc. Many investors consider intangibles more difficult to value than physical assets. If intangible assets had been valued incorrectly, they must be impaired, resulting in a loss charged against shareholder equity. This chart demonstrates the potential loss to shareholder equity from such impairments.
Companies often use debt financing to increase their return on equity. However, as the amount of debt financing increases relative to the amount of equity financing, the company becomes more sensitive to down turns and other negative events. As a result, many investors use the ratio of debt to equity as a measure of a company's financial risk, and avoid companies that have this ratio above 1.
This chart shows shareholder equity as a percentage of total assets, allowing investors to judge the overall leverage. Companies with a higher proportion of equity can be viewed as safer investments. This metric is particularly important for highly leveraged institutions, such as banks, where it must be at least 4% according to government regulations.
The ratio of current assets to current liabilities is known as the current ratio. This metric is a quick measure of the company's ability to pay its short-term obligations. A current ratio below 1 is a warning sign that should be investigated, especially for companies that cannot count on adequate cash flow from operations.
This chart shows the cumulative dilution of investor ownership in a company over time. Dilution reduces an investor's participation in the future earnings. Dilution increases when a company issues new shares, and decreases when a company buys its shares back. Many investors avoid companies with large chronic dilution.
analysis provides insight into factors affecting the Return On Equity of a company.
The DuPont equation decomposes ROE as follows:
ROE = (Net margin) * (Asset turnover) * (Asset to equity ratio)
Net margin indicates operating efficiency, Asset turnover measures the total asset use efficiency, and the Asset to equity ratio is a measure of financial leverage.
The dividend payout ratio tells investors what percentage of earnings a company returns to shareholders, and what percentage it retains and reinvests. This ratio represents a major capital allocation decision by the company, and can be used to judge management rationality. Rational management should pay out all earnings that cannot be productively reinvested. Therefore, a low dividend payout ratio for a profitable company with a low growth potential may be a warning sign.
Many investors use the P/B ratio as a quick way of judging company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - specifically seek out companies with low P/B ratios. However, investors should be careful not to make investment decisions on this metric alone, without considering a company's earning and growth potential, since a low P/B ratio can be a sign of a bleak future for the business.
P/E ratio is a popular way of making a quick judgment of a company valuation. Value investors - followers of Graham and Dodd - often seek solid companies with low P/E ratios as investment opportunities. However, P/E ratio represents an oversimplified approach to business valuation, and can often lead to incorrect investment decisions.
On March 9, 1998, Alcoa and Alumax Inc. (Alumax) announced that they had entered into an agreement under which Alcoa was to acquire all of the outstanding shares of Alumax for a combination of cash and stock. On June 16, 1998, after approval by the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and other regulatory agencies, Alcoa completed the first step of the acquisition by purchasing approximately 51% of the outstanding shares of Alumax at $50 per share. Following approval by Alumax shareholders at a special meeting on July 31, 1998, Alcoa completed the acquisition by exchanging its common stock for the remaining shares of Alumax at a ratio of .6975 share of Alcoa stock per share of Alumax stock. The exchange resulted in Alcoa issuing 18,425,380 shares to Alumax shareholders. The transaction was valued at approximately $3,800 [M], including the assumption of debt, and will be accounted for using the purchase method. The purchase price includes cash and stock paid to Alumax shareholders as well as other direct costs of the acquisition. Alcoa's results of operations for the 1998 second quarter do not include any amounts relative to Alumax.
In August 1999, Alcoa and Reynolds Metals Company (Reynolds) announced they had reached a definitive agreement to merge. On May 3, 2000, after approval by the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and other regulatory agencies, Alcoa and Reynolds completed their merger. Under the agreement, Alcoa issued 2.12 shares post-split of Alcoa common stock for each share of Reynolds. The exchange resulted in Alcoa issuing approximately 135 million shares at a value of $33.30 (post-split) to Reynolds stockholders. The transaction was valued at approximately $5,700, including debt assumed, and has been accounted for using the purchase method. The total purchase costs of the acquisition will be allocated to the tangible and intangible assets and liabilities acquired based on their fair values. The purchase price includes the conversion of outstanding Reynolds options to Alcoa options as well as other direct costs of the acquisition. The purchase price allocation is preliminary; the final allocation of the purchase price will be based upon valuation and other studies that have not been completed. The preliminary allocation resulted in total goodwill of approximately $1,300, which will be amortized over a forty-year period.
On March 24, 2009, Alcoa issued 172.5 million shares of common stock (par value of $1 per share) at a price of $5.25 per share. The issuance of common stock includes 22.5 million shares related to the exercise of an over-allotment option by the underwriters. The underwriting discount and third-party expenses for the issuance of the common stock was $30 and was recorded as a decrease to additional capital. The common stock was issued under Alcoa's shelf registration statement dated March 10, 2008.
In the first quarter of 2014, holders of $575 principal amount of Alcoa's 5.25% Convertible Notes due March 15, 2014 (the "Notes") exercised their option to convert the Notes into 89 million shares of Alcoa common stock. The conversion rate for the Notes was 155.4908 shares of Alcoa's common stock per $1,000 (in whole dollars) principal amount of notes, equivalent to a conversion price of $6.43 per share. The difference between the $575 principal amount of the Notes and the $89 par value of the issued shares increased Additional capital on the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheet. This transaction was not reflected in the accompanying Statement of Consolidated Cash Flows as it represents a noncash financing activity.
in March 2015, Alcoa signed a definitive agreement to acquire RTI International Metals, Inc. (RTI), a U.S. company that was publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol "RTI." On July 23, 2015, after satisfying all customary closing conditions and receiving the required regulatory and RTI shareholder approvals, Alcoa completed the acquisition of RTI. Alcoa purchased all outstanding shares of RTI common stock in a stock-for-stock transaction valued at $870 [M] (based on the $9.96 per share July 23, 2015 closing price of Alcoa's common stock). Each issued and outstanding share of RTI common stock prior to the completion of the transaction was converted into the right to receive 2.8315 shares of Alcoa common stock. In total, Alcoa issued 87,397,414 shares of its common stock to consummate this transaction. The exchange ratio was the quotient of a $41 per RTI common share acquisition price and the $14.48 per share March 6, 2015 closing price of Alcoa's common stock.
On September 28, 2015, Arconic announced that its Board of Directors preliminarily approved a plan to separate into two standalone, publicly-traded companies. One company will be named Alcoa Corporation and will include the Alumina and Primary Metals segments and the Warrick, IN rolling operations and the equity interest in the rolling mill at the joint venture in Saudi Arabia, both of which are currently part of the Global Rolled Products segment. Alcoa Inc., which will be re-named Arconic Inc., will continue to own the Global Rolled Products (except for the aforementioned rolling operations to be included in Alcoa Corporation), Engineered Products and Solutions, and Transportation and Construction Solutions segments. On September 29, 2016, the Board approved the completion of the Separation Transaction by means of a pro rata distribution by the Company on November 1, 2016 of 80.1% of the outstanding common stock of Alcoa Corporation to Company shareholders of record as of the close of business on October 20, 2016 (the "Record Date"). Arconic will retain 19.9 percent of the Alcoa Corporation common stock. On November 1, 2016, the Separation Transaction was completed and became effective before the opening of the NYSE. In the Distribution, each Company shareholder received one share of Alcoa Corporation common stock for every three shares of the Companys common stock held as of the close of business on the Record Date.